Provided by: rxvt-unicode-ml_7.0-1_i386 bug


       RXVT REFERENCE - FAQ, command sequences and other background


          # set a new font set
          printf ’\33]50;%s\007’ 9x15,xft:Kochi" Mincho"

          # change the locale and tell rxvt-unicode about it
          export LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.EUC-JP; printf "\33]701;$LC_CTYPE\007"

          # set window title
          printf ’\33]2;%s\007’ "new window title"


       This document contains the FAQ, the RXVT TECHNICAL REFERENCE
       documenting all escape sequences, and other background information.

       The newest version of this document is also available on the World Wide
       Web at


       The new selection selects pieces that are too big, how can I select
       single words?
           Yes. For example, if you want to select alphanumeric words, you can
           use the following resource:

              URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ([[:word:]]+)

           If you click more than twice, the selection will be extended more
           and more.

           To get a selection that is very similar to the old code, try this

              URxvt.selection.pattern-0: ([^"&’()*,;<=>?@[\\\\]^‘{│})]+)

           Please also note that the LeftClick Shift-LeftClik combination also
           selects words like the old code.

       I don’t like the new selection/popups/hotkeys/perl, how do I
       change/disable it?
           You can disable the perl extension completely by setting the perl-
           ext-common resource to the empty string, which also keeps rxvt-
           unicode from initialising perl, saving memory.

           If you only want to disable specific features, you first have to
           identify which perl extension is responsible. For this, read the
           section PREPACKAGED EXTENSIONS in the urxvtperl(3) manpage. For
           example, to disable the selection-popup and option-popup, specify
           this perl-ext-common resource:

              URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,-selection-popup,-option-popup

           This will keep the default extensions, but disable the two popup
           extensions. Some extensions can also be configured, for example,
           scrollback search mode is triggered by M-s. You can move it to any
           other combination either by setting the searchable-scrollback

              URxvt.searchable-scrollback: CM-s

       Isn’t rxvt supposed to be small? Don’t all those features bloat?
           I often get asked about this, and I think, no, they didn’t cause
           extra bloat. If you compare a minimal rxvt and a minimal urxvt, you
           can see that the urxvt binary is larger (due to some encoding
           tables always being compiled in), but it actually uses less memory
           (RSS) after startup. Even with "--disable-everything", this
           comparison is a bit unfair, as many features unique to urxvt
           (locale, encoding conversion, iso14755 etc.) are already in use in
           this mode.

               text    data     bss     drs     rss filename
              98398    1664      24   15695    1824 rxvt --disable-everything
             188985    9048   66616   18222    1788 urxvt --disable-everything

           When you "--enable-everything" (which _is_ unfair, as this involves
           xft and full locale/XIM support which are quite bloaty inside
           libX11 and my libc), the two diverge, but not unreasnobaly so.

               text    data     bss     drs     rss filename
             163431    2152      24   20123    2060 rxvt --enable-everything
            1035683   49680   66648   29096    3680 urxvt --enable-everything

           The very large size of the text section is explained by the east-
           asian encoding tables, which, if unused, take up disk space but
           nothing else and can be compiled out unless you rely on X11 core
           fonts that use those encodings. The BSS size comes from the 64k
           emergency buffer that my c++ compiler allocates (but of course
           doesn’t use unless you are out of memory). Also, using an xft font
           instead of a core font immediately adds a few megabytes of RSS. Xft
           indeed is responsible for a lot of RSS even when not used.

           Of course, due to every character using two or four bytes instead
           of one, a large scrollback buffer will ultimately make rxvt-unicode
           use more memory.

           Compared to e.g. Eterm (5112k), aterm (3132k) and xterm (4680k),
           this still fares rather well. And compared to some monsters like
           gnome-terminal (21152k + extra 4204k in separate processes) or
           konsole (22200k + extra 43180k in daemons that stay around after
           exit, plus half a minute of startup time, including the hundreds of
           warnings it spits out), it fares extremely well *g*.

       Why C++, isn’t that unportable/bloated/uncool?
           Is this a question? :) It comes up very often. The simple answer
           is: I had to write it, and C++ allowed me to write and maintain it
           in a fraction of the time and effort (which is a scarce resource
           for me). Put even shorter: It simply wouldn’t exist without C++.

           My personal stance on this is that C++ is less portable than C, but
           in the case of rxvt-unicode this hardly matters, as its portability
           limits are defined by things like X11, pseudo terminals, locale
           support and unix domain sockets, which are all less portable than
           C++ itself.

           Regarding the bloat, see the above question: It’s easy to write
           programs in C that use gobs of memory, an certainly possible to
           write programs in C++ that don’t. C++ also often comes with large
           libraries, but this is not necessarily the case with GCC. Here is
           what rxvt links against on my system with a minimal config:

     => /usr/X11R6/lib/ (0x00002aaaaabc3000)
     => /lib/ (0x00002aaaaadde000)
     => /lib/ (0x00002aaaab01d000)
              /lib64/ (0x00002aaaaaaab000)

           And here is rxvt-unicode:

     => /usr/X11R6/lib/ (0x00002aaaaabc3000)
     => /lib/ (0x00002aaaaada2000)
     => /lib/ (0x00002aaaaaeb0000)
     => /lib/ (0x00002aaaab0ee000)
              /lib64/ (0x00002aaaaaaab000)

           No large bloated libraries (of course, none were linked in
           statically), except maybe libX11 :)

       Does it support tabs, can I have a tabbed rxvt-unicode?
           rxvt-unicode does not directly support tabs. It will work fine with
           tabbing functionality of many window managers or similar tabbing
           programs, and its embedding-features allow it to be embedded into
           other programs, as witnessed by doc/rxvt-tabbed or the upcoming
           "Gtk2::URxvt" perl module, which features a tabbed urxvt (murxvt)
           terminal as an example embedding application.

       How do I know which rxvt-unicode version I’m using?
           The version number is displayed with the usage (-h). Also the
           escape sequence "ESC [ 8 n" sets the window title to the version
           number. When using the urxvtc client, the version displayed is that
           of the daemon.

       I am using Debian GNU/Linux and have a problem...
           The Debian GNU/Linux package of rxvt-unicode in sarge contains
           large patches that considerably change the behaviour of
           rxvt-unicode. Before reporting a bug to the original rxvt-unicode
           author please download and install the genuine version
           (<>) and try to reproduce
           the problem. If you cannot, chances are that the problems are
           specific to Debian GNU/Linux, in which case it should be reported
           via the Debian Bug Tracking System (use "reportbug" to report the

           For other problems that also affect the Debian package, you can and
           probably should use the Debian BTS, too, because, after all, it’s
           also a bug in the Debian version and it serves as a reminder for
           other users that might encounter the same issue.

       I am maintaining rxvt-unicode for distribution/OS XXX, any
           You should build one binary with the default options. configure now
           enables most useful options, and the trend goes to making them
           runtime-switchable, too, so there is usually no drawback to
           enbaling them, except higher disk and possibly memory usage. The
           perl interpreter should be enabled, as important functionality
           (menus, selection, likely more in the future) depends on it.

           You should not overwrite the "perl-ext-common" snd "perl-ext"
           resources system-wide (except maybe with "defaults"). This will
           result in useful behaviour. If your distribution aims at low
           memory, add an empty "perl-ext-common" resource to the app-defaults
           file. This will keep the perl interpreter disabled until the user
           enables it.

           If you can/want build more binaries, I recommend building a minimal
           one with "--disable-everything" (very useful) and a maximal one
           with "--enable-everything" (less useful, it will be very big due to
           a lot of encodings built-in that increase download times and are
           rarely used).

       I need to make it setuid/setgid to support utmp/ptys on my OS, is this
           Likely not. While I honestly try to make it secure, and am probably
           not bad at it, I think it is simply unreasonable to expect all of
           freetype + fontconfig + xft + xlib + perl + ... + rxvt-unicode
           itself to all be secure. Also, rxvt-unicode disables some options
           when it detects that it runs setuid or setgid, which is not nice.
           Besides, with the embedded perl interpreter the possibility for
           security problems easily multiplies.

           Elevated privileges are only required for utmp and pty operations
           on some systems (for example, GNU/Linux doesn’t need any extra
           privileges for ptys, but some need it for utmp support). It is
           planned to mvoe this into a forked handler process, but this is not
           yet done.

           So, while setuid/setgid operation is supported and not a problem on
           your typical single-user-no-other-logins unix desktop, always
           remember that its an awful lot of code, most of which isn’t checked
           for security issues regularly.

       When I log-in to another system it tells me about missing terminfo
           The terminal description used by rxvt-unicode is not as widely
           available as that for xterm, or even rxvt (for which the same
           problem often arises).

           The correct solution for this problem is to install the terminfo,
           this can be done like this (with ncurses’ infocmp):

              infocmp rxvt-unicode │ ssh $REMOTE "cat >/tmp/ti && tic /tmp/ti"

           ... or by installing rxvt-unicode normally on the remote system,

           If you cannot or do not want to do this, then you can simply set
           "TERM=rxvt" or even "TERM=xterm", and live with the small number of
           problems arising, which includes wrong keymapping, less and
           different colours and some refresh errors in fullscreen
           applications. It’s a nice quick-and-dirty workaround for rare
           cases, though.

           If you always want to do this (and are fine with the consequences)
           you can either recompile rxvt-unicode with the desired TERM value
           or use a resource to set it:

              URxvt.termName: rxvt

           If you don’t plan to use rxvt (quite common...) you could also
           replace the rxvt terminfo file with the rxvt-unicode one.

       "tic" outputs some error when compiling the terminfo entry.
           Most likely it’s the empty definition for "enacs=". Just replace it
           by "enacs=\E[0@" and try again.

       "bash"’s readline does not work correctly under urxvt.
       I need a termcap file entry.
           One reason you might want this is that some distributions or
           operating systems still compile some programs using the long-
           obsoleted termcap library (Fedora Core’s bash is one example) and
           rely on a termcap entry for "rxvt-unicode".

           You could use rxvt’s termcap entry with resonable results in many
           cases.  You can also create a termcap entry by using terminfo’s
           infocmp program like this:

              infocmp -C rxvt-unicode

           Or you could use this termcap entry, generated by the command

              rxvt-unicode│rxvt-unicode terminal (X Window System):\

       Why does "ls" no longer have coloured output?
           The "ls" in the GNU coreutils unfortunately doesn’t use terminfo to
           decide wether a terminal has colour, but uses it’s own
           configuration file. Needless to say, "rxvt-unicode" is not in it’s
           default file (among with most other terminals supporting colour).
           Either add:

              TERM rxvt-unicode

           to "/etc/DIR_COLORS" or simply add:

              alias ls=’ls --color=auto’

           to your ".profile" or ".bashrc".

       Why doesn’t vim/emacs etc. use the 88 colour mode?
       Why doesn’t vim/emacs etc. make use of italic?
       Why are the secondary screen-related options not working properly?
           Make sure you are using "TERM=rxvt-unicode" and the appropriate
           terminfo file is installed. On Debian GNU/Linux, see
           README.Debian.gz for further details.  Also see the question When I
           log-in to another system it tells me about missing terminfo data?
           on how to do this).

       My numerical keypad acts weird and generates differing output?
           Some Debian GNUL/Linux users seem to have this problem, although no
           specific details were reported so far. It is possible that this is
           caused by the wrong "TERM" setting, although the details of wether
           and how this can happen are unknown, as "TERM=rxvt" should offer a
           compatible keymap. See the answer to the previous question, and
           please report if that helped.

       Rxvt-unicode does not seem to understand the selected encoding?
       Unicode does not seem to work?
           If you encounter strange problems like typing an accented character
           but getting two unrelated other characters or similar, or if
           program output is subtly garbled, then you should check your locale

           Rxvt-unicode must be started with the same "LC_CTYPE" setting as
           the programs. Often rxvt-unicode is started in the "C" locale,
           while the login script running within the rxvt-unicode window
           changes the locale to something else, e.g. "en_GB.UTF-8". Needless
           to say, this is not going to work.

           The best thing is to fix your startup environment, as you will
           likely run into other problems. If nothing works you can try this
           in your .profile.

             printf ’\e]701;%s\007’ "$LC_CTYPE"

           If this doesn’t work, then maybe you use a "LC_CTYPE" specification
           not supported on your systems. Some systems have a "locale" command
           which displays this (also, "perl -e0" can be used to check locale
           settings, as it will complain loudly if it cannot set the locale).
           If it displays something like:

             locale: Cannot set LC_CTYPE to default locale: ...

           Then the locale you specified is not supported on your system.

           If nothing works and you are sure that everything is set correctly
           then you will need to remember a little known fact: Some programs
           just don’t support locales :(

       Why do some characters look so much different than others?
       How does rxvt-unicode choose fonts?
           Most fonts do not contain the full range of Unicode, which is fine.
           Chances are that the font you (or the admin/package maintainer of
           your system/os) have specified does not cover all the characters
           you want to display.

           rxvt-unicode makes a best-effort try at finding a replacement font.
           Often the result is fine, but sometimes the chosen font looks
           bad/ugly/wrong. Some fonts have totally strange characters that
           don’t resemble the correct glyph at all, and rxvt-unicode lacks the
           artificial intelligence to detect that a specific glyph is wrong:
           it has to believe the font that the characters it claims to contain
           indeed look correct.

           In that case, select a font of your taste and add it to the font
           list, e.g.:

              urxvt -fn basefont,font2,font3...

           When rxvt-unicode sees a character, it will first look at the base
           font. If the base font does not contain the character, it will go
           to the next font, and so on. Specifying your own fonts will also
           speed up this search and use less resources within rxvt-unicode and
           the X-server.

           The only limitation is that none of the fonts may be larger than
           the base font, as the base font defines the terminal character cell
           size, which must be the same due to the way terminals work.

       Why do some chinese characters look so different than others?
           This is because there is a difference between script and language
           -- rxvt-unicode does not know which language the text that is
           output is, as it only knows the unicode character codes. If rxvt-
           unicode first sees a japanese/chinese character, it might choose a
           japanese font for display. Subsequent japanese characters will use
           that font. Now, many chinese characters aren’t represented in
           japanese fonts, so when the first non-japanese character comes up,
           rxvt-unicode will look for a chinese font -- unfortunately at this
           point, it will still use the japanese font for chinese characters
           that are also in the japanese font.

           The workaround is easy: just tag a chinese font at the end of your
           font list (see the previous question). The key is to view the font
           list as a preference list: If you expect more japanese, list a
           japanese font first. If you expect more chinese, put a chinese font

           In the future it might be possible to switch language preferences
           at runtime (the internal data structure has no problem with using
           different fonts for the same character at the same time, but no
           interface for this has been designed yet).

           Until then, you might get away with switching fonts at runtime (see
           "Can I switch the fonts at runtime?" later in this document).

       Why does rxvt-unicode sometimes leave pixel droppings?
           Most fonts were not designed for terminal use, which means that
           character size varies a lot. A font that is otherwise fine for
           terminal use might contain some characters that are simply too
           wide. Rxvt-unicode will avoid these characters. For characters that
           are just "a bit" too wide a special "careful" rendering mode is
           used that redraws adjacent characters.

           All of this requires that fonts do not lie about character sizes,
           however: Xft fonts often draw glyphs larger than their acclaimed
           bounding box, and rxvt-unicode has no way of detecting this (the
           correct way is to ask for the character bounding box, which
           unfortunately is wrong in these cases).

           It’s not clear (to me at least), wether this is a bug in Xft,
           freetype, or the respective font. If you encounter this problem you
           might try using the "-lsp" option to give the font more height. If
           that doesn’t work, you might be forced to use a different font.

           All of this is not a problem when using X11 core fonts, as their
           bounding box data is correct.

       On Solaris 9, many line-drawing characters are too wide.
           Seems to be a known bug, read
           <>. Some people use
           the following ugly workaround to get non-double-wide-characters

              #define wcwidth(x) wcwidth(x) > 1 ? 1 : wcwidth(x)

       My Compose (Multi_key) key is no longer working.
           The most common causes for this are that either your locale is not
           set correctly, or you specified a preeditStyle that is not
           supported by your input method. For example, if you specified
           OverTheSpot and your input method (e.g. the default input method
           handling Compose keys) does not support this (for instance because
           it is not visual), then rxvt-unicode will continue without an input

           In this case either do not specify a preeditStyle or specify more
           than one pre-edit style, such as OverTheSpot,Root,None.

       I cannot type "Ctrl-Shift-2" to get an ASCII NUL character due to ISO
           Either try "Ctrl-2" alone (it often is mapped to ASCII NUL even on
           international keyboards) or simply use ISO 14755 support to your
           advantage, typing <Ctrl-Shift-0> to get a ASCII NUL. This works for
           other codes, too, such as "Ctrl-Shift-1-d" to type the default
           telnet escape character and so on.

       How can I keep rxvt-unicode from using reverse video so much?
           First of all, make sure you are running with the right terminal
           settings ("TERM=rxvt-unicode"), which will get rid of most of these
           effects. Then make sure you have specified colours for italic and
           bold, as otherwise rxvt-unicode might use reverse video to simulate
           the effect:

              URxvt.colorBD:  white
              URxvt.colorIT:  green

       Some programs assume totally weird colours (red instead of blue), how
       can I fix that?
           For some unexplainable reason, some rare programs assume a very
           weird colour palette when confronted with a terminal with more than
           the standard 8 colours (rxvt-unicode supports 88). The right fix
           is, of course, to fix these programs not to assume non-ISO colours
           without very good reasons.

           In the meantime, you can either edit your "rxvt-unicode" terminfo
           definition to only claim 8 colour support or use "TERM=rxvt", which
           will fix colours but keep you from using other rxvt-unicode

       I am on FreeBSD and rxvt-unicode does not seem to work at all.
           Rxvt-unicode requires the symbol "__STDC_ISO_10646__" to be defined
           in your compile environment, or an implementation that implements
           it, wether it defines the symbol or not. "__STDC_ISO_10646__"
           requires that wchar_t is represented as unicode.

           As you might have guessed, FreeBSD does neither define this symobl
           nor does it support it. Instead, it uses it’s own internal
           representation of wchar_t. This is, of course, completely fine with
           respect to standards.

           However, that means rxvt-unicode only works in "POSIX",
           "ISO-8859-1" and "UTF-8" locales under FreeBSD (which all use
           Unicode as wchar_t.

           "__STDC_ISO_10646__" is the only sane way to support multi-language
           apps in an OS, as using a locale-dependent (and non-standardized)
           representation of wchar_t makes it impossible to convert between
           wchar_t (as used by X11 and your applications) and any other
           encoding without implementing OS-specific-wrappers for each and
           every locale. There simply are no APIs to convert wchar_t into
           anything except the current locale encoding.

           Some applications (such as the formidable mlterm) work around this
           by carrying their own replacement functions for character set
           handling with them, and either implementing OS-dependent hacks or
           doing multiple conversions (which is slow and unreliable in case
           the OS implements encodings slightly different than the terminal

           The rxvt-unicode author insists that the right way to fix this is
           in the system libraries once and for all, instead of forcing every
           app to carry complete replacements for them :)

       I use Solaris 9 and it doesn’t compile/work/etc.
           Try the diff in doc/solaris9.patch as a base. It fixes the worst
           problems with "wcwidth" and a compile problem.

       How can I use rxvt-unicode under cygwin?
           rxvt-unicode should compile and run out of the box on cygwin, using
           the X11 libraries that come with cygwin. libW11 emulation is no
           longer supported (and makes no sense, either, as it only supported
           a single font). I recommend starting the X-server in "-multiwindow"
           or "-rootless" mode instead, which will result in similar look&feel
           as the old libW11 emulation.

           At the time of this writing, cygwin didn’t seem to support any
           multi-byte encodings (you might try "LC_CTYPE=C-UTF-8"), so you are
           likely limited to 8-bit encodings.

       How does rxvt-unicode determine the encoding to use?
       Is there an option to switch encodings?
           Unlike some other terminals, rxvt-unicode has no encoding switch,
           and no specific "utf-8" mode, such as xterm. In fact, it doesn’t
           even know about UTF-8 or any other encodings with respect to
           terminal I/O.

           The reasons is that there exists a perfectly fine mechanism for
           selecting the encoding, doing I/O and (most important)
           communicating this to all applications so everybody agrees on
           character properties such as width and code number. This mechanism
           is the locale. Applications not using that info will have problems
           (for example, "xterm" gets the width of characters wrong as it uses
           it’s own, locale-independent table under all locales).

           Rxvt-unicode uses the "LC_CTYPE" locale category to select
           encoding. All programs doing the same (that is, most) will
           automatically agree in the interpretation of characters.

           Unfortunately, there is no system-independent way to select
           locales, nor is there a standard on how locale specifiers will look

           On most systems, the content of the "LC_CTYPE" environment variable
           contains an arbitrary string which corresponds to an already-
           installed locale. Common names for locales are "en_US.UTF-8",
           "de_DE.ISO-8859-15", "ja_JP.EUC-JP", i.e.
           "language_country.encoding", but other forms (i.e. "de" or
           "german") are also common.

           Rxvt-unicode ignores all other locale categories, and except for
           the encoding, ignores country or language-specific settings, i.e.
           "de_DE.UTF-8" and "ja_JP.UTF-8" are the normally same to

           If you want to use a specific encoding you have to make sure you
           start rxvt-unicode with the correct "LC_CTYPE" category.

       Can I switch locales at runtime?
           Yes, using an escape sequence. Try something like this, which sets
           rxvt-unicode’s idea of "LC_CTYPE".

             printf ’\e]701;%s\007’ ja_JP.SJIS

           See also the previous answer.

           Sometimes this capability is rather handy when you want to work in
           one locale (e.g. "de_DE.UTF-8") but some programs don’t support it
           (e.g. UTF-8). For example, I use this script to start "xjdic",
           which first switches to a locale supported by xjdic and back later:

              printf ’\e]701;%s\007’ ja_JP.SJIS
              xjdic -js
              printf ’\e]701;%s\007’ de_DE.UTF-8

           You can also use xterm’s "luit" program, which usually works fine,
           except for some locales where character width differs between
           program- and rxvt-unicode-locales.

       Can I switch the fonts at runtime?
           Yes, using an escape sequence. Try something like this, which has
           the same effect as using the "-fn" switch, and takes effect

              printf ’\e]50;%s\007’ "9x15bold,xft:Kochi Gothic"

           This is useful if you e.g. work primarily with japanese (and prefer
           a japanese font), but you have to switch to chinese temporarily,
           where japanese fonts would only be in your way.

           You can think of this as a kind of manual ISO-2022 switching.

       Why do italic characters look as if clipped?
           Many fonts have difficulties with italic characters and hinting.
           For example, the otherwise very nicely hinted font "xft:Bitstream
           Vera Sans Mono" completely fails in it’s italic face. A workaround
           might be to enable freetype autohinting, i.e. like this:

              URxvt.italicFont:        xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:italic:autohint=true
              URxvt.boldItalicFont:    xft:Bitstream Vera Sans Mono:bold:italic:autohint=true

       My input method wants <some encoding> but I want UTF-8, what can I do?
           You can specify separate locales for the input method and the rest
           of the terminal, using the resource "imlocale":

              URxvt*imlocale: ja_JP.EUC-JP

           Now you can start your terminal with "LC_CTYPE=ja_JP.UTF-8" and
           still use your input method. Please note, however, that you will
           not be able to input characters outside "EUC-JP" in a normal way
           then, as your input method limits you.

       Rxvt-unicode crashes when the X Input Method changes or exits.
           Unfortunately, this is unavoidable, as the XIM protocol is racy by
           design. Applications can avoid some crashes at the expense of
           memory leaks, and Input Methods can avoid some crashes by careful
           ordering at exit time. kinput2 (and derived input methods)
           generally succeeds, while SCIM (or similar input methods) fails. In
           the end, however, crashes cannot be completely avoided even if both
           sides cooperate.

           So the only workaround is not to kill your Input Method Servers.

       Rxvt-unicode uses gobs of memory, how can I reduce that?
           Rxvt-unicode tries to obey the rule of not charging you for
           something you don’t use. One thing you should try is to configure
           out all settings that you don’t need, for example, Xft support is a
           resource hog by design, when used. Compiling it out ensures that no
           Xft font will be loaded accidentally when rxvt-unicode tries to
           find a font for your characters.

           Also, many people (me included) like large windows and even larger
           scrollback buffers: Without "--enable-unicode3", rxvt-unicode will
           use 6 bytes per screen cell. For a 160x?? window this amounts to
           almost a kilobyte per line. A scrollback buffer of 10000 lines will
           then (if full) use 10 Megabytes of memory. With "--enable-unicode3"
           it gets worse, as rxvt-unicode then uses 8 bytes per screen cell.

       Can I speed up Xft rendering somehow?
           Yes, the most obvious way to speed it up is to avoid Xft entirely,
           as it is simply slow. If you still want Xft fonts you might try to
           disable antialiasing (by appending ":antialias=false"), which saves
           lots of memory and also speeds up rendering considerably.

       Rxvt-unicode doesn’t seem to anti-alias its fonts, what is wrong?
           Rxvt-unicode will use whatever you specify as a font. If it needs
           to fall back to it’s default font search list it will prefer X11
           core fonts, because they are small and fast, and then use Xft
           fonts. It has antialiasing disabled for most of them, because the
           author thinks they look best that way.

           If you want antialiasing, you have to specify the fonts manually.

       Mouse cut/paste suddenly no longer works.
           Make sure that mouse reporting is actually turned off since killing
           some editors prematurely may leave the mouse in mouse report mode.
           I’ve heard that tcsh may use mouse reporting unless it otherwise
           specified. A quick check is to see if cut/paste works when the Alt
           or Shift keys are depressed.

       What’s with this bold/blink stuff?
           If no bold colour is set via "colorBD:", bold will invert text
           using the standard foreground colour.

           For the standard background colour, blinking will actually make the
           text blink when compiled with "--enable-blinking". with standard
           colours. Without "--enable-blinking", the blink attribute will be

           On ANSI colours, bold/blink attributes are used to set high-
           intensity foreground/background colors.

           color0-7 are the low-intensity colors.

           color8-15 are the corresponding high-intensity colors.

       I don’t like the screen colors.  How do I change them?
           You can change the screen colors at run-time using ~/.Xdefaults
           resources (or as long-options).

           Here are values that are supposed to resemble a VGA screen,
           including the murky brown that passes for low-intensity yellow:

              URxvt.color0:   #000000
              URxvt.color1:   #A80000
              URxvt.color2:   #00A800
              URxvt.color3:   #A8A800
              URxvt.color4:   #0000A8
              URxvt.color5:   #A800A8
              URxvt.color6:   #00A8A8
              URxvt.color7:   #A8A8A8

              URxvt.color8:   #000054
              URxvt.color9:   #FF0054
              URxvt.color10:  #00FF54
              URxvt.color11:  #FFFF54
              URxvt.color12:  #0000FF
              URxvt.color13:  #FF00FF
              URxvt.color14:  #00FFFF
              URxvt.color15:  #FFFFFF

           And here is a more complete set of non-standard colors described
           (not by me) as "pretty girly".

              URxvt.cursorColor:  #dc74d1
              URxvt.pointerColor: #dc74d1
              URxvt.background:   #0e0e0e
              URxvt.foreground:   #4ad5e1
              URxvt.color0:       #000000
              URxvt.color8:       #8b8f93
              URxvt.color1:       #dc74d1
              URxvt.color9:       #dc74d1
              URxvt.color2:       #0eb8c7
              URxvt.color10:      #0eb8c7
              URxvt.color3:       #dfe37e
              URxvt.color11:      #dfe37e
              URxvt.color5:       #9e88f0
              URxvt.color13:      #9e88f0
              URxvt.color6:       #73f7ff
              URxvt.color14:      #73f7ff
              URxvt.color7:       #e1dddd
              URxvt.color15:      #e1dddd

       How can I start urxvtd in a race-free way?
           Try "urxvtd -f -o", which tells urxvtd to open the display, create
           the listening socket and then fork.

       What’s with the strange Backspace/Delete key behaviour?
           Assuming that the physical Backspace key corresponds to the
           BackSpace keysym (not likely for Linux ... see the following
           question) there are two standard values that can be used for
           Backspace: "^H" and "^?".

           Historically, either value is correct, but rxvt-unicode adopts the
           debian policy of using "^?" when unsure, because it’s the one only
           only correct choice :).

           Rxvt-unicode tries to inherit the current stty settings and uses
           the value of ‘erase’ to guess the value for backspace.  If rxvt-
           unicode wasn’t started from a terminal (say, from a menu or by
           remote shell), then the system value of ‘erase’, which corresponds
           to CERASE in <termios.h>, will be used (which may not be the same
           as your stty setting).

           For starting a new rxvt-unicode:

              # use Backspace = ^H
              $ stty erase ^H
              $ urxvt

              # use Backspace = ^?
              $ stty erase ^?
              $ urxvt

           Toggle with "ESC [ 36 h" / "ESC [ 36 l".

           For an existing rxvt-unicode:

              # use Backspace = ^H
              $ stty erase ^H
              $ echo -n "^[[36h"

              # use Backspace = ^?
              $ stty erase ^?
              $ echo -n "^[[36l"

           This helps satisfy some of the Backspace discrepancies that occur,
           but if you use Backspace = "^H", make sure that the
           termcap/terminfo value properly reflects that.

           The Delete key is a another casualty of the ill-defined Backspace
           problem.  To avoid confusion between the Backspace and Delete keys,
           the Delete key has been assigned an escape sequence to match the
           vt100 for Execute ("ESC [ 3 ~") and is in the supplied

           Some other Backspace problems:

           some editors use termcap/terminfo, some editors (vim I’m told)
           expect Backspace = ^H, GNU Emacs (and Emacs-like editors) use ^H
           for help.

           Perhaps someday this will all be resolved in a consistent manner.

       I don’t like the key-bindings.  How do I change them?
           There are some compile-time selections available via configure.
           Unless you have run "configure" with the "--disable-resources"
           option you can use the ‘keysym’ resource to alter the keystrings
           associated with keysyms.

           Here’s an example for a URxvt session started using "urxvt -name

              URxvt.keysym.Home:          \033[1~
              URxvt.keysym.End:           \033[4~
              URxvt.keysym.C-apostrophe:  \033<C-’>
              URxvt.keysym.C-slash:       \033<C-/>
              URxvt.keysym.C-semicolon:   \033<C-;>
              URxvt.keysym.C-grave:       \033<C-‘>
              URxvt.keysym.C-comma:       \033<C-,>
              URxvt.keysym.C-period:      \033<C-.>
              URxvt.keysym.C-0x60:        \033<C-‘>
              URxvt.keysym.C-Tab:         \033<C-Tab>
              URxvt.keysym.C-Return:      \033<C-Return>
              URxvt.keysym.S-Return:      \033<S-Return>
              URxvt.keysym.S-space:       \033<S-Space>
              URxvt.keysym.M-Up:          \033<M-Up>
              URxvt.keysym.M-Down:        \033<M-Down>
              URxvt.keysym.M-Left:        \033<M-Left>
              URxvt.keysym.M-Right:       \033<M-Right>
              URxvt.keysym.M-C-0:         list \033<M-C- 0123456789 >
              URxvt.keysym.M-C-a:         list \033<M-C- abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz >
              URxvt.keysym.F12:           command:\033]701;zh_CN.GBK\007

           See some more examples in the documentation for the keysym

       I’m using keyboard model XXX that has extra Prior/Next/Insert keys. How
       do I make use of them?  For example, the Sun Keyboard type 4 has the
       following mappings that rxvt-unicode doesn’t recognize.
              KP_Insert == Insert
              F22 == Print
              F27 == Home
              F29 == Prior
              F33 == End
              F35 == Next

           Rather than have rxvt-unicode try to accommodate all the various
           possible keyboard mappings, it is better to use ‘xmodmap’ to remap
           the keys as required for your particular machine.

       How do I distinguish wether I’m running rxvt-unicode or a regular
       xterm? I need this to decide about setting colors etc.
           rxvt and rxvt-unicode always export the variable "COLORTERM", so
           you can check and see if that is set. Note that several programs,
           JED, slrn, Midnight Commander automatically check this variable to
           decide whether or not to use color.

       How do I set the correct, full IP address for the DISPLAY variable?
           If you’ve compiled rxvt-unicode with DISPLAY_IS_IP and have enabled
           insecure mode then it is possible to use the following shell script
           snippets to correctly set the display. If your version of rxvt-
           unicode wasn’t also compiled with ESCZ_ANSWER (as assumed in these
           snippets) then the COLORTERM variable can be used to distinguish
           rxvt-unicode from a regular xterm.

           Courtesy of Chuck Blake <cblake@BBN.COM> with the following shell
           script snippets:

              # Bourne/Korn/POSIX family of shells:
              [ ${TERM:-foo} = foo ] && TERM=xterm # assume an xterm if we don’t know
              if [ ${TERM:-foo} = xterm ]; then
                 stty -icanon -echo min 0 time 15 # see if enhanced rxvt or not
                 echo -n ’^[Z’
                 read term_id
                 stty icanon echo
                 if [ ""${term_id} = ’^[[?1;2C’ -a ${DISPLAY:-foo} = foo ]; then
                    echo -n ’^[[7n’        # query the rxvt we are in for the DISPLAY string
                    read DISPLAY           # set it in our local shell

       How do I compile the manual pages for myself?
           You need to have a recent version of perl installed as
           /usr/bin/perl, one that comes with pod2man, pod2text and pod2html.
           Then go to the doc subdirectory and enter "make alldoc".

       My question isn’t answered here, can I ask a human?
           Before sending me mail, you could go to IRC: "",
           channel "#rxvt-unicode" has some rxvt-unicode enthusiasts that
           might be interested in learning about new and exciting problems
           (but not FAQs :).



       The rest of this document describes various technical aspects of rxvt-
       unicode. First the description of supported command sequences, followed
       by menu and pixmap support and last by a description of all features
       selectable at "configure" time.


       "c" The literal character c.

       "C" A single (required) character.

           A single (usually optional) numeric parameter, composed of one or
           more digits.

           A multiple numeric parameter composed of any number of single
           numeric parameters, separated by ";" character(s).

           A text parameter composed of printable characters.


           Enquiry (Ctrl-E) = Send Device Attributes (DA) request attributes
           from terminal. See "ESC [ Ps c".

           Bell (Ctrl-G)

           Backspace (Ctrl-H)

           Horizontal Tab (HT) (Ctrl-I)

           Line Feed or New Line (NL) (Ctrl-J)

           Vertical Tab (Ctrl-K) same as "LF"

           Form Feed or New Page (NP) (Ctrl-L) same as "LF"

           Carriage Return (Ctrl-M)

           Shift Out (Ctrl-N), invokes the G1 character set.  Switch to
           Alternate Character Set

           Shift In (Ctrl-O), invokes the G0 character set (the default).
           Switch to Standard Character Set

           Space Character

Escape Sequences

       "ESC # 8"
           DEC Screen Alignment Test (DECALN)

       "ESC 7"
           Save Cursor (SC)

       "ESC 8"
           Restore Cursor

       "ESC ="
           Application Keypad (SMKX). See also next sequence.

           Normal Keypad (RMKX)

           Note: If the numeric keypad is activated, eg, Num_Lock has been
           pressed, numbers or control functions are generated by the numeric
           keypad (see Key Codes).

       "ESC D"
           Index (IND)

       "ESC E"
           Next Line (NEL)

       "ESC H"
           Tab Set (HTS)

       "ESC M"
           Reverse Index (RI)

       "ESC N"
           Single Shift Select of G2 Character Set (SS2): affects next
           character only unimplemented

       "ESC O"
           Single Shift Select of G3 Character Set (SS3): affects next
           character only unimplemented

       "ESC Z"
           Obsolete form of returns: "ESC [ ? 1 ; 2 C" rxvt-unicode compile-
           time option

       "ESC c"
           Full reset (RIS)

       "ESC n"
           Invoke the G2 Character Set (LS2)

       "ESC o"
           Invoke the G3 Character Set (LS3)

       "ESC ( C"
           Designate G0 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC ) C"
           Designate G1 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC * C"
           Designate G2 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC + C"
           Designate G3 Character Set (ISO 2022), see below for values of "C".

       "ESC $ C"
           Designate Kanji Character Set

           Where "C" is one of:

           C = 0    DEC Special Character and Line Drawing Set
           C = A    United Kingdom (UK)
           C = B    United States (USASCII)
           C = <    Multinational character set unimplemented
           C = 5    Finnish character set unimplemented
           C = C    Finnish character set unimplemented
           C = K    German character set unimplemented

CSI (Command Sequence Introducer) Sequences

       "ESC [ Ps @"
           Insert "Ps" (Blank) Character(s) [default: 1] (ICH)

       "ESC [ Ps A"
           Cursor Up "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUU)

       "ESC [ Ps B"
           Cursor Down "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUD)

       "ESC [ Ps C"
           Cursor Forward "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUF)

       "ESC [ Ps D"
           Cursor Backward "Ps" Times [default: 1] (CUB)

       "ESC [ Ps E"
           Cursor Down "Ps" Times [default: 1] and to first column

       "ESC [ Ps F"
           Cursor Up "Ps" Times [default: 1] and to first column

       "ESC [ Ps G"
           Cursor to Column "Ps" (HPA)

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps H"
           Cursor Position [row;column] [default: 1;1] (CUP)

       "ESC [ Ps I"
           Move forward "Ps" tab stops [default: 1]

       "ESC [ Ps J"
           Erase in Display (ED)

           Ps = 0   Clear Below (default)
           Ps = 1   Clear Above
           Ps = 2   Clear All

       "ESC [ Ps K"
           Erase in Line (EL)

           Ps = 0   Clear to Right (default)
           Ps = 1   Clear to Left
           Ps = 2   Clear All

       "ESC [ Ps L"
           Insert "Ps" Line(s) [default: 1] (IL)

       "ESC [ Ps M"
           Delete "Ps" Line(s) [default: 1] (DL)

       "ESC [ Ps P"
           Delete "Ps" Character(s) [default: 1] (DCH)

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps;Ps;Ps;Ps T"
           Initiate . unimplemented Parameters are

       "ESC [ Ps W"
           Tabulator functions

           Ps = 0   Tab Set (HTS)
           Ps = 2   Tab Clear (TBC), Clear Current Column (default)
           Ps = 5   Tab Clear (TBC), Clear All

       "ESC [ Ps X"
           Erase "Ps" Character(s) [default: 1] (ECH)

       "ESC [ Ps Z"
           Move backward "Ps" [default: 1] tab stops

       "ESC [ Ps"
           See "ESC [ Ps G"

       "ESC [ Ps a"
           See "ESC [ Ps C"

       "ESC [ Ps c"
           Send Device Attributes (DA) "Ps = 0" (or omitted): request
           attributes from terminal returns: "ESC [ ? 1 ; 2 c" (‘‘I am a VT100
           with Advanced Video Option’’)

       "ESC [ Ps d"
           Cursor to Line "Ps" (VPA)

       "ESC [ Ps e"
           See "ESC [ Ps A"

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps f"
           Horizontal and Vertical Position [row;column] (HVP) [default: 1;1]

       "ESC [ Ps g"
           Tab Clear (TBC)

           Ps = 0   Clear Current Column (default)
           Ps = 3   Clear All (TBC)

       "ESC [ Pm h"
           Set Mode (SM). See "ESC [ Pm l" sequence for description of "Pm".

       "ESC [ Ps i"
           Printing. See also the "print-pipe" resource.

           Ps = 0   print screen (MC0)
           Ps = 4   disable transparent print mode (MC4)
           Ps = 5   enable transparent print mode (MC5)

       "ESC [ Pm l"
           Reset Mode (RM)

           "Ps = 4"

               h   Insert Mode (SMIR)
               l   Replace Mode (RMIR)

           "Ps = 20" (partially implemented)
               h   Automatic Newline (LNM)
               l   Normal Linefeed (LNM)

       "ESC [ Pm m"
           Character Attributes (SGR)

           Ps = 0             Normal (default)
           Ps = 1 / 21        On / Off Bold (bright fg)
           Ps = 3 / 23        On / Off Italic
           Ps = 4 / 24        On / Off Underline
           Ps = 5 / 25        On / Off Slow Blink (bright bg)
           Ps = 6 / 26        On / Off Rapid Blink (bright bg)
           Ps = 7 / 27        On / Off Inverse
           Ps = 8 / 27        On / Off Invisible (NYI)
           Ps = 30 / 40       fg/bg Black
           Ps = 31 / 41       fg/bg Red
           Ps = 32 / 42       fg/bg Green
           Ps = 33 / 43       fg/bg Yellow
           Ps = 34 / 44       fg/bg Blue
           Ps = 35 / 45       fg/bg Magenta
           Ps = 36 / 46       fg/bg Cyan
           Ps = 38;5 / 48;5   set fg/bg to color #m (ISO 8613-6)
           Ps = 37 / 47       fg/bg White
           Ps = 39 / 49       fg/bg Default
           Ps = 90 / 100      fg/bg Bright Black
           Ps = 91 / 101      fg/bg Bright Red
           Ps = 92 / 102      fg/bg Bright Green
           Ps = 93 / 103      fg/bg Bright Yellow
           Ps = 94 / 104      fg/bg Bright Blue
           Ps = 95 / 105      fg/bg Bright Magenta
           Ps = 96 / 106      fg/bg Bright Cyan
           Ps = 97 / 107      fg/bg Bright White
           Ps = 99 / 109      fg/bg Bright Default

       "ESC [ Ps n"
           Device Status Report (DSR)

           Ps = 5   Status Report ESC [ 0 n (‘‘OK’’)
           Ps = 6   Report Cursor Position (CPR) [row;column] as ESC [ r ; c R
           Ps = 7   Request Display Name
           Ps = 8   Request Version Number (place in window title)

       "ESC [ Ps;Ps r"
           Set Scrolling Region [top;bottom] [default: full size of window]

       "ESC [ s"
           Save Cursor (SC)

       "ESC [ Ps;Pt t"
           Window Operations

           Ps = 1      Deiconify (map) window
           Ps = 2      Iconify window
           Ps = 3      ESC [ 3 ; X ; Y t Move window to (X│Y)
           Ps = 4      ESC [ 4 ; H ; W t Resize to WxH pixels
           Ps = 5      Raise window
           Ps = 6      Lower window
           Ps = 7      Refresh screen once
           Ps = 8      ESC [ 8 ; R ; C t Resize to R rows and C columns
           Ps = 11     Report window state (responds with Ps = 1 or Ps = 2)
           Ps = 13     Report window position (responds with Ps = 3)
           Ps = 14     Report window pixel size (responds with Ps = 4)
           Ps = 18     Report window text size (responds with Ps = 7)
           Ps = 19     Currently the same as Ps = 18, but responds with Ps = 9
           Ps = 20     Reports icon label (ESC ] L NAME 234)
           Ps = 21     Reports window title (ESC ] l NAME 234)
           Ps = 24..   Set window height to Ps rows

       "ESC [ u"
           Restore Cursor

       "ESC [ Ps x"
           Request Terminal Parameters (DECREQTPARM)

DEC Private Modes

       "ESC [ ? Pm h"
           DEC Private Mode Set (DECSET)

       "ESC [ ? Pm l"
           DEC Private Mode Reset (DECRST)

       "ESC [ ? Pm r"
           Restore previously saved DEC Private Mode Values.

       "ESC [ ? Pm s"
           Save DEC Private Mode Values.

       "ESC [ ? Pm t"
           Toggle DEC Private Mode Values (rxvt extension). where

           "Ps = 1" (DECCKM)

               h   Application Cursor Keys
               l   Normal Cursor Keys

           "Ps = 2" (ANSI/VT52 mode)
               h   Enter VT52 mode
               l   Enter VT52 mode

           "Ps = 3"
               h   132 Column Mode (DECCOLM)
               l   80 Column Mode (DECCOLM)

           "Ps = 4"
               h   Smooth (Slow) Scroll (DECSCLM)
               l   Jump (Fast) Scroll (DECSCLM)

           "Ps = 5"
               h   Reverse Video (DECSCNM)
               l   Normal Video (DECSCNM)

           "Ps = 6"
               h   Origin Mode (DECOM)
               l   Normal Cursor Mode (DECOM)

           "Ps = 7"
               h   Wraparound Mode (DECAWM)
               l   No Wraparound Mode (DECAWM)

           "Ps = 8" unimplemented
               h   Auto-repeat Keys (DECARM)
               l   No Auto-repeat Keys (DECARM)

           "Ps = 9" X10 XTerm
               h   Send Mouse X & Y on button press.
               l   No mouse reporting.

           "Ps = 10" (rxvt)
               h   menuBar visible
               l   menuBar invisible

           "Ps = 25"
               h   Visible cursor {cnorm/cvvis}
               l   Invisible cursor {civis}

           "Ps = 30"
               h   scrollBar visisble
               l   scrollBar invisisble

           "Ps = 35" (rxvt)
               h   Allow XTerm Shift+key sequences
               l   Disallow XTerm Shift+key sequences

           "Ps = 38" unimplemented
               Enter Tektronix Mode (DECTEK)

           "Ps = 40"

               h   Allow 80/132 Mode
               l   Disallow 80/132 Mode

           "Ps = 44" unimplemented
               h   Turn On Margin Bell
               l   Turn Off Margin Bell

           "Ps = 45" unimplemented
               h   Reverse-wraparound Mode
               l   No Reverse-wraparound Mode

           "Ps = 46" unimplemented
           "Ps = 47"
               h   Use Alternate Screen Buffer
               l   Use Normal Screen Buffer

           "Ps = 66"

               h   Application Keypad (DECPAM) == ESC =
               l   Normal Keypad (DECPNM) == ESC >

           "Ps = 67"
               h   Backspace key sends BS (DECBKM)
               l   Backspace key sends DEL

           "Ps = 1000" (X11 XTerm)
               h   Send Mouse X & Y on button press and release.
               l   No mouse reporting.

           "Ps = 1001" (X11 XTerm) unimplemented
               h   Use Hilite Mouse Tracking.
               l   No mouse reporting.

           "Ps = 1010" (rxvt)
               h   Don’t scroll to bottom on TTY output
               l   Scroll to bottom on TTY output

           "Ps = 1011" (rxvt)
               h   Scroll to bottom when a key is pressed

               l   Don’t scroll to bottom when a key is pressed

           "Ps = 1021" (rxvt)
               h   Bold/italic implies high intensity (see option -is)
               l   Font styles have no effect on intensity (Compile styles)

           "Ps = 1047"
               h   Use Alternate Screen Buffer
               l   Use Normal Screen Buffer - clear Alternate Screen Buffer if returning from it

           "Ps = 1048"
               h   Save cursor position
               l   Restore cursor position

           "Ps = 1049"
               h   Use Alternate Screen Buffer - clear Alternate Screen Buffer if switching to it
               l   Use Normal Screen Buffer

XTerm Operating System Commands

       "ESC ] Ps;Pt ST"
           Set XTerm Parameters. 8-bit ST: 0x9c, 7-bit ST sequence: ESC \
           (0x1b, 0x5c), backwards compatible terminator BEL (0x07) is also
           accepted. any octet can be escaped by prefixing it with SYN (0x16,

           Ps = 0     Change Icon Name and Window Title to Pt
           Ps = 1     Change Icon Name to Pt
           Ps = 2     Change Window Title to Pt
           Ps = 3     If Pt starts with a ?, query the (STRING) property of the window and return it. If Pt contains a =, set the named property to the given value, else delete the specified property.
           Ps = 4     Pt is a semi-colon separated sequence of one or more semi-colon separated number/name pairs, where number is an index to a colour and name is the name of a colour. Each pair causes the numbered colour to be changed to name. Numbers 0-7 corresponds to low-intensity (normal) colours and 8-15 corresponds to high-intensity colours. 0=black, 1=red, 2=green, 3=yellow, 4=blue, 5=magenta, 6=cyan, 7=white
           Ps = 10    Change colour of text foreground to Pt (NB: may change in future)
           Ps = 11    Change colour of text background to Pt (NB: may change in future)
           Ps = 12    Change colour of text cursor foreground to Pt
           Ps = 13    Change colour of mouse foreground to Pt
           Ps = 17    Change colour of highlight characters to Pt
           Ps = 18    Change colour of bold characters to Pt [deprecated, see 706]
           Ps = 19    Change colour of underlined characters to Pt [deprecated, see 707]
           Ps = 20    Change default background to Pt
           Ps = 39    Change default foreground colour to Pt.
           Ps = 46    Change Log File to Pt unimplemented
           Ps = 49    Change default background colour to Pt.
           Ps = 50    Set fontset to Pt, with the following special values of Pt (rxvt) #+n change up n #-n change down n if n is missing of 0, a value of 1 is used empty change to font0 n change to font n
           Ps = 55    Log all scrollback buffer and all of screen to Pt
           Ps = 701   Change current locale to Pt, or, if Pt is ?, return the current locale (Compile frills).
           Ps = 703   Menubar command Pt (Compile menubar).
           Ps = 704   Change colour of italic characters to Pt
           Ps = 705   Change background pixmap tint colour to Pt (Compile transparency).
           Ps = 706   Change colour of bold characters to Pt
           Ps = 707   Change colour of underlined characters to Pt
           Ps = 710   Set normal fontset to Pt. Same as Ps = 50.
           Ps = 711   Set bold fontset to Pt. Similar to Ps = 50 (Compile styles).
           Ps = 712   Set italic fontset to Pt. Similar to Ps = 50 (Compile styles).
           Ps = 713   Set bold-italic fontset to Pt. Similar to Ps = 50 (Compile styles).
           Ps = 720   Move viewing window up by Pt lines, or clear scrollback buffer if Pt = 0 (Compile frills).
           Ps = 721   Move viewing window down by Pt lines, or clear scrollback buffer if Pt = 0 (Compile frills).
           Ps = 777   Call the perl extension with the given string, which should be of the form extension:parameters (Compile perl).


       The exact syntax used is almost solidified.  In the menus, DONT try to
       use menuBar commands that add or remove a menuBar.

       Note that in all of the commands, the /path/ cannot be omitted: use ./
       to specify a menu relative to the current menu.

       Overview of menuBar operation

       For the menuBar XTerm escape sequence "ESC ] 703 ; Pt ST", the syntax
       of "Pt" can be used for a variety of tasks:

       At the top level is the current menuBar which is a member of a circular
       linked-list of other such menuBars.

       The menuBar acts as a parent for the various drop-down menus, which in
       turn, may have labels, separator lines, menuItems and subMenus.

       The menuItems are the useful bits: you can use them to mimic keyboard
       input or even to send text or escape sequences back to rxvt.

       The menuBar syntax is intended to provide a simple yet robust method of
       constructing and manipulating menus and navigating through the

       The first step is to use the tag [menu:name] which creates the menuBar
       called name and allows access. You may now or menus, subMenus, and
       menuItems. Finally, use the tag [done] to set the menuBar access as
       readonly to prevent accidental corruption of the menus. To re-access
       the current menuBar for alterations, use the tag [menu], make the
       alterations and then use [done]


           access the named menuBar for creation or alteration. If a new
           menuBar is created, it is called name (max of 15 chars) and the
           current menuBar is pushed onto the stack

           access the current menuBar for alteration

           set the current menuBar’s title to string, which may contain the
           following format specifiers:

              B<%n>  rxvt name (as per the B<-name> command-line option)
              B<%v>  rxvt version
              B<%%>  literal B<%> character

           set menuBar access as readonly.  End-of-file tag for [read:+file]

           read menu commands directly from file (extension ".menu" will be
           appended if required.) Start reading at a line with [menu] or
           [menu:+name and continuing until [done] is encountered.

           Blank and comment lines (starting with #) are ignored. Actually,
           since any invalid menu commands are also ignored, almost anything
           could be construed as a comment line, but this may be tightened up
           in the future ... so don’t count on it!.

           The same as [read:+file], but start reading at a line with
           [menu:+name] and continuing until [done:+name] or [done] is

           dump all menuBars to the file /tmp/rxvt-PID in a format suitable
           for later rereading.

           remove the named menuBar

       [rm] [rm:]
           remove the current menuBar

       [rm*] [rm:*]
           remove all menuBars

           swap the top two menuBars

           access the previous menuBar

           access the next menuBar

           Enable display of the menuBar

           Disable display of the menuBar

           (set the background pixmap globally

           A Future implementation may make this local to the menubar)

           ignore the menu readonly status and issue a command to or a menu or
           menuitem or change the ; a useful shortcut for setting the quick
           arrows from a menuBar.

       Adding and accessing menus

       The following commands may also be + prefixed.

       /+  access menuBar top level

       ./+ access current menu level

           access parent menu (1 level up)

           access parent menu (multiple levels up)

           add/access menu

           add/access menu and clear it if it exists

           add separator

           add item as a label

       /path/{item} action
           add/alter menuitem with an associated action

           add/alter menuitem with right-text as the right-justified text and
           as the associated action

       /path/{item}{rtext} action
           add/alter menuitem with an associated action and with rtext as the
           right-justified text.

       Special characters in action must be backslash-escaped:
           \a \b \E \e \n \r \t \octal

       or in control-character notation:
           ^@, ^A .. ^Z .. ^_, ^?

       To send a string starting with a NUL (^@) character to the program,
       start action with a pair of NUL characters (^@^@), the first of which
       will be stripped off and the balance directed to the program. Otherwise
       if action begins with NUL followed by non-+NUL characters, the leading
       NUL is stripped off and the balance is sent back to rxvt.

       As a convenience for the many Emacs-type editors, action may start with
       M- (eg, M-$ is equivalent to \E$) and a CR will be appended if missed
       from M-x commands.

       As a convenience for issuing XTerm ESC ] sequences from a menubar (or
       quick arrow), a BEL (^G) will be appended if needed.

       For example,
           M-xapropos is equivalent to \Exapropos\r

       and \E]703;mona;100 is equivalent to \E]703;mona;100\a

       The option {right-rtext} will be right-justified. In the absence of a
       specified action, this text will be used as the action as well.

       For example,
           /File/{Open}{^X^F} is equivalent to /File/{Open}{^X^F} ^X^F

       The left label is necessary, since it’s used for matching, but
       implicitly hiding the left label (by using same name for both left and
       right labels), or explicitly hiding the left label (by preceeding it
       with a dot), makes it possible to have right-justified text only.

       For example,
           /File/{Open}{Open} Open-File-Action

       or hiding it
           /File/{.anylabel}{Open} Open-File-Action

       Removing menus

           remove all menus from the menuBar, the same as [clear]

           remove menu

           remove item

           remove separator)

           remove all items, separators and submenus from menu

       Quick Arrows

       The menus also provide a hook for quick arrows to provide easier user
       access. If nothing has been explicitly set, the default is to emulate
       the curror keys. The syntax permits each arrow to be altered
       individually or all four at once without re-entering their common
       beginning/end text. For example, to explicitly associate cursor actions
       with the arrows, any of the following forms could be used:

           Define actions for the respective arrow buttons

           Define common beginning/end parts for quick arrows which used in
           conjunction with the above <r> <l> <u> <d> constructs

       For example, define arrows individually,




       or all at once

       or more compactly (factoring out common parts)

       Command Summary

       A short summary of the most common commands:

           use an existing named menuBar or start a new one

           use the current menuBar

           set menuBar title

           set menu access to readonly and, if reading from a file, signal EOF

           if reading from a file using [read:file;name] signal EOF

           remove named menuBar(s)

       [rm] [rm:]
           remove current menuBar

       [rm*] [rm:*]
           remove all menuBar(s)

           swap top two menuBars

           access the previous menuBar

           access the next menuBar

           map menuBar

           unmap menuBar

           set a background pixmap

           read in a menu from a file

           dump out all menuBars to /tmp/rxvt-PID

       /   access menuBar top level

           access current or parent menu level

           add/access menu

           add separator

       /path/{item}{rtext} action
           add/alter menu item

       -/* remove all menus from the menuBar

           remove menu items, separators and submenus from menu

           remove menu

           remove item

           remove separator

           menu quick arrows


       For the XPM XTerm escape sequence "ESC ] 20 ; Pt ST" then value of "Pt"
       can be the name of the background pixmap followed by a sequence of
       scaling/positioning commands separated by semi-colons. The
       scaling/positioning commands are as follows:

       query scale/position

       change scale and position

           WxH+X (== WxH+X+X)

           WxH (same as WxH+50+50)

           W+X+Y (same as WxW+X+Y)

           W+X (same as WxW+X+X)

           W (same as WxW+50+50)

       change position (absolute)

           =+X (same as =+X+Y)

       change position (relative)

           +X (same as +X+Y)

       rescale (relative)
           Wx0 -> W *= (W/100)

           0xH -> H *= (H/100)

       For example:

           load funky.xpm as a tiled image

           load mona.xpm with a scaling of 100%

           rescale the current pixmap to 200% and display the image geometry
           in the title

Mouse Reporting

       "ESC [ M <b> <x> <y>"
           report mouse position

       The lower 2 bits of "<b>" indicate the button:

       Button = "(<b> - SPACE) & 3"

           0   Button1 pressed
           1   Button2 pressed
           2   Button3 pressed
           3   button released (X11 mouse report)

       The upper bits of "<b>" indicate the modifiers when the button was
       pressed and are added together (X11 mouse report only):

       State = "(<b> - SPACE) & 60"

           4    Shift
           8    Meta
           16   Control
           32   Double Click (Rxvt extension)

           Col = "<x> - SPACE"

           Row = "<y> - SPACE"

Key Codes

       Note: Shift + F1-F10 generates F11-F20

       For the keypad, use Shift to temporarily override Application-Keypad
       setting use Num_Lock to toggle Application-Keypad setting if Num_Lock
       is off, toggle Application-Keypad setting. Also note that values of
       Home, End, Delete may have been compiled differently on your system.

                         Normal       Shift         Control      Ctrl+Shift
       Tab               ^I           ESC [ Z       ^I           ESC [ Z
       BackSpace         ^H           ^?            ^?           ^?
       Find              ESC [ 1 ~    ESC [ 1 $     ESC [ 1 ^    ESC [ 1 @
       Insert            ESC [ 2 ~    paste         ESC [ 2 ^    ESC [ 2 @
       Execute           ESC [ 3 ~    ESC [ 3 $     ESC [ 3 ^    ESC [ 3 @
       Select            ESC [ 4 ~    ESC [ 4 $     ESC [ 4 ^    ESC [ 4 @
       Prior             ESC [ 5 ~    scroll-up     ESC [ 5 ^    ESC [ 5 @
       Next              ESC [ 6 ~    scroll-down   ESC [ 6 ^    ESC [ 6 @
       Home              ESC [ 7 ~    ESC [ 7 $     ESC [ 7 ^    ESC [ 7 @
       End               ESC [ 8 ~    ESC [ 8 $     ESC [ 8 ^    ESC [ 8 @
       Delete            ESC [ 3 ~    ESC [ 3 $     ESC [ 3 ^    ESC [ 3 @
       F1                ESC [ 11 ~   ESC [ 23 ~    ESC [ 11 ^   ESC [ 23 ^
       F2                ESC [ 12 ~   ESC [ 24 ~    ESC [ 12 ^   ESC [ 24 ^
       F3                ESC [ 13 ~   ESC [ 25 ~    ESC [ 13 ^   ESC [ 25 ^
       F4                ESC [ 14 ~   ESC [ 26 ~    ESC [ 14 ^   ESC [ 26 ^
       F5                ESC [ 15 ~   ESC [ 28 ~    ESC [ 15 ^   ESC [ 28 ^
       F6                ESC [ 17 ~   ESC [ 29 ~    ESC [ 17 ^   ESC [ 29 ^

       F7                ESC [ 18 ~   ESC [ 31 ~    ESC [ 18 ^   ESC [ 31 ^
       F8                ESC [ 19 ~   ESC [ 32 ~    ESC [ 19 ^   ESC [ 32 ^
       F9                ESC [ 20 ~   ESC [ 33 ~    ESC [ 20 ^   ESC [ 33 ^
       F10               ESC [ 21 ~   ESC [ 34 ~    ESC [ 21 ^   ESC [ 34 ^
       F11               ESC [ 23 ~   ESC [ 23 $    ESC [ 23 ^   ESC [ 23 @
       F12               ESC [ 24 ~   ESC [ 24 $    ESC [ 24 ^   ESC [ 24 @
       F13               ESC [ 25 ~   ESC [ 25 $    ESC [ 25 ^   ESC [ 25 @
       F14               ESC [ 26 ~   ESC [ 26 $    ESC [ 26 ^   ESC [ 26 @
       F15 (Help)        ESC [ 28 ~   ESC [ 28 $    ESC [ 28 ^   ESC [ 28 @
       F16 (Menu)        ESC [ 29 ~   ESC [ 29 $    ESC [ 29 ^   ESC [ 29 @
       F17               ESC [ 31 ~   ESC [ 31 $    ESC [ 31 ^   ESC [ 31 @
       F18               ESC [ 32 ~   ESC [ 32 $    ESC [ 32 ^   ESC [ 32 @
       F19               ESC [ 33 ~   ESC [ 33 $    ESC [ 33 ^   ESC [ 33 @
       F20               ESC [ 34 ~   ESC [ 34 $    ESC [ 34 ^   ESC [ 34 @
       Up                ESC [ A      ESC [ a       ESC O a      ESC O A
       Down              ESC [ B      ESC [ b       ESC O b      ESC O B
       Right             ESC [ C      ESC [ c       ESC O c      ESC O C
       Left              ESC [ D      ESC [ d       ESC O d      ESC O D
       KP_Enter          ^M                                      ESC O M
       KP_F1             ESC O P                                 ESC O P
       KP_F2             ESC O Q                                 ESC O Q
       KP_F3             ESC O R                                 ESC O R
       KP_F4             ESC O S                                 ESC O S
       XK_KP_Multiply    *                                       ESC O j
       XK_KP_Add         +                                       ESC O k
       XK_KP_Separator   ,                                       ESC O l
       XK_KP_Subtract    -                                       ESC O m
       XK_KP_Decimal     .                                       ESC O n
       XK_KP_Divide      /                                       ESC O o
       XK_KP_0           0                                       ESC O p
       XK_KP_1           1                                       ESC O q
       XK_KP_2           2                                       ESC O r
       XK_KP_3           3                                       ESC O s
       XK_KP_4           4                                       ESC O t
       XK_KP_5           5                                       ESC O u
       XK_KP_6           6                                       ESC O v
       XK_KP_7           7                                       ESC O w
       XK_KP_8           8                                       ESC O x
       XK_KP_9           9                                       ESC O y


       General hint: if you get compile errors, then likely your configuration
       hasn’t been tested well. Either try with "--enable-everything" or use
       the ./reconf script as a base for experiments. ./reconf is used by
       myself, so it should generally be a working config. Of course, you
       should always report when a combination doesn’t work, so it can be
       fixed. Marc Lehmann <>.


           Add (or remove) support for all non-multichoice options listed in
           "./configure --help".

           You can specify this and then disable options you do not like by
           following this with the appropriate "--disable-..." arguments, or
           you can start with a minimal configuration by specifying
           "--disable-everything" and than adding just the "--enable-..."
           arguments you want.

       --enable-xft (default: enabled)
           Add support for Xft (anti-aliases, among others) fonts. Xft fonts
           are slower and require lots of memory, but as long as you don’t use
           them, you don’t pay for them.

       --enable-font-styles (default: on)
           Add support for bold, italic and bold italic font styles. The fonts
           can be set manually or automatically.

       --with-codesets=NAME,... (default: all)
           Compile in support for additional codeset (encoding) groups ("eu",
           "vn" are always compiled in, which includes most 8-bit character
           sets). These codeset tables are used for driving X11 core fonts,
           they are not required for Xft fonts, although having them compiled
           in lets rxvt-unicode choose replacement fonts more intelligently.
           Compiling them in will make your binary bigger (all of together
           cost about 700kB), but it doesn’t increase memory usage unless you
           use a font requiring one of these encodings.

           all      all available codeset groups
           zh       common chinese encodings
           zh_ext   rarely used but very big chinese encodigs
           jp       common japanese encodings
           jp_ext   rarely used but big japanese encodings
           kr       korean encodings

       --enable-xim (default: on)
           Add support for XIM (X Input Method) protocol. This allows using
           alternative input methods (e.g. kinput2) and will also correctly
           set up the input for people using dead keys or compose keys.

       --enable-unicode3 (default: off)
           Enable direct support for displaying unicode codepoints above 65535
           (the basic multilingual page). This increases storage requirements
           per character from 2 to 4 bytes. X11 fonts do not yet support these
           extra characters, but Xft does.

           Please note that rxvt-unicode can store unicode code points >65535
           even without this flag, but the number of such characters is
           limited to a view thousand (shared with combining characters, see
           next switch), and right now rxvt-unicode cannot display them
           (input/output and cut&paste still work, though).

       --enable-combining (default: on)
           Enable automatic composition of combining characters into composite
           characters. This is required for proper viewing of text where
           accents are encoded as seperate unicode characters. This is done by
           using precomposited characters when available or creating new
           pseudo-characters when no precomposed form exists.

           Without --enable-unicode3, the number of additional precomposed
           characters is rather limited (2048, if this is full, rxvt-unicode
           will use the private use area, extending the number of combinations
           to 8448). With --enable-unicode3, no practical limit exists.

           This option will also enable storage (but not display) of
           characters beyond plane 0 (>65535) when --enable-unicode3 was not

           The combining table also contains entries for arabic presentation
           forms, but these are not currently used. Bug me if you want these
           to be used (and tell me how these are to be used...).

       --enable-fallback(=CLASS) (default: Rxvt)
           When reading resource settings, also read settings for class CLASS.
           To disable resource fallback use --disable-fallback.

       --with-res-name=NAME (default: urxvt)
           Use the given name as default application name when reading
           resources. Specify --with-res-name=rxvt to replace rxvt.

       --with-res-class=CLASS /default: URxvt)
           Use the given class as default application class when reading
           resources. Specify --with-res-class=Rxvt to replace rxvt.

       --enable-utmp (default: on)
           Write user and tty to utmp file (used by programs like w) at start
           of rxvt execution and delete information when rxvt exits.

       --enable-wtmp (default: on)
           Write user and tty to wtmp file (used by programs like last) at
           start of rxvt execution and write logout when rxvt exits.  This
           option requires --enable-utmp to also be specified.

       --enable-lastlog (default: on)
           Write user and tty to lastlog file (used by programs like
           lastlogin) at start of rxvt execution.  This option requires
           --enable-utmp to also be specified.

       --enable-xpm-background (default: on)
           Add support for XPM background pixmaps.

       --enable-transparency (default: on)
           Add support for inheriting parent backgrounds thus giving a fake
           transparency to the term.

       --enable-fading (default: on)
           Add support for fading the text when focus is lost (requires

       --enable-tinting (default: on)
           Add support for tinting of transparent backgrounds (requires

       --enable-menubar (default: off) [DEPRECATED]
           Add support for our menu bar system (this interacts badly with
           dynamic locale switching currently). This option is DEPRECATED and
           will be removed in the future.

       --enable-rxvt-scroll (default: on)
           Add support for the original rxvt scrollbar.

       --enable-next-scroll (default: on)
           Add support for a NeXT-like scrollbar.

       --enable-xterm-scroll (default: on)
           Add support for an Xterm-like scrollbar.

       --enable-plain-scroll (default: on)
           Add support for a very unobtrusive, plain-looking scrollbar that is
           the favourite of the rxvt-unicode author, having used it for many

       --enable-half-shadow (default: off)
           Make shadows on the scrollbar only half the normal width & height.
           only applicable to rxvt scrollbars.

       --enable-ttygid (default: off)
           Change tty device setting to group "tty" - only use this if your
           system uses this type of security.

           Removes any handling of the backspace key by us - let the X server
           do it.

           Removes any handling of the delete key by us - let the X server do

           Removes any support for resource checking.

       --enable-strings (default: off)
           Add support for our possibly faster memset() function and other
           various routines, overriding your system’s versions which may have
           been hand-crafted in assembly or may require extra libraries to
           link in. (this breaks ANSI-C rules and has problems on many
           GNU/Linux systems).

           Remove support for secondary/swap screen.

       --enable-frills (default: on)
           Add support for many small features that are not essential but nice
           to have. Normally you want this, but for very small binaries you
           may want to disable this.

           A non-exhaustive list of features enabled by "--enable-frills"
           (possibly in combination with other switches) is:

             EWMH-hints (pid, utf8 names) and protocols (ping)
             seperate underline colour (-underlineColor)
             settable border widths and borderless switch (-w, -b, -bl)
             settable extra linespacing /-lsp)
             iso-14755-2 and -3, and visual feedback
             backindex and forwardindex escape sequence
             window op and some xterm/OSC escape sequences
             tripleclickwords (-tcw)
             settable insecure mode (-insecure)
             keysym remapping support
             cursor blinking and underline cursor (-cb, -uc)
             XEmbed support (-embed)
             user-pty (-pty-fd)
             hold on exit (-hold)
             skip builtin block graphics (-sbg)
             sgr modes 90..97 and 100..107

       --enable-iso14755 (default: on)
           Enable extended ISO 14755 support (see urxvt(1), or
           doc/rxvt.1.txt). Basic support (section 5.1) is enabled by
           "--enable-frills", while support for 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 is enabled
           with this switch.

       --enable-keepscrolling (default: on)
           Add support for continual scrolling of the display when you hold
           the mouse button down on a scrollbar arrow.

       --enable-mousewheel (default: on)
           Add support for scrolling via mouse wheel or buttons 4 & 5.

       --enable-slipwheeling (default: on)
           Add support for continual scrolling (using the mouse wheel as an
           accelerator) while the control key is held down.  This option
           requires --enable-mousewheel to also be specified.

           Remove support for mouse selection style like that of xterm.

       --enable-dmalloc (default: off)
           Use Gray Watson’s malloc - which is good for debugging See
  for details If you use either this
           or the next option, you may need to edit src/Makefile after
           compiling to point DINCLUDE and DLIB to the right places.

           You can only use either this option and the following (should you
           use either) .

       --enable-dlmalloc (default: off)
           Use Doug Lea’s malloc - which is good for a production version See
           <> for details.

       --enable-smart-resize (default: on)
           Add smart growth/shrink behaviour when changing font size via hot
           keys. This should keep the window corner which is closest to a
           corner of the screen in a fixed position.

       --enable-pointer-blank (default: on)
           Add support to have the pointer disappear when typing or inactive.

       --enable-perl (default: off)
           Enable an embedded perl interpreter. See the urxvtperl(3) manpage
           (doc/rxvtperl.txt) for more info on this feature, or the files in
           src/perl-ext/ for the extensions that are installed by default. The
           perl interpreter that is used can be specified via the "PERL"
           environment variable when running configure.

       --with-name=NAME (default: urxvt)
           Set the basename for the installed binaries, resulting in "urxvt",
           "urxvtd" etc.). Specify "--with-name=rxvt" to replace with "rxvt".

       --with-term=NAME (default: rxvt-unicode)
           Change the environmental variable for the terminal to NAME.

           Change the environmental variable for the path to the terminfo tree
           to PATH.

           Use the X Window System (pretty much default, eh?).

           Look for the XPM includes in DIR.

           Look for the XPM library in DIR.

           Not needed - define via --enable-xpm-background.


       Marc Lehmann <> converted this document to pod and
       reworked it from the original Rxvt documentation, which was done by
       Geoff Wing <>, who in turn used the XTerm documentation
       and other sources.