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       wngloss - glossary of terms used in WordNet system


       The  WordNet  Reference  Manual  consists  of  Unix-style  manual pages
       divided into sections as follows:

                 |Section |               Description               |
                 |   1    | WordNet User Commands                   |
                 |   3    | WordNet Library Functions               |
                 |   5    | WordNet File Formats                    |
                 |   7    | Miscellaneous Information about WordNet |

   System Description
       The WordNet system consists of lexicographer  files,  code  to  convert
       these  files  into  a database, and search routines and interfaces that
       display  information  from  the  database.   The  lexicographer   files
       organize  nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs into groups of synonyms,
       and describe relations between synonym groups.  grind(1WN) converts the
       lexicographer  files into a database that encodes the relations between
       the synonym groups.  The different interfaces to the  WordNet  database
       utilize a common library of search routines to display these relations.
       Note that the  lexicographer  files  and  grind(1WN)  program  are  not
       generally distributed.

   Database Organization
       Information  in  WordNet  is  organized around logical groupings called
       synsets.  Each synset  consists  of  a  list  of  synonymous  words  or
       collocations  (eg.  "fountain  pen",  "take  in"),  and  pointers  that
       describe the relations between this synset and other synsets.   A  word
       or collocation may appear in more than one synset, and in more than one
       part of speech.  The words in a synset are logically grouped such  that
       they are interchangeable in some context.

       Two  kinds  of  relations  are  represented  by  pointers:  lexical and
       semantic.   Lexical  relations  hold  between  word   forms;   semantic
       relations hold between word meanings.  These relations include (but are
       not  limited  to)   hypernymy/hyponymy,   antonymy,   entailment,   and

       Nouns   and   verbs   are  organized  into  hierarchies  based  on  the
       hypernymy/hyponymy relation between synsets.  Additional  pointers  are
       be used to indicate other relations.

       Adjectives  are  arranged  in  clusters  containing  head  synsets  and
       satellite synsets.  Each cluster is organized around  antonymous  pairs
       (and  occasionally  antonymous  triplets).   The  antonymous  pairs (or
       triplets) are indicated in the head synsets of a  cluster.   Most  head
       synsets  have one or more satellite synsets, each of which represents a
       concept that is similar in meaning to the concept  represented  by  the
       head synset.  One way to think of the adjective cluster organization is
       to visualize a wheel, with a head  synset  as  the  hub  and  satellite
       synsets  as the spokes.  Two or more wheels are logically connected via
       antonymy, which can be thought of as an axle between the wheels.

       Pertainyms are relational adjectives and do not  follow  the  structure
       just  described.   Pertainyms  do  not  have antonyms; the synset for a
       pertainym most often contains  only  one  word  or  collocation  and  a
       lexical  pointer  to  the  noun that the adjective is "of or pertaining
       to".  Participial adjectives have lexical pointers to  the  verbs  that
       they are derived from.

       Adverbs are often derived from adjectives, and sometimes have antonyms;
       therefore the synset for an adverb usually contains a  lexical  pointer
       to the adjective from which it is derived.

       See  wndb(5WN) for a detailed description of the database files and how
       the data are represented.


       Many terms used in the WordNet  Reference  Manual  are  unique  to  the
       WordNet  system.   Other general terms have specific meanings when used
       in the WordNet documentation.  Definitions for many of these terms  are
       given  to  help  with  the  interpretation  and  understanding  of  the
       reference manual, and in the use of the WordNet system.

       In following definitions word is used in place of word or  collocation.

       adjective cluster        A   group   of   adjective  synsets  that  are
                                organized around antonymous pairs or triplets.
                                An adjective cluster contains two or more head
                                synsets which represent  antonymous  concepts.
                                Each  head  synset  has  one or more satellite

       attribute                A noun for which  adjectives  express  values.
                                The noun weight is an attribute, for which the
                                adjectives light and heavy express values.

       base form                The base form of a word or collocation is  the
                                form to which inflections are added.

       basic synset             Syntactically,  same  as synset.  Term is used
                                in wninput(5WN) to help explain differences in
                                entering synsets in lexicographer files.

       collocation              A collocation in WordNet is a string of two or
                                more words, connected by  spaces  or  hyphens.
                                Examples  are:  man-eating shark, blue-collar,
                                depend on, line of products.  In the  database
                                files spaces are represented as underscore (_)

       coordinate               Coordinate terms are nouns or verbs that  have
                                the same hypernym.

       cross-cluster pointer    A  semantic pointer from one adjective cluster
                                to another.

       derivationally related forms
                                A search that displays lexical  links  between
                                terms  in  different syntactic categories that
                                have the same root form.

       direct antonyms          A pair of words  between  which  there  is  an
                                associative  bond  built up by co-occurrences.
                                In adjective clusters, direct antonyms appears
                                only in head synsets.

       domain                   A topical classification to which a synset has
                                been linked with a CATEGORY, REGION  or  USAGE

       domain term              A  synset  belonging  to  a  topical class.  A
                                domain term is further identified as  being  a
                                CATEGORY_TERM, REGION_TERM or USAGE_TERM.

       entailment               A  verb X entails Y if X cannot be done unless
                                Y is, or has been, done.

       exception list           Morphological transformations for  words  that
                                are   not  regular  and  therefore  cannot  be
                                processed in an algorithmic manner.

       group                    Verb senses that similar in meaning  and  thus
                                manually grouped together.

       gloss                    Definition  and/or  example  sentences  for  a

       head synset              Synset in an adjective cluster  containing  at
                                least one word that has a direct antonym.

       holonym                  The  name  of  the  whole of which the meronym
                                names a part.  Y is a holonym of X if X  is  a
                                part of Y.

       hypernym                 The  generic  term  used  to designate a whole
                                class of specific instances.  Y is a  hypernym
                                of X if X is a (kind of) Y.

       hyponym                  The  specific  term used to designate a member
                                of a class.  X is a hyponym of Y  if  X  is  a
                                (kind of) Y.

       indirect antonym         An  adjective  in a satellite synset that does
                                not have a  direct  antonym  has  an  indirect
                                antonyms  via  the  direct antonym of the head

       lemma                    Lower case ASCII text of word as found in  the
                                WordNet  database  index  files.   Usually the
                                base form for a word or collocation.

       lexical pointer          A lexical pointer indicates a relation between
                                words in synsets (word forms).

       lexicographer file       Files  containing  the  raw  data  for WordNet
                                synsets, edited by  lexicographers,  that  are
                                input  to  the  grind  program  to  generate a
                                WordNet database.

       lexicographer id (lex id)
                                A decimal integer  that,  when  appended  onto
                                lemma,  uniquely  identifies  a sense within a
                                lexicographer file.

       monosemous               Having only one sense in a syntactic category.

       meronym                  The   name  of  a  constituent  part  of,  the
                                substance of, or a member of something.  X  is
                                a meronym of Y if X is a part of Y.

       part of speech           WordNet  defines  "part  of  speech" as either
                                noun, verb, adjective,  or  adverb.   Same  as
                                syntactic category.

       participial adjective    An adjective that is derived from a verb.

       pertainym                A  relational  adjective.  Adjectives that are
                                pertainyms are usually defined by such phrases
                                as  "of  or  pertaining  to"  and  do not have
                                antonyms.  A pertainym can point to a noun  or
                                another pertainym.

       polysemous               Having  more  than  one  sense  in a syntactic

       polysemy count           Number of senses of  a  word  in  a  syntactic
                                category, in WordNet.

       postnominal              A    postnominal    adjective    occurs   only
                                immediately  following  the   noun   that   it

       predicative              An   adjective   that  can  be  used  only  in
                                predicate positions.   If  X  is  a  predicate
                                adjective,  it  can be used in such phrases as
                                "it is X".

       prenominal               An adjective that can occur  only  before  the
                                noun that it modifies.

       satellite synset         Synset  in an adjective cluster representing a
                                concept that is  similar  in  meaning  to  the
                                concept represented by its head synset.

       semantic concordance     A  textual corpus (Brown Corpus) and a lexicon
                                (WordNet) so combined that  every  substantive
                                word  in the text is linked to its appropriate
                                sense in the lexicon via a semantic tag.

       semantic tag             A pointer from a text file to a specific sense
                                of a word in the WordNet database.  A semantic
                                tag in a semantic concordance  is  represented
                                by a sense key.

       semantic pointer         A   semantic   pointer  indicates  a  relation
                                between synsets (word meanings).

       sense                    A meaning of a word in WordNet.  Each sense of
                                a word is in a different synset.

       sense key                Information  necessary  to find a sense in the
                                WordNet database.   A  sense  key  combines  a
                                lemma  field  and  codes  for the synset type,
                                lexicographer id, lexicographer  file  number,
                                and   information  about  a  satellite’s  head
                                synset, if required.  See senseidx(5WN) for  a
                                description of the format of a sense key.

       subordinate              Same as hyponym.

       superordinate            Same as hypernym.

       synset                   A  synonym  set;  a  set  of  words  that  are
                                interchangeable in some context.

       troponym                 A   verb   expressing   a   specific    manner
                                elaboration  of another verb.  X is a troponym
                                of Y if to X is to Y in some manner.

       unique beginner          A noun synset with no superordinate.