Provided by: apt_0.6.43.3ubuntu2_i386 bug


       apt-get - APT package handling utility -- command-line interface


       apt-get [-hvs] [-o=config string] [-c=file] {update | upgrade |
               dselect-upgrade | install pkg... | remove pkg... |
               source pkg... | build-dep pkg... | check | clean | autoclean}


       apt-get  is  the  command-line  tool  for handling packages, and may be
       considered the user’s "back-end" to other tools using the APT  library.
       Several  "front-end"  interfaces  exist,  such as dselect(8), aptitude,
       synaptic, gnome-apt and wajig.

       Unless the -h, or --help option is given, one  of  the  commands  below
       must be present.

       update update  is  used  to  resynchronize the package index files from
              their sources. The indexes of  available  packages  are  fetched
              from  the  location(s)  specified  in /etc/apt/sources.list. For
              example, when using a Debian archive, this command retrieves and
              scans  the  Packages.gz files, so that information about new and
              updated packages  is  available.  An  update  should  always  be
              performed  before  an  upgrade  or dist-upgrade. Please be aware
              that the overall progress meter will be incorrect as the size of
              the package files cannot be known in advance.

              upgrade  is  used to install the newest versions of all packages
              currently installed on the system from the sources enumerated in
              /etc/apt/sources.list.  Packages  currently  installed  with new
              versions  available  are  retrieved  and  upgraded;   under   no
              circumstances  are  currently  installed  packages  removed,  or
              packages not already  installed  retrieved  and  installed.  New
              versions of currently installed packages that cannot be upgraded
              without changing the install status of another package  will  be
              left at their current version. An update must be performed first
              so  that  apt-get  knows  that  new  versions  of  packages  are

              dselect-upgrade  is  used  in  conjunction  with the traditional
              Debian packaging front-end, dselect(8). dselect-upgrade  follows
              the  changes made by dselect(8) to the Status field of available
              packages, and performs the actions  necessary  to  realize  that
              state  (for instance, the removal of old and the installation of
              new packages).

              dist-upgrade in addition to performing the function of  upgrade,
              also   intelligently  handles  changing  dependencies  with  new
              versions of packages; apt-get has a "smart" conflict  resolution
              system,  and  it  will  attempt  to  upgrade  the most important
              packages at the expense of less important ones if necessary. The
              /etc/apt/sources.list  file  contains  a  list of locations from
              which   to   retrieve   desired   package   files.   See    also
              apt_preferences(5)  for  a  mechanism for overriding the general
              settings for individual packages.

              install  is  followed  by  one  or  more  packages  desired  for
              installation.  Each  package  is  a  package  name,  not a fully
              qualified filename (for instance, in a Debian GNU/Linux  system,
              libc6 would be the argument provided, not libc6_1.9.6-2.deb) All
              packages required by the package(s) specified  for  installation
              will  also be retrieved and installed. The /etc/apt/sources.list
              file is used to locate the desired  packages.  If  a  hyphen  is
              appended  to  the  package name (with no intervening space), the
              identified package will be removed if it is installed. Similarly
              a plus sign can be used to designate a package to install. These
              latter features may  be  used  to  override  decisions  made  by
              apt-get’s conflict resolution system.

              A specific version of a package can be selected for installation
              by following the package name with an equals and the version  of
              the  package  to  select.  This  will  cause  that version to be
              located and  selected  for  install.  Alternatively  a  specific
              distribution  can be selected by following the package name with
              a slash and the version of the distribution or the Archive  name
              (stable, testing, unstable).

              Both  of the version selection mechanisms can downgrade packages
              and must be used with care.

              Finally, the apt_preferences(5) mechanism allows you  to  create
              an alternative installation policy for individual packages.

              If  no  package  matches the given expression and the expression
              contains one of ’.’, ’?’ or ’*’ then it is assumed to be a POSIX
              regular  expression,  and  it is applied to all package names in
              the database. Any matches are then installed (or removed).  Note
              that  matching  is  done by substring so ’lo.*’ matches ’how-lo’
              and  ’lowest’.  If  this  is  undesired,  anchor   the   regular
              expression  with  a  ’^’  or  ’$’  character,  or  create a more
              specific regular expression.

       remove remove is identical to install except that packages are  removed
              instead  of installed. If a plus sign is appended to the package
              name (with no intervening space), the identified package will be
              installed instead of removed.

       source source causes apt-get to fetch source packages. APT will examine
              the available packages to decide which source package to  fetch.
              It  will  then  find and download into the current directory the
              newest available version of that source package. Source packages
              are  tracked  separately  from  binary packages via deb-src type
              lines in the sources.list(5) file. This probably will mean  that
              you  will  not  get  the  same  source  as  the package you have
              installed or as you could install. If the --compile  options  is
              specified  then  the  package  will be compiled to a binary .deb
              using dpkg-buildpackage, if --download-only  is  specified  then
              the source package will not be unpacked.

              A  specific  source  version  can be retrieved by postfixing the
              source name with an  equals  and  then  the  version  to  fetch,
              similar  to  the  mechanism  used  for  the  package files. This
              enables exact matching of the source package name  and  version,
              implicitly enabling the APT::Get::Only-Source option.

              Note  that source packages are not tracked like binary packages,
              they exist only in the current  directory  and  are  similar  to
              downloading source tar balls.

              build-dep  causes  apt-get  to  install/remove  packages  in  an
              attempt to satisfy the build dependencies for a source  package.

       check  check  is  a  diagnostic  tool; it updates the package cache and
              checks for broken dependencies.

       clean  clean clears out  the  local  repository  of  retrieved  package
              files.   It   removes   everything   but   the  lock  file  from
              /var/cache/apt/archives/  and  /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.
              When   APT  is  used  as  a  dselect(8)  method,  clean  is  run
              automatically. Those who do not use dselect will likely want  to
              run apt-get clean from time to time to free up disk space.

              Like  clean,  autoclean  clears  out  the  local  repository  of
              retrieved package files. The difference is that it only  removes
              package  files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely
              useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period
              without  it  growing  out  of  control. The configuration option
              APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from  being
              erased if it is set to off.


       All  command  line options may be set using the configuration file, the
       descriptions indicate the configuration  option  to  set.  For  boolean
       options  you  can  override  the  config  file  by using something like
       -f-,--no-f, -f=no or several other variations.

       -d, --download-only
              Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or
              installed. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download-Only.

       -f, --fix-broken
              Fix;  attempt  to  correct  a system with broken dependencies in
              place. This option, when used with install/remove, can omit  any
              packages  to permit APT to deduce a likely solution. Any Package
              that are specified must  completely  correct  the  problem.  The
              option  is  sometimes  necessary  when running APT for the first
              time; APT itself does not allow broken package  dependencies  to
              exist  on  a  system.  It is possible that a system’s dependency
              structure can be so corrupt as to  require  manual  intervention
              (which  usually  means  using  dselect(8)  or  dpkg  --remove to
              eliminate some of the offending packages). Use  of  this  option
              together  with  -m  may  produce  an  error  in some situations.
              Configuration Item: APT::Get::Fix-Broken.

       -m, --ignore-missing, --fix-missing
              Ignore missing packages; If packages cannot be retrieved or fail
              the  integrity  check after retrieval (corrupted package files),
              hold back those packages and handle  the  result.  Use  of  this
              option together with -f may produce an error in some situations.
              If a package is selected for installation (particularly if it is
              mentioned  on  the  command line) and it could not be downloaded
              then  it  will  be  silently  held  back.  Configuration   Item:

              Disables  downloading  of  packages.  This  is  best  used  with
              --ignore-missing to force APT to  use  only  the  .debs  it  has
              already downloaded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download.

       -q, --quiet
              Quiet;  produces  output suitable for logging, omitting progress
              indicators. More q’s will produce more quiet up to a maximum  of
              2.  You can also use -q=# to set the quiet level, overriding the
              configuration file. Note that quiet  level  2  implies  -y,  you
              should  never  use  -qq without a no-action modifier such as -d,
              --print-uris or -s as APT may decided to do  something  you  did
              not expect. Configuration Item: quiet.

       -s, --simulate, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon, --no-act
              No  action;  perform a simulation of events that would occur but
              do  not  actually  change  the   system.   Configuration   Item:

              Simulate  prints  out  a series of lines each one representing a
              dpkg operation, Configure (Conf), Remove (Remv), Unpack  (Inst).
              Square  brackets  indicate broken packages with and empty set of
              square brackets  meaning  breaks  that  are  of  no  consequence

       -y, --yes, --assume-yes
              Automatic  yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts
              and run non-interactively. If an undesirable situation, such  as
              changing  a  held  package,  trying to install a unauthenticated
              package or removing an essential  package  occurs  then  apt-get
              will abort. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Assume-Yes.

       -u, --show-upgraded
              Show  upgraded  packages;  Print out a list of all packages that
              are to be upgraded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Upgraded.

       -V, --verbose-versions
              Show   full   versions  for  upgraded  and  installed  packages.
              Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Versions.

       -b, --compile, --build
              Compile source packages after  downloading  them.  Configuration
              Item: APT::Get::Compile.

              Ignore  package  Holds;  This  causes  apt-get  to ignore a hold
              placed on a package. This may  be  useful  in  conjunction  with
              dist-upgrade  to  override  a  large  number of undesired holds.
              Configuration Item: APT::Ignore-Hold.

              Do not upgrade packages; When used in conjunction with  install,
              no-upgrade  will prevent packages on the command line from being
              upgraded if they  are  already  installed.  Configuration  Item:

              Force  yes;  This  is  a dangerous option that will cause apt to
              continue without prompting if it is doing something  potentially
              harmful.   It   should  not  be  used  except  in  very  special
              situations. Using force-yes can potentially destroy your system!
              Configuration Item: APT::Get::force-yes.

              Instead of fetching the files to install their URIs are printed.
              Each URI will have the path, the destination file name, the size
              and  the  expected md5 hash. Note that the file name to write to
              will not always match the file name on  the  remote  site!  This
              also  works  with the source and update commands. When used with
              the update command the MD5 and size are not included, and it  is
              up to the user to decompress any compressed files. Configuration
              Item: APT::Get::Print-URIs.

              Use purge instead of remove for anything that would be  removed.
              An  asterisk  ("*") will be displayed next to packages which are
              scheduled to be purged. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Purge.

              Re-Install packages that are already installed and at the newest
              version. Configuration Item: APT::Get::ReInstall.

              This  option  defaults  to  on, use --no-list-cleanup to turn it
              off. When on apt-get will automatically manage the  contents  of
              /var/lib/apt/lists to ensure that obsolete files are erased. The
              only reason to turn it off is  if  you  frequently  change  your
              source list. Configuration Item: APT::Get::List-Cleanup.

       -t, --target-release, --default-release
              This  option controls the default input to the policy engine, it
              creates a default  pin  at  priority  990  using  the  specified
              release  string.  The preferences file may further override this
              setting. In short, this option lets you have simple control over
              which  distribution packages will be retrieved from. Some common
              examples might be -t2.1*’ or -t unstable. Configuration  Item:
              APT::Default-Release;  see  also  the  apt_preferences(5) manual

              Only perform operations that are ’trivial’. Logically  this  can
              be  considered  related to --assume-yes, where --assume-yes will
              answer  yes  to  any  prompt,  --trivial-only  will  answer  no.
              Configuration Item: APT::Get::Trivial-Only.

              If  any  packages  are  to be removed apt-get immediately aborts
              without prompting. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Remove.

              Only  has  meaning  for  the  source  and  build-dep   commands.
              Indicates  that  the  given  source  names  are not to be mapped
              through the binary table. This means  that  if  this  option  is
              specified,  these commands will only accept source package names
              as arguments, rather than accepting  binary  package  names  and
              looking up the corresponding source package. Configuration Item:

       --diff-only, --tar-only
              Download only  the  diff  or  tar  file  of  a  source  archive.
              Configuration  Item: APT::Get::Diff-Only and APT::Get::Tar-Only.

              Only    process    architecture-dependent    build-dependencies.
              Configuration Item: APT::Get::Arch-Only.

              Ignore if packages can’t be authenticated and don’t prompt about
              it. This is usefull for tools like pbuilder. Configuration Item:

       -h, --help
              Show a short usage summary.

       -v, --version
              Show the program version.

       -c, --config-file
              Configuration  File;  Specify  a  configuration file to use. The
              program will read the default configuration file and  then  this
              configuration file. See apt.conf(5) for syntax information.

       -o, --option
              Set   a   Configuration   Option;  This  will  set  an  arbitary
              configuration option. The syntax is -o Foo::Bar=bar.


              Locations  to   fetch   packages   from.   Configuration   Item:

              APT configuration file. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Main.

              APT    configuration    file   fragments   Configuration   Item:

              Version preferences  file.  This  is  where  you  would  specify
              "pinning",  i.e.  a  preference  to  get certain packages from a
              separate source or from a different version of  a  distribution.
              Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Preferences.

              Storage  area  for  retrieved package files. Configuration Item:

              Storage area for package files in transit.  Configuration  Item:
              Dir::Cache::Archives (implicit partial).

              Storage  area  for  state  information for each package resource
              specified     in     sources.list(5)     Configuration     Item:

              Storage  area  for  state  information in transit. Configuration
              Item: Dir::State::Lists (implicit partial).


       apt-cache(8),  apt-cdrom(8),  dpkg(8),   dselect(8),   sources.list(5),
       apt.conf(5),     apt-config(8),     The    APT    User’s    guide    in
       /usr/share/doc/apt/, apt_preferences(5), the APT Howto.


       apt-get returns zero on normal operation, decimal 100 on error.


       APT bug page: If you wish to  report  a
       bug  in  APT, please see /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the
       reportbug(1) command.


       Jason Gunthorpe, APT team.