Provided by: aptitude_0.4.0-5ubuntu3_i386 bug

NAME

       aptitude - high-level interface to the package manager

SYNOPSIS

       aptitude [<options>...] {autoclean | clean | forget-new | keep-all |
                update | upgrade}

       aptitude [<options>...] {changelog | dist-upgrade | download |
                forbid-version | hold | install | keep-all | markauto | purge
                | reinstall | remove | show | unmarkauto} packages...

       aptitude [<options>...] search patterns...

       aptitude [-S <fname>] [-u | -i]

       aptitude help

DESCRIPTION

        aptitude is a text-based interface to  the  Debian  GNU/Linux  package
       system.

       It  allows the user to view the list of packages and to perform package
       management tasks such as installing, upgrading, and removing  packages.
       Actions   may  be  performed  from  a  visual  interface  or  from  the
       command-line.

COMMAND-LINE ACTIONS

       The first argument which does  not  begin  with  a  hyphen  (‘‘-’’)  is
       considered  to  be  an  action  that  the program should perform. If an
       action is not specified on the command-line, aptitude will start up  in
       visual mode.

       The following actions are available:

       install
              Install  one  or  more  packages.  The packages should be listed
              after the ‘‘install’’ command; if  a  package  name  contains  a
              tilde  character (‘‘~’’), it will be treated as a search pattern
              and every package matching the pattern will  be  installed  (see
              the  section  ‘‘Search  Patterns’’  in  the  aptitude  reference
              manual).

              To  select  a  particular  version  of   the   package,   append
              ‘‘=<version>’’  to  the  package  name: for instance, ‘‘aptitude
              install apt=0.3.1’’. Similarly,  to  select  a  package  from  a
              particular  archive,  append ‘‘/<archive>’’ to the package name:
              for instance, ‘‘aptitude install apt/experimental’’.

              Not  every  package  listed  on  the  command  line  has  to  be
              installed;  you can tell aptitude to do something different with
              a package by appending an ‘‘override specifier’’ to the name  of
              the  package. For example, aptitude remove wesnoth+ will install
              wesnoth, not remove it. The following  override  specifiers  are
              available:

              <package>+
                     Install <package>.

              <package>+M
                     Install    <package>   and   immediately   mark   it   as
                     automatically installed (note that if nothing depends  on
                     <package>, this will cause it to be immediately removed).

              <package>-
                     Remove <package>.

              <package>_
                     Purge  <package>:  remove  it  and  all  its   associated
                     configuration and data files.

              <package>=
                     Place  <package> on hold: cancel any active installation,
                     upgrade, or removal, and prevent this package from  being
                     automatically upgraded in the future.

              <package>:
                     Keep   <package>  at  its  current  version:  cancel  any
                     installation,  removal,  or  upgrade.   Unlike   ‘‘hold’’
                     (above)  this  does not prevent automatic upgrades in the
                     future.

              <package>&M
                     Mark <package> as having been automatically installed.

              <package>&m
                     Mark <package> as having been manually installed.

              As a special case, ‘‘install’’ with no arguments will act on any
              stored/pending actions.

              Note

              Once   you  enter  Y  at  the  final  confirmation  prompt,  the
              ‘‘install’’ command will modify  aptitude’s  stored  information
              about  what  actions  to perform. Therefore, if you issue (e.g.)
              the command ‘‘aptitude install foo  bar’’  and  then  abort  the
              installation   once   aptitude   has   started  downloading  and
              installing packages, you will need to run ‘‘aptitude remove  foo
              bar’’ to cancel that order.

       remove, purge, hold, keep, reinstall
              These  commands are the same as ‘‘install’’, but apply the named
              action to all packages given on the command line for which it is
              not  overridden.  The  difference  between hold and keep is that
              hold will cause a  package  to  be  ignored  by  future  upgrade
              commands, while keep merely cancels any scheduled actions on the
              package.

              For instance, ‘‘aptitude  remove~ndeity’’’  will  remove  all
              packages whose name contains ‘‘deity’’.

       markauto, unmarkauto
              Mark  packages as automatically installed or manually installed,
              respectively. Packages are specified in exactly the same way  as
              for  the  ‘‘install’’ command. For instance, ‘‘aptitude markauto~slibs’’’ will mark all packages in  the  ‘‘libs’’  section  as
              having been automatically installed.

              For  more  information  on automatically installed packages, see
              the section ‘‘Managing Automatically Installed Packages’’ in the
              aptitude reference manual.

       forbid-version
              Forbid  a  package  from being upgraded to a particular version.
              This will prevent aptitude from automatically upgrading to  this
              version,  but  will allow automatic upgrades to future versions.
              By default, aptitude  will  select  the  version  to  which  the
              package  would  normally  be  upgraded;  you  may  override this
              selection by appending ‘‘=<version>’’ to the package  name:  for
              instance, ‘‘aptitude forbid-version vim=1.2.3.broken-4’’.

              This  command is useful for avoiding broken versions of packages
              without having to set and clear manual holds. If you decide  you
              really  want  the  forbidden  version after all, the ‘‘install’’
              command will remove the ban.

       update Updates the list of available  packages  from  the  apt  sources
              (this is equivalent to ‘‘apt-get update’’)

       upgrade
              Upgrades  installed  packages  to  their  most  recent  version.
              Installed packages will not be removed unless  they  are  unused
              (see  the  section ‘‘Managing Automatically Installed Packages’’
              in the  aptitude  reference  manual);  packages  which  are  not
              currently installed will not be installed.

              If   a  package  cannot  be  upgraded  without  violating  these
              constraints, it will be kept at its  current  version.  Use  the
              dist-upgrade command to upgrade these packages as well.

       dist-upgrade
              Upgrades  installed  packages  to  their  most  recent  version,
              removing or installing packages as necessary.  This  command  is
              less  conservative  than upgrade and thus more likely to perform
              unwanted actions.  Users  are  advised  to  either  use  upgrade
              instead  or  to  carefully  inspect  the  list of packages to be
              installed and removed.

       keep-all
              Cancels all scheduled actions  on  all  packages;  any  packages
              whose  sticky  state  indicates  an  installation,  removal,  or
              upgrade will have this sticky state cleared.

       forget-new
              Forgets all internal information about what packages are ‘‘new’’
              (equivalent to pressing ‘‘f’’ when in visual mode).

       search Searches  for  packages matching one of the patterns supplied on
              the command line. All packages which  match  any  of  the  given
              patterns  will  be  displayed;  for  instance, ‘‘aptitude search~N’’’ will list all ‘‘new’’ packages. For more  information  on
              search  patterns,  see  the  section  ‘‘Search Patterns’’ in the
              aptitude reference manual.

              Unless you pass the -F option, the  output  of  aptitude  search
              will look something like this:

              i    apt                              -  Advanced  front-end for
              dpkg pi  apt-build                       - frontend  to  apt  to
              build, optimize and in cp  apt-file                        - APT
              package  searching  utility   --   command-   ihA   raptor-utils
              -  Raptor  RDF Parser utilitiesEach search result is listed on a
              separate line. The first character of each  line  indicates  the
              current  state  of  the  package:  the most common states are p,
              meaning that no trace of the package exists on  the  system,  c,
              meaning that the package was deleted but its configuration files
              remain on the system, i, meaning that the package is  installed,
              and v, meaning that the package is virtual. The second character
              indicates the stored action (if any; otherwise a blank space  is
              displayed)  to be performed on the package, with the most common
              actions being i, meaning that the package will be installed,  d,
              meaning  that  the  package will be deleted, and p, meaning that
              the package and its configuration files will be removed. If  the
              third character is A, the package was automatically installed.

              For  a complete list of the possible state and action flags, see
              the section ‘‘Accessing Package Information’’  in  the  aptitude
              reference guide.

       show   Displays detailed information about one or more packages, listed
              following the search command. If a package name contains a tilde
              character  (‘‘~’’),  it  will be treated as a search pattern and
              all  matching  packages  will  be  displayed  (see  the  section
              ‘‘Search Patterns’’ in the aptitude reference manual).

              If the verbosity level is 1 or greater (i.e., at least one -v is
              present on the command-line), information about all versions  of
              the  package  is  displayed.  Otherwise,  information  about the
              ‘‘candidate version’’ (the  version  that  ‘‘aptitude  install’’
              would download) is displayed.

              You  can  display  information  about a different version of the
              package by appending =<version> to the  package  name;  you  can
              display  the  version  from  a  particular  archive by appending
              /<archive> to the package name. If either of these  is  present,
              then  only the version you request will be displayed, regardless
              of the verbosity level.

              If  the  verbosity  level  is  1  or  greater,   the   package’s
              architecture,  compressed size, filename, and md5sum fields will
              be displayed. If the verbosity level is 2 or greater, the select
              version  or  versions will be displayed once for each archive in
              which they are found.

       clean  Removes all previously downloaded .deb files  from  the  package
              cache directory (usually /var/cache/apt/archives).

       autoclean
              Removes  any  cached packages which can no longer be downloaded.
              This allows you to prevent a cache from growing out  of  control
              over time without completely emptying it.

       changelog
              Downloads  and  displays  the  Debian  changelog for each of the
              given source or binary packages.

              By default,  the  changelog  for  the  version  which  would  be
              installed  with  ‘‘aptitude  install’’  is  downloaded.  You can
              select a particular version of a package by appending =<version>
              to  the  package  name;  you  can  select  the  version  from  a
              particular archive by appending /<archive> to the package  name.

       download
              Downloads  the  .deb  file  for the given package to the current
              directory.

              By default, the version which would be installed with ‘‘aptitude
              install’’  is downloaded. You can select a particular version of
              a package by appending =<version> to the package name;  you  can
              select  the  version  from  a  particular  archive  by appending
              /<archive> to the package name.

       help   Displays a brief summary of the available commands and  options.

OPTIONS

       The following options may be used to modify the behavior of the actions
       described above. Note that while all options will be accepted  for  all
       commands,  some  options don’t apply to particular commands and will be
       ignored by those commands.

       -D, --show-deps
              For commands that will  install  or  remove  packages  (install,
              upgrade,    etc),   show   brief   explanations   of   automatic
              installations and removals.

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Deps.

       -d, --download-only
              Download  packages to the package cache as necessary, but do not
              install or remove anything. By default,  the  package  cache  is
              stored in /var/cache/apt/archives.

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Download-Only.

       -F <format>, --display-format <format>
              Specify the format which should be used to display  output  from
              the  search  command.  For  instance,  passing  ‘‘%p %V %v’’ for
              <format>  will  display  a  package’s  name,  followed  by   its
              currently  installed  version and its available version (see the
              section  ‘‘Customizing  how  packages  are  displayed’’  in  the
              aptitude reference manual for more information).

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Format.

       -f     Try hard to fix the dependencies of broken packages, even if  it
              means ignoring the actions requested on the command line.

              This      corresponds      to     the     configuration     item
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Fix-Broken.

       -h, --help
              Display a brief help message. Identical to the help action.

       --purge-unused
              Purge packages that are no  longer  required  by  any  installed
              package.     This     is     equivalent    to    passing    ‘‘-o
              Aptitude::Purge-Unused=true’’ as a command-line argument.

       -P, --prompt
              Always display a prompt, even when no actions other  than  those
              explicitly requested will be performed.

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Always-Prompt.

       -R, --without-recommends
              Do not treat recommendations as dependencies when installing new
              packages  (this  overrides  settings  in  /etc/apt/apt.conf  and
              ~/.aptitude/config).

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::Recommends-Important

       -r, --with-recommends
              Treat   recommendations  as  dependencies  when  installing  new
              packages  (this  overrides  settings  in  /etc/apt/apt.conf  and
              ~/.aptitude/config).

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::Recommends-Important

       -s, --simulate
              In command-line mode, print the actions that would  normally  be
              performed,  but  don’t  actually  perform  them.  This  does not
              require root privileges. In the visual  interface,  always  open
              the  cache in read-only mode regardless of whether you are root.

              This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Simulate.

       --schedule-only
              For  commands that modify package states, schedule operations to
              be performed in the future, but  don’t  perform  them.  You  can
              execute  scheduled  actions  by running aptitude install with no
              arguments.  This  is  equivalent  to  making  the  corresponding
              selections in visual mode, then exiting the program normally.

              For  instance,  aptitude  --schedule-only install evolution will
              schedule the evolution package for later installation.

       -t <release>, --target-release <release>
              Set the release from which packages  should  be  installed.  For
              instance, ‘‘aptitude -t experimental ...’’ will install packages
              from the experimental distribution unless you specify otherwise.
              For  the  command-line  actions ‘‘changelog’’, ‘‘download’’, and
              ‘‘show’’, this is equivalent to  appending  /<release>  to  each
              package named on the command-line; for other commands, this will
              affect the default candidate version of  packages  according  to
              the rules described in apt_preferences(5).

              This corresponds to the configuration item APT::Default-Release.

       -O <order>, --sort <order>
              Specify the order in which output from the search command should
              be  displayed. For instance, passing ‘‘installsize’’ for <order>
              will list  packages  in  order  according  to  their  size  when
              installed  (see  the  section  ‘‘Customizing  how  packages  are
              sorted’’ in the aptitude reference manual for more information).

       -o <key>=<value>
              Set  a  configuration file option directly; for instance, use -o
              Aptitude::Log=/tmp/my-log   to   log   aptitude’s   actions   to
              /tmp/my-log. For more information on configuration file options,
              see the section ‘‘Configuration file reference’’ in the aptitude
              reference manual.

       -q [=<n>], --quiet [=<n>]
              Suppress  all  incremental  progress indicators, thus making the
              output loggable. This may be supplied multiple times to make the
              program quieter, but unlike apt-get, aptitude does not enable -y
              when -q is supplied more than once.

              The optional =<n> may be used to  directly  set  the  amount  of
              quietness    (for   instance,   to   override   a   setting   in
              /etc/apt/apt.conf); it causes the program to behave as if -q had
              been passed exactly <n> times.

       -V, --show-versions
              Show which versions of packages will be installed.

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Versions.

       -v, --verbose
              Causes some commands  (for  instance,  show)  to  display  extra
              information. This may be supplied multiple times to get more and
              more information.

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose.

       --version
              Display  the  version of aptitude and some information about how
              it was compiled.

       --visual-preview
              When installing or removing  packages  from  the  command  line,
              instead  of  displaying  the  usual  prompt, start up the visual
              interface and display its preview screen.

       -w <width>, --width <width>
              Specify the display width which should be used for  output  from
              the search command (by default, the terminal width is used).

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Width

       -y, --assume-yes
              When a yes/no prompt would be presented, assume  that  the  user
              entered  ‘‘yes’’.  In  particular,  suppresses  the  prompt that
              appears  when  installing,  upgrading,  or  removing   packages.
              Prompts  for  ‘‘dangerous’’  actions, such as removing essential
              packages, will still be displayed. This option overrides -P.

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Assume-Yes.

       -Z     Show how much disk space will be used or freed by the individual
              packages being installed, upgraded, or removed.

              This     corresponds     to     the     configuration     option
              Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Size-Changes.

       The  following options apply to the visual mode of the program, but are
       primarily for internal use;  you  generally  won’t  need  to  use  them
       yourself.

       -S <fname>
              Loads the extended state information from <fname> instead of the
              standard state file.

       -u     Begins updating the package lists as soon as the program starts.
              You cannot use this option and -i at the same time.

       -i     Displays  a download preview when the program starts (equivalent
              to starting the program and  immediately  pressing  ‘‘g’’).  You
              cannot use this option and ‘‘-u’’ at the same time.

ENVIRONMENT

       HOME   If $HOME/.aptitude exists, aptitude will store its configuration
              file in $HOME/.aptitude/config. Otherwise, it will look  up  the
              current  user’s  home  directory using getpwuid(2) and place its
              configuration file there.

       PAGER  If this environment variable is set, aptitude  will  use  it  to
              display  changelogs  when  ‘‘aptitude changelog’’ is invoked. If
              not set, it defaults to more.

       TMP    If TMPDIR is unset, aptitude will store its temporary  files  in
              TMP  if  that  variable is set. Otherwise, it will store them in
              /tmp.

       TMPDIR  aptitude will  store  its  temporary  files  in  the  directory
              indicated  by  this  environment variable. If TMPDIR is not set,
              then TMP will be used; if TMP is also unset, then aptitude  will
              use /tmp.

SEE ALSO

        apt-get(8),   apt(8),   /usr/share/doc/aptitude/<lang>/html/index.html
       from the package aptitude-doc-<lang>

AUTHOR

       Daniel Burrows.

                                                                   APTITUDE(8)