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       courier - Courier


       courier { start | stop | restart | flush | flush qid }


       Courier is a modular multi-protocol E-mail transport agent. The courier
       command is an administrative command, and most of its options are  only
       available to the superuser.

       "courier      start"      starts      the     server     by     running
       /usr/lib/courier/courierctl.start in the  background.   "courier  stop"
       immediately  stops  all  Courier  processes and aborts all current mail
       deliveries.  "courier restart" restarts the Courier server.  A  restart
       is  often  needed  for  certain  configuration  changes to take effect.
       "courier restart" waits for all current deliveries to  complete  before
       restarting.  This  is  the  "nice"  way  to  restart  the  mail server.
       "courier flush"  takes  all  undelivered  messages  in  the  queue  and
       attempts  to  deliver  them immediately, instead of waiting until their
       next  scheduled  attempted  delivery  time.  "courier  flush"  can   be
       optionally  followed  by  a  message  queue  ID in order to schedule an
       immediate delivery attempt for only a single message. Message queue IDs
       are displayed by the mailq(1) command.

       Please  note that courier start runs the main Courier scheduling engine
       only. It does not start any other daemons that you may  have,  such  as
       the ESMTP or the IMAP daemon.

       Courier   uses   several  configuration  files  which  are  located  in
       /etc/courier.  These configuration files are plain text files that  can
       be  modified with any text editor.  In certain instances a subdirectory
       is used, and all plain text files in the subdirectory are  concatenated
       and  are  considered  to be a single, consolidated, configuration file.
       Unless otherwise specified,  you  must  run  courier  restart  for  any
       changes to these files to take effect.

              This  file  contains  one line, containing the home directory of
              the account that’s used for filtering mail  addressed  to  local
              alias lists.

              When  mail  filtering  is  enabled,  local  recipients  have the
              ability to define mail  filters  which  can  selectively  reject
              unwanted  mail.   /etc/courier/aliases  may  define  local  mail
              aliases that contain one or more recipients.  If it  is  desired
              to  use  local  mail  filtering  for  mail addressed to an alias
              address, designate a local account that will be used to  specify
              filtering  instructions,  and  put  its home directory into this
              control file.  The filtering argument  will  be  "alias-address"
              where  address is the name of the alias.  See localmailfilter(7)
              for more information.

              Due to technical limitations, content filtering is not available
              for multiple-recipient aliases.

              Changes to this file take effect immediately.

              This  file configures the authdaemond authentication proxy.  See
              authlib(7) for more information.

              This file configures LDAP authentication.   See  authlib(7)  for
              more information.

              This  file  configures MySQL authentication.  See authlib(7) for
              more information.

              This  file  sets  the  systemwide  quota  on   autoreplies,   if
              autoreplies  and  mail filtering are enabled. Note that this can
              only really be effective if there is no login access to the mail
              account,  since this autoreply quota can be trivially overriden.

              The autoresponsesquota file contains one line: "Cnnn" or  "Snnn"
              (or  both  strings,  on  the  same line). Cnnn: allow up to #nnn
              autoreplies to be created. Snnn: allow up to #nnn bytes  as  the
              total  size of all autoreplies, combined.  If both Cnnn and Snnn
              are specified, both quotas apply. If this file does  not  exist,
              there  is  no  limit  on autoreplies. This quota setting applies
              systemwide. To override  the  quota  setting  for  a  particular
              Maildir,  create  the  autoresponsesquota  file  in that Maildir
              (which takes precedence).

              This file contains one line, containing  a  name  of  a  machine
              where  mail  will  be  rerouted  if  it  cannot  be  immediately
              delivered. Spaces are not allowed in this file.

              Mail gets rerouted if it cannot  be  delivered  after  the  time
              interval  specified  by  the  warntime  configuration file. When
              backuprelay is provided a delayed delivery  status  notification
              will  NOT be generated. The message will be rerouted even if the
              recipient’s  delivery  status  notification  setting  does   not
              include a delayed notification request.

              This  feature  is  intended  for use by relays that handle large
              quantities of mail, where you don’t want to accumulate  a  large
              mail  queue  for  unreachable mail servers. Please note that ALL
              undeliverable mail will be rerouted in this fashion. Even if the
              recipient   of  a  message  is  a  local  recipient  -  and  the
              recipient’s  mail  filter  is  rejecting  the  message  with   a
              temporary  error  code  -  the message will still be rerouted if
              it’s undeliverable after the specified amount of time.

              Although currently SMTP is the only meaningful  application  for
              this feature, Courier is a protocol-independent mail server, and
              the backup relay function can be extended to other protocols, as
              they become available.

              Multiple  backup relays can be used by simply assigning multiple
              IP addresses to the same machine name. Note that Courier  checks
              for  both  MX  and  A  records for the machine specified in this
              configuration file.

              This file contains one line, containing a  single  number.  This
              number specifies the absolute maximum number of recipients for a
              single  message.  If  Courier  receives  a  message  with   more
              recipients,  the  message  is  duplicated  as often as necessary
              until each copy of  the  message  has  no  more  than  batchsize
              recipients.   If  batchsize  is  missing,  it  defaults  to  100
              recipients per message.

       bofh   This  configuration  file  configures  domain-based  junk   mail
              filters. Lines in this configuration files that begin with the #
              character  are  considered  comments,  and  are  ignored.    The
              remaining lines contain the following directives, in any order:

              badfrom user@domain
                     Reject all mail with the return address of <user@domain>.

              badfrom @domain
                     Reject   all   mail   with   the   return   address    of

              badfrom @.domain
                     Reject    all   mail   with   the   return   address   of

              badfrom user@.domain
                     Reject   all   mail   with   the   return   address    of

              badmx N
                     Reject  all mail with a return address in any mail domain
                     whose listed mail servers include server "N". "N"  is  an
                     IP   address.   The  BOFHCHECKDNS  option  in  the  esmtp
                     configuration file must also  be  enabled  (this  is  the
                     default setting) in order for this additional checking to
                     take place. Note that this is "best effort" check.  A DNS
                     failure  to  look  up A records for hostnames returned in
                     the MX record may hide the blacklisted server from  view.

              freemail domain [domain2] [domain3]...
                     Reject  all  mail with a return address <anything@domain>
                     unless the mail is  received  from  a  mail  relay  whose
                     hostname  is in the same domain.  "domain2" and "domain3"
                     are optional, and specifies other domains that  the  mail
                     relay’s  hostname  may belong to.  For example: "freemail
           " specifies that mail with a return
                     address  will  be accepted only from a mail
                     relay with a hostname in the  or
                     domain.  Note  that this setting requires that DNS lookup
                     be enabled for incoming ESMTP connections (which  is  the
                     default setting).

              spamtrap user@domain
                     Reject  all  mail that has <user@domain> listed as one of
                     its recipients.

                     Note: For local mailboxes, ’domain’ must be  set  to  the
                     contents  of  the  me configuration file, or the server’s
                     hostname. Also,  this  check  is  made  after  any  alias
                     processing  takes place. Suggested usage: create a single
                     local spamtrap account, then create aliases in the  alias
                     file that point to the spamtrap account.

              maxrcpts N [hard]
                     Accept  the  first  N  recipient  addresses  per message,
                     maximum.  The  remaining  recipients  are  rejected.   An
                     optional   verbatim   token  "hard"  specifies  that  the
                     remaining recipients  will  immediately  be  returned  as
                     undeliverable  (otherwise  the  remaining  recipients are
                     rejected as "temporary unavailable", and may be  accepted
                     on a later delivery attempt). If not specified, the first
                     100 recipients are accepted.

              opt BOFHBADMIME=action
                     Set default disposition of mail with invalid or corrupted
                     MIME headers.  Possible settings for action are: accept -
                     accept and pass  on  the  corrupted  message,  untouched;
                     reject  -  reject  and  return the mail as undeliverable;
                     wrap - "wrap" the message as an attachment, that must  be
                     separately  opened  (this  is  the default action).  This
                     setting applies to  mail  that’s  generated  locally,  or
                     which  is  sent  from  IP  addresses  that do not have an
                     explicit BOFHBADMIME setting  listed  in  the  smtpaccess
                     configuration  file.   smtpaccess  can  be  used  to  set
                     BOFHBADMIME for specific sending IP address ranges  only.
                     See makesmtpaccess(8) for more information.

                     Note:  BOFHMIME=accept  implies  MIME=none (see submit(8)
                     for more information).

              opt BOFHCHECKHELO=1
                     Verify the  hostname  provided  in  the  ESMTP  HELO/EHLO
                     statement.   ‘‘opt BOFHCHECKHELO=1’’ is a global default,
                     which may be  overridden  by  setting  the  BOFHCHECKHELO
                     environment  variable  in  the  SMTP  access  file.   See
                     makesmtpaccess(8)   for    more    information.     ‘‘opt
                     BOFHCHECKHELO=1’’  enables  ESMTP  HELO/EHLO  checking by
                     default, and ESMTP HELO/EHLO checking may be  turned  off
                     for individual IP address ranges by setting BOFHCHECKHELO
                     to 0 using makesmtpaccess(8).   Alternatively,  HELO/EHLO
                     checking  may  be  turned off by default, and enabled for
                     specific IP address ranges by using makesmtpaccess(8)  to
                     set  BOFHCHECKHELO  to 1.  See makesmtpaccess(8) for more

              opt BOFHNOBASE64TEXT=1
                     Reject  messages  with   base64-encoded   text/plain   or
                     text/html content.

              opt BOFHSPFHELO=keywords
                     Use  Sender  Policy  Framework to verify the HELO or EHLO
                     domain sent by the connecting SMTP  client.   See  Sender
                     Policy  Framework  Keywords  below for a list of possible

                     SPF checking is not used for HELO or EHLO  commands  that
                     specify an IP address instead of a domain name.

                     Note:  This  setting  may be used in combination with opt
                     BOFHCHECKHELO=1.  The BOFHCHECKHELO=1 check  is  disabled
                     if  SPF  verification of the HELO/EHLO results in the SPF
                     status of ‘‘pass’’.  This makes sense: if  the  HELO/EHLO
                     domains  complies  with  the  domain’s  SPF,  it  is  not
                     necessary to check it further.

              opt BOFHSPFMAILFROM=keywords
                     Use Sender Policy Framework to verify the return  address
                     in  the  MAIL  FROM  command  sent by the connecting SMTP
                     client.  See Sender Policy Framework Keywords below for a
                     list of possible keywords.

                     Note:  No  SPF  checking  is  done  for  if the MAIL FROM
                     command specifies an empty  return  address  (a  bounce).
                     There’s nothing to check.

              opt BOFHSPFFROM=keywords
                     Use  Sender Policy Framework to verify the return address
                     in  the  From:  header.   See  Sender  Policy   Framework
                     Keywords  below  for important information, and a list of
                     possible keywords.

              opt BOFHSPFHARDERROR=keywords
                     This setting lists  the  unacceptable  SPF  results  that
                     should   result   in   a   permanent  error.   All  other
                     unacceptable SPF results are kicked back with a temporary
                     error indication, inviting the sender to try again later.

                     The   default    setting    for    BOFHSPFHARDERROR    is

              opt BOFHSPFTRUSTME=1
                     Disable all SPF checks for any connecting client that has
                     relaying privileges (RELAYCLIENT is  explicitly  set,  or
                     inherited after a successful SMTP authentication).

              opt BOFHSPFNOVERBOSE=1
                     This setting disables custom SPF rejection messages.  Any
                     SPF rejection message specified  by  the  SPF  policy  is
                     replaced  by  a stock, bland message.  The author of this
                     SPF implementation believes that there’s a minor security
                     issue  with  letting  an  external site control the error
                     messages issued by your mail  server.   The  same  author
                     does  not  believe  that  this  is  such  a big deal, but
                     security-sensitive  minds  may  choose  to  enable   this
                     setting, and sleep easy at night.

       Courier  can  perform ‘‘Sender Policy Framework’’ checks on up to three
       addresses  for  each  message.   This  is  controlled  by  setting  the
       following  variables:  BOFHSPFHELO,  BOFHSPFMAILFROM,  and BOFHSPFFROM.
       Each variable is  set  to  a  comma-separated  list  of  the  following
       keywords:  ‘‘off’’  -  SPF  verification  disabled (default); ‘‘none’’,
       ‘‘neutral’’, ‘‘pass’’,  ‘‘fail’’,  ‘‘softfail’’,  ‘‘pass’’,  ‘‘error’’,
       ‘‘unknown’’  -  these keywords correspond to the possible results of an
       SPF check, the message is accepted for the listed SPF results only, any
       other  SPF result is rejected; ‘‘all’’ - shorthand for all possible SPF
       results, use ‘‘all’’ to run SPF in informational mode  only,  recording
       the SPF status in the Received-SPF: header.

       A  rejected  SPF  result  gets  kicked  back  with  a  permanent  error
       indication if the SPF result  is  listed  in  BOFHSPFHARDERROR,  and  a
       temporary error indication otherwise.

       When  enabling  SPF  checking,  the  keyword list should always include
       ‘‘pass’’ (it makes no sense to do otherwise) and ‘‘none’’.  The keyword
       list  should  also  include ‘‘softfail’’, ‘‘neutral’’, and ‘‘unknown’’.
       See the SPF draft for a description of these status results.   At  some
       distant  future, the keyword list will only include ‘‘pass’’, rejecting
       all senders without a stated policy.  This might be desirable  at  some
       point in the future, but not right now.

       The   BOFHSPFFROM   list   may  also  include  an  additional  keyword,
       ‘‘mailfromok’’.  BOFHSPFMAILFROM and BOFHSPFFROM are trade-offs.  Using
       BOFHSPFMAILFROM  is  faster, and it does not require the entire message
       to be received, before running the SPF check.  BOFHSPFFROM checking can
       only  occur  after  the  entire  message  is  received,  but  it’s more
       reliable.  If ‘‘mailfromok’’ is listed, the From: is not checked if the
       MAIL FROM command was checked with the ‘‘pass’’ result.

       In  other words: the From: header is checked if MAIL FROM was empty, or
       did not pass the SPF checks.  If MAIL FROM passed the SPF check Courier
       won’t bother looking at the From: header.


              A  conservative  policy should not reject failed SPF checks from
              the From:header, because it can  be  counterproductive  in  some
              situations.   This is because when a sender from a domain with a
              published SPF policy sends a message  to  a  mailing  list,  the
              message  goes  through  the mailing list processor’s IP address,
              and it will fail the SPF check unless the domain SPF  explicitly
              authorizes the mailing list processor’s IP address.

              This  is  very  unlikely.  The end result is that domains with a
              published SPF record get punished, and domains  without  an  SPF
              record  get  off scott free.  Mailing lists should be encouraged
              to publish their own SPF records for mailing list traffic;  then
              the  ‘‘mailfromok’’  keyword  can  validate  the  mailing list’s
              return address, and forego checking of the ‘‘From:’’ header from
              the mailing list, while still checking the ‘‘From:’’ header from
              everyone else.

              Another alternative is to use opt BOFHSPFFROM=all  for  advisory
              purposes  only.   Post-delivery  mail  filters  can  key off the
              ‘‘Received-SPF’’ header.

              Note: Courier can add up to three  ‘‘Received-SPF’’  headers  of
              its  own,  one for each SPF check.  Courier renames any existing
              ‘‘Received-SPF’’   header    as    ‘‘Old-Received-SPF’’.     All
              ‘‘Received-SPF’’  headers  delivered  to  a  local  mailbox will
              always come from Courier.

              This configuration file enables basic  calendaring  features  in
              the   webmail   server.   Calendaring  is  currently  considered
              experimental in nature, and the current implementation  provides
              basic  calendaring  services.  If  this  file  does  not  exist,
              calendaring options are disabled.  If this file exists it should
              contain a single word: "local".  For example:

              echo "local" >/etc/courier/calendarmode

              This  configuration file must be globally readable, so make sure
              that your umask is not set too tight.

              This configuration file specifies several parameters relating to
              general Courier configuration. A default configuration file will
              be installed, and you should consult its contents for additional

              This  file  contains  one  line  whose  contents is a valid mail
              domain.   Most   header   rewriting   functions   will    append
              @defaultdomain  to  all  E-mail  addresses that do not specify a
              domain. If defaultdomain is missing, Courier uses  the  contents
              of the me control file.

              When  the ESMTP server receives a ‘‘RCPT TO’’ command containing
              the address <user@[ip.address]>, and the IP address is the  same
              as  the  IP  address  of the socket it’s listening on, the ESMTP
              server  replaces  the  IP  address  with  the  contents  of  the
              defaultdomain   control  file.   If  defaultdomain  is  missing,
              Courier uses the contents of the me control file.

              The contents  of  defaultdomain  are  also  appended  to  return
              addresses  to  mail  sent from Courier’s webmail server, if they
              don’t already have a domain. If defaultdomain  does  not  exist,
              Courier’s  webmail  server obtain the machine hostname, and uses

              Note: The mail domain in defaultdomain must be one of the  local
              domains,  as defined by the locals and the hosteddomains control

              This file contains one line whose contents specify the  name  of
              dot-files  in  users’  home  directories  which contain delivery
              instructions.  If  this  file  does  not  exist,  Courier  reads
              $HOME/.courier,  $HOME/.courier-foo, $HOME/.courier-default, and
              so on. If this file contains  the  text  "qmail",  Courier  will
              instead   read   $HOME/.qmail,  $HOME/.qmail-foo,  $HOME/.qmail-
              default, and so on.

              This file contains one line specifying the contents of the From:
              header  that  Courier puts in all delivery status notifications.
              This file specifies a complete header, except for the  "From:  "
              part.  If  dsnfrom  is  missing, then Courier uses the following
              header: "Courier mail server at me" <@>

              Maximum size, in bytes, of a message whose contents are included
              in delivery status notifications. By default, the entire message
              is only included in non-delivery notices  (failures).  Only  the
              headers  will be returned for delay notifications (warnings) and
              return receipts; or for failures  if  the  original  message  is
              larger than dsnlimit.  If missing, dsnlimit is set to 32K.

              The  sender can request that the entire message be returned even
              on delayed notices or  return  receipts,  however  Courier  will
              ignore this request if the message size exceeds this limit.

              This  configuration  file  enables the global mail filtering API
              for selected mail sources.  This file, if it exists, contains  a
              single  line  of  text that specifies which kind of mail will be
              filtered. The possible values are:

              esmtp  Enables global  mail  filtering  for  mail  received  via

              local  Specifies  that  mail  received from logged on users, via
                     sendmail, and mail forwarded from dot-courier(5) will  be
                     filtered using the global mail filtering API.

              uucp   Specifies  that mail received from UUCP will be filtered.

       If you want to specify more than one source of mail, such as ESMTP  and
       local  mail,  specify  both  esmtp  and  local,  separated  by  a space

              Note: The global mail filtering API is described, in detail,  in
              the  courierfilter(8)  manual page.  This is NOT the traditional
              user-controlled mail filtering, such as maildrop(1).   A  global
              mail  filter  is  a  daemon  process that selectively accepts or
              rejects incoming mail, based on arbitrary criteria.

              This file lists all domains that Courier accepts  mail  for  via
              ESMTP.  This  file  is in the same format as the locals file. If
              this file is missing, Courier uses the single  domain  specified
              in me (or the system machine name).

              This  is  a  binary  database file that lists additional domains
              that Courier accepts mail for, just like  esmtpacceptmailfor.  A
              binary  database  file will be faster than a flat text file when
              the number of domains is large. Courier  will  accept  mail  for
              domains     listed     in     either    esmtpacceptmailfor    or
              esmtpacceptmailfor.dat.  esmtpacceptmailfor.dat  is  created  by
              the    makeacceptmailfor    command.     You    can   use   both
              esmtpacceptmailfor.dat and esmtpacceptmailfor at the same  time.
              Put your most popular domains in esmtpacceptmailfor, and put the
              rest of them into esmtpacceptmailfor.dat.

              This configuration file configures ESMTP authentication for  the
              ESMTP  client.   This  is a text file of zero or more lines that
              contain the following fields:

              relay userid password

              When Courier connects to a  remote  ESMTP  relay,  Courier  will
              authenticate itself using userid and password.  These fields are
              separated by one or more  whitespace  characters.  Because  this
              file contains passwords, it must not be world or group readable,
              and owned by the user "daemon".

              ESMTP negotiation will take place, and Courier will use  a  SASL
              authentication  method  supported by both Courier and the remote
              ESMTP server.  Currently Courier supports PLAIN, LOGIN and CRAM-
              MD5  authentication.  CRAM-MD5  is preferred over the other two,
              and PLAIN is preferred over LOGIN.

              Courier  also  supports  ESMTP  over  SSL  (the  ESMTP  STARTTLS
              extension).  If ESMTP STARTTLS is enabled, STARTTLS will be used
              to establish a secure link first.  The authentication will  take
              place afterwards, over a secure channel.

              Changes  to  this  file  take  effect, more or less, immediately
              (existing connections are not affected, but new connections will
              read the updated data).

       esmtpd This  file  is used to initialize the environment and parameters
              for courieresmtpd.  A  default  file  will  be  provided  during
              installation. See the comments in the file for more information.
              For changes to this file to take effect you run the esmtpd  stop
              command followed by esmtpd start.

              This  file  contains  one  line  of text that specifies how long
              courieresmtp waits after a failure to contact  the  remote  mail
              server  before  another attempt is made. courieresmtp (not to be
              confused with courieresmtpd) delivers outgoing  mail  to  remote
              mail  servers.  The  timeout is specified as an integral number,
              optionally followed by m - minutes, or h - hours.  Otherwise  it
              is specified in seconds.

              The courieresmtp process delivers mail that’s routed to external
              mail relays, via ESMTP. When attempting to  initally  contact  a
              mail  server courieresmtp waits for the amount of time specified
              by  esmtptimeoutconnect  (see  below).   esmtptimeoutconnect  is
              usually  set  to  a  relatively long period of time, in order to
              accomodate slow mail servers. A large number of messages  queued
              up for an unreachable mail server can tie up delivery slots that
              can be put to a better use  by  reassigning  them  for  mail  to
              another  domain.   Although  Courier does not usually assign all
              delivery slots for messages  to  the  same  domain  (this  is  a
              tuneable  parameter),  it  is  still  not very healthy to have a
              bunch of  courieresmtp  daemons  spinning  their  wheels,  doing

              The  situation  worsens  when  there  is  a large number of mail
              relays that accept mail for the same domain, and all of them are
              unreachable  due  to  a  network  failure.   That’s  because the
              esmtptimeout waiting period is used  for  each  individual  mail
              relay.   Multiply  esmtptimeout  by the number of servers to see
              how large the delay really will be.

              esmtpdelay is implemented internally in the courieresmtp module.
              The  main  Courier  scheduling  daemon  is  not  aware of what’s
              happening internally in courieresmtp. When courieresmtp fails to
              contact any mail relay for the domain, the message is postponed,
              and  the  esmtpdelay  timer  is  set.  Any  additional  messages
              received  by the same courieresmtp daemon (for the same domain),
              are immediately postponed  without  any  attempt  to  contact  a
              remote  mail  relay.  When  the amount of time set by esmtpdelay
              expires, courieresmtp will  attempt  to  make  another  delivery
              attempt as usual.

              If esmtpdelay does not exist, the default delay is five minutes.
              Any messages that are postponed look like  any  other  temporary
              failure  to  courierd. Delivery attempts are rescheduled as if a
              real temporary failure took place. Therefore it  does  not  make
              sense  to  set  esmtpdelay  to  be  greater than retryalpha (see
              below). When retryalpha is smaller is  esmtpdelay,  you’ll  just
              messages  spinning through the mail queue, with useless delivery
              attempts  being  attempted  because  esmtpdelay   still   hasn’t

              Occasionally  you  might  observe  somewhat  strange behavior on
              systems with heavy mail traffic. esmtpdelay  applies  separately
              to  each individual instance of courieresmtp. When a remote mail
              server keeps going up and down, it is possible to  end  up  with
              multiple courieresmtp daemons handling mail for the same domain,
              but only some of them will encounter a network  failure,  purely
              by  the  luck of the draw. The remaining daemons will be able to
              establish a connection. So you’ll end up with some  courieresmtp
              daemons  being  able to deliver mail immediately, while the rest
              are still waiting patiently for esmtpdelay to expire, postponing
              all  messages  in  the  meantime.  Some messages - but not all -
              will  be  immediately  postponed  without  a  delivery  attempt,
              becauses  they ended up getting to a daemon which is waiting for
              esmtpdelay to expire.

              Another anomalous  situation  may  happen  when  a  courieresmtp
              daemon gets reassigned to another domain, and then receives more
              mail for the previous domain.  This can happen when you  have  a
              lot  of  mail  going through.  Although Courier tries to shuffle
              all mail for same domain into  one  pile,  the  scheduler  still
              tries  to  dispatch  mail on "first-come, first-serve" basis, as
              much as possible. When that  happens  another  delivery  attempt
              will  be  made  immediately, because the previous esmtpdelay was
              cancelled when the daemon got reassigned to another domain.

              There can also be occasional abnormalities that  affect  systems
              with  light  traffic.  When  there is a domain with several mail
              relays of equal priority, one mail relay is chosen at random for
              the  connection  attempt.  If  some  of  the equal-priority mail
              relays are unreachable and a courieresmtp daemon  picks  it,  it
              will  start  the esmtpdelay timer and refuse to deliver any more
              mail until it expires, even if most  of  the  mail  servers  are
              functional. This will happen only with mail relays of the lowest
              priority. Otherwise, courieresmtp will  always  try  to  contact
              another  mail  relay of a still lower priority, before giving up
              and setting the esmtpdelay timer.  Another  courieresmtp  daemon
              will  not  be  started for the same domain if there’s already an
              existing one, so all delivery attempts will be turned away until
              esmtpdelay  expires. Another courieresmtp daemon will be started
              only in the event of  multiple  simultaneous  delivery  attempts
              that happen to coincide at the same time.

              This  is  somewhat  mitigated  by the fact that all courieresmtp
              daemons are killed after a  short  period  of  total  inactivity
              (currently  one  minute),  so that longer intervals specified by
              esmtpdelay are ignored. Note, however, that receiving a  message
              to  deliver,  and  then postponing it immediately, does count as
              some activity.

              esmtpdelay can be  turned  off  by  setting  it  to  0  seconds.
              esmtpdelay  is  designed for servers that handle heavy amount of
              mail that wish to avoid having outbound delivery slots  tied  up
              due  to  network  failures,  at  an  expense  of  an  occasional
              anomalous behavior due  to  harmless  paranoia.  esmtpdelay  may
              prove  to actually make things worse for systems that carry only
              light mail  traffic,  if  they  are  burdened  with  a  task  of
              exchanging  mail  primarily  with  external systems that are not
              properly maintained.

              The  complete  greeting  banner  displayed   by   courieresmtpd.
              Changes to this file take effect immediately.

              This  file  contains one line of text, what Courier calls itself
              in the EHLO or HELO command sent to a remote SMTP server.  me is
              used if this file does not exist.

              This  file  is  used by the ESMTP module, and it contains one or
              more lines in the following form:


              domain is any SMTP domain. relay specifies a  fixed  mail  relay
              for  this  domain. relay is optionally followed by a comma and a
              port number, to specify a port other than the default  port  25.
              If  an  address’s  domain  is  not found in esmtproutes, Courier
              looks for MX and A records as usual (and always delivers to port
              25). If the domain is found in esmtproutes, however, any MX or A
              records for the domain are ignored; instead Courier delivers the
              message to the specified relay.

              relay  can  be  another domain, or an explicit IP address inside
              brackets. For example, if esmtproutes contains the following:


              Mail for is delivered to,  ignoring
              any  MX  records  for  Mail for will be
              delivered to the machine at IP address  All  other
              domains will have their MX and A records looked up.

              Note:  Unlike  Qmail,  Courier  looks  up  MX  and A records for
     (Qmail only looks up A records).

       esmtproutes may contain comments, any  line  that  starts  with  the  #
       character is ignored. Also, wildcards are allowed: [],26

       This     specifies     that     any     address     of     the     form
       <> will be delivered to the mail server at
       this IP address, but on port 26.

       esmtproutes  is  read  from  top to bottom, stopping as soon as a first
       match is found.

       domain may be empty, this specifies a smarthost for  all  domains.  For
       example, if esmtproutes contains the following text:

       This   specifies   that   all   mail  to  is  rerouted  to  All  other  mail  is  routed  to  the  IP   address

       If  relay  is  empty, Courier interprets it as an explicit directive to
       use MX and A records from DNS. For example:

       This uses MX and A records for all messages to  All  other
       mail is rerouted to the IP address

       The optional /SECURITY=STARTTLS flag indicates that mail to this domain
       should be automatically upgraded to use the SECURITY  ESMTP  extension.
       See  the Courier installation notes for a description of SECURITY, what
       it does, and how to configure it.

       The /SECURITY=NONE flag prevents Courier from using the STARTTLS  ESMTP
       extension  even  if  the  remote server claims to support it.  Use this
       flag to deliver mail to misconfigured Microsoft  Exchange  relays  that
       claim  to  support  STARTTLS, but always report a failure to a STARTTLS

       Changes to this file take effect immediately, more  or  less.  Existing
       courieresmtp processes that already have an established connection will
       ignore any changes.

              This file contains one line of text that specifies  the  timeout
              for  an  SMTP  command.  The timeout is specified as an integral
              number, optionally followed by  m  -  minutes,  or  h  -  hours.
              Otherwise  it  is specified in seconds. This timeout is used for
              all SMTP commands, unless  the  SMTP  command  has  a  dedicated
              timeout  defined  by a different configuration file. The default
              timeout is ten minutes.

              This file contains one line of text that specifies  the  timeout
              for  an  SMTP  connection  attempt.   Most TCP/IP stacks wait an
              extraordinary long period of time for  SMTP  connections  to  go
              through.  This  configuration  setting limits the amount of time
              Courier waits for the SMTP connection to complete.  The  default
              timeout  is one minute. Set esmtptimeoutconnect to 0 in order to
              use whatever default timeout your TCP/IP stack uses.

              This file contains one line of text that specifies  the  timeout
              for transferring the message contents or individual replies. The
              default timeout is five minutes. You WILL HAVE TO bump  this  up
              if you’re on a slow link, and you want to send large messages. A
              28.8Kbps link can be optimistically expected to push 3,000 bytes
              per  second.  With a five minute cutoff, you will not be able to
              send or receive anything larger than about 870 Kb. You  have  no
              business sending or receiving 870 Kb messagesl, if all  you have
              is an analog 28.8Kbps connection.

              This file contains one line of text that specifies  the  timeout
              for  the  initial  EHLO  or HELO command. Courier will wait this
              amount of time to receive the initial greeting banner  from  the
              remote  SMTP  server, and a response to the subsequent EHLO/HELO
              command. The default value is 5 minutes.

              This file contains one line of text  that  specifies  how  often
              outbound SMTP sessions are kept idle after delivering a message.
              After Courier connects to  an  SMTP  server  and  completes  the
              attempt  to  deliver  the message, the SMTP session is kept idle
              for this time  interval  before  being  shut  down.  If  Courier
              receives  another  message  for  the  same  domain,  it  will be
              delivered  using  the  existing   SMTP   session,   instead   of
              establishing  a new one. Note that some SMTP servers have a very
              short idle timeout, Qmail’s is only  two  minutes.  The  default
              value is 60 seconds.

              Note that there’s also a separate limit to the maximum number of
              simultaneous SMTP sessions to the same domain.   That  limit  is
              currently four, which is adequate for nearly every situation, so
              for now it will be set by an undocumented configuration file.

              This file contains one line of text  that  specifies  how  often
              Courier will issue a useless RSET command when the connection is
              idle (see esmtptimeoutkeepalive). While  waiting  for  any  more
              messages   to   deliver   to   the   same  domain,  or  for  the
              esmtptimeoutkeepalive  interval  to  expire,  courieresmtp  will
              transmit  RSET  commands  at regular intervals specified by this
              configuration file. The default value is 0 seconds, which  turns
              off  the  keepalive ping altogether. This configuration settings
              must be for a shorter time interval  than  esmtptimeoutkeepalive
              for  it to make any sense. Note that other system administrators
              may consider this to be a very rude thing to do.  Also  keep  in
              mind  that this may generate quite a bit of idle traffic. If you
              have Courier configured for a maximum  number  of  200  outbound
              SMTP sessions and a 30 second esmtptimeoutkeepaliveping setting,
              then you can have as much as an average of  around  seven  pings
              every second!

              This  file  contains  one  line  of text that specifies how long
              Courier waits for the external SMTP server  to  acknowledge  the
              QUIT   command,  before  Courier  unilaterally  tears  down  the
              connection. The default value is 10  seconds.  This  must  be  a
              small  value  because  Courier  needs  to  be  able to shut down
              quickly, on very short notice.

              This  file  specifies  how  long  Courier  normally   tries   to
              repeatedly  resend  a  fax  message (if the courierfax module is
              enabled).   The  default  E-mail  message  retry  timeout   (the
              queuetime  setting)  is  one week, which is a reasonable timeout
              value for E-mail messages (taking into account downed  circuits,
              or  crashed  servers).   However,  it doesn’t make sense to keep
              trying to redeliver fax messages for a whole week.

              faxqueuetime specifies the timeout for fax messages.  This  time
              interval  is  specified  in  the  same  way  as  queuetime  (see
              queuetime for more information).

              This  file  specifies  which  mailbox  Courier  should   deliver
              received  faxes  (if  this  option  is  enabled).  See Courier’s
              installation notes for more information.

       faxrc  This file  configures  Courier’s  outbound  faxing  and  dialing
              parameters.   Consult  the  comments  in  the  default  file for
              additional information, and the courierfax(8)  manual  page  for
              more information.

              This  file  lists locally-hosted domains.  It is very similar in
              function to the locals control file.  Any address with a  domain
              listed  in  hosteddomains  is  considered to be a local address.
              The difference between hosteddomains and locals is that  domains
              listed   in   hosteddomains  are  not  removed  from  individual
              addresses before looking up the  location  of  their  mailboxes.
              For  example, if the domain "" appears in locals, the
              address will have removed, and then
              Courier will look for a local mailbox named "user".

              If  the  domain  "" appears in hosteddomains instead,
              Courier will look for a local mailbox  named  ""

              The  contents  of the hosteddomains configuration file is a list
              of domains, one per  line,  in  lowercase.   You  must  run  the
              makehosteddomains command for any changes to take effect.

              Additionally,  hosteddomains  can specify simple domain aliases.
              See the complete description in the makehosteddomains(8)  manual

              This  file  is used by the webmail server.  It contain a default
              systemwide list of accessible LDAP address books. A default file
              will  be  installed, listing some common Internet address books.
              Each line in this file contains the following information:


              "<tab>" is the ASCII tab character.

              This  file  is  used  by  the  courierldapaliasd  process.   See
              courierldapaliasd(8) for more information.

              If   this  file  exists,  Courier  will  not  distinguish  being
              lowercase and uppercase local accounts, so that
              and will refer to the same local mailbox (where
      is  your  domain).  Postmaster,   postmaster,   and
              POSTMASTER   always   refer   to   the  same  account,  even  if
              locallowercase does not exist.

              Note: If  locallowercase  exists  you  cannot  have  any  system
              accounts  that contain uppercase letters. locallowercase applies
              only to local mail.  Mail addressed  to  external  domains  will
              always have the case of the addresses preserved.

       locals This  file  contains  one or more lines of text, where each line
              contains  a  valid  mail  domain.  Any  E-mail  address  without
              @domain,  or  with  a domain that can be found in locals will be
              considered to be an address of a local mailbox. A domain can  be
              specified with a leading dot:


              This  is  called  a "wildcard". Any domain ending in,
              such as,, -  but  NOT
     - will be considered local.  Note that
              is  NOT  included  in  this  wildcard.   Both  ""  and
              "" should be listed.

              Specific hosts can be excluded from the wildcard.  Example:


      is  considered to be a local domain, except
              for  Note that "!"  must  appear
              in locals before the wildcard.

              The  "!hostname"  syntax is also valid in the esmtpacceptmailfor
              control file.

              If locals does not exist, Courier uses the contents  of  the  me
              control file (note that me specifies only one domain, second and
              subsequent lines are ignored).  Also, see hosteddomains.

              This  file  specifies  the  watchdog  timer   for   local   mail
              deliveries.   If a local mail delivery attempt does not complete
              in the proscribed time interval, the delivering  process  ID  is
              killed.   The  time interval in localtimeout is specified in the
              same way as queuetime (see queuetime for more information).

              If this file exists then the webmail login screen  will  have  a
              drop-down list whose contents will be read from this file.  This
              file should contain a list of E-mail domains, one per line.   It
              should be created if Courier’s webmail server is used to provide
              mail access  for  more  than  one  domain.   Instead  of  typing
              "user@domain"  to  log  in,  it  will only be necessary to enter
              "user", and select the domain from the drop-down list.  If  this
              file  does  not  exist it will be necessary to enter the full E-
              mail address into the webmail login screen.

              Enhanced login domain listing:

              The enhanced logindomainlist makes  it  possible  to  specify  a
              separate  list  of  domain  for  each virtual web site, and more
              control over the defaults.

              What  if  you  don’t  want  to  display  a   drop   down   menu?
              Administrators  can  now  specify records that generate a hidden
              field  in  login.html,  or  an  editable  text  field,  allowing
              sqwebmail  to  show  only one mail login domain to each user per
              access URL or IP address. This functionality can greatly  reduce
              confusion  for  first  time webmail users, and greatly speed the
              login process for frequent webmail users.

              Finally, the new logindomainlist file offers a new tool to  ease
              maintenance.  Administrators  can now use wildcards to "rewrite"
              the domain  portion  of  the  access  URL  to  the  mail  domain
              equivalent.  For  example,  the following record can rewrite the
              URL "mail.*.com" to the mail domain "*.com"


              This powerful wildcard functionality can ease the login  process
              for  most  of  your  server’s  mail domains with just one or two
              logindomainlist records.

                     File Format
                             Let’s take a look at the NEW logindomainlist file


                             Above,  we  can  see that the new logindomainlist
                             records are made up of three fields delimited  by
                             colons. But what does each field do?

                             First  Field - the first field contains the "mail
                             domain" for which we would like the user  to  log
                             in under. The mail domain is the part of an email
                             address after the @ symbol. For example,  in  the
                             email  address "", "" is
                             the mail domain.

                             Second Field -  the  second  field  contains  the
                             "access  domain".   The access domain contains an
                             URL or IP address that  is  used  to  figure  out
                             which mail domain to use by default. For example,
                             in the following logindomainlist record:


                             ""  is   the   "access   domain"   and
                             ""  is  the "mail domain". If the user
                             logs into the following URL:


                             His default "mail domain" will be  "".

                             Third  Field  -  the  third  field  may contain a
                             modifier. The modifier may  be  either  a  single
                             character  modifier,  or  a  group identification
                             string. The single character  modifiers  and  the
                             group modifier are described in detail below.

                             Finally,   the   logindomainlist  file  may  also
                             contain comments and empty lines. Empty lines can
                             be  used  to group records visually, and comments
                             can be used to explain why a  certain  record  or
                             group of records look the way they do.

                             If  the  first character of a line is a ’#’, then
                             the entire line is considered a  comment  and  is
                             ignored.   If  the  first  character  of  a  line
                             contains whitespace, the entire line  is  assumed
                             to be an empty line and is ignored.

                             @  -  the  ’@’  modifier  can be used to create a
                             hidden  field  on  the  login.html   page   which
                             contains  the  default  mail domain. In addition,
                             this field will automatically display the default
                             mail  domain  in  plain  text to the right of the
                             userid text box.

                             Note:  The  ’@’  modifier  ALLOWS  the   use   of
                             wildcards  to  automate  the relationship between
                             "access domains"  and  "mail  domains".  See  the
                             heading  "Wildcards"  below  for more information
                             about wildcarding.

                     - - the ’-’ modifier can be used to  create  an  editable
                     text  field  on  the  login.html  page which contains the
                     default mail domain.

                             Note:  The  ’-’  modifier  ALLOWS  the   use   of
                             wildcards  to  automate  the relationship between
                             "access domains"  and  "mail  domains".  See  the
                             heading  "Wildcards"  below  for more information
                             about wildcarding.

                     group string - If no modifier is specified in  the  third
                     field,  or  if  the  third  field  modifier  is  a  group
                     identifier  string,  then  a  drop  down  menu  will   be
                     displayed  on the login.html page.  Records with the SAME
                     group string will be displayed together in the drop down.
                     For  example,  if  your logindomainlist file contains the
                     following records:


                     And the user logs into sqwebmail with the following URL:


                     He will see a drop down  containing  ONLY  the  following


                     ""   will   be   automatically   selected,  or
                     defaulted.  Only the records in the  firstgroup  will  be
                     visible  to  the  user.   This functionality is great for
                     organizations with more than one mail domain.

                             Note: The group string modifier  does  NOT  allow
                             the use of wildcards to automate the relationship
                             between "access domains" and "mail domains". This
                             is  because  drop  down  menus  are fundamentally
                             incompatible with wildcards.

                             If a record’s modifier  allows  wildcarding  (See
                             "Modifiers"  above  for  information  about which
                             modifiers allow wildcarding and  which  do  not.)
                             then  the  first and second fields of that record
                             _MAY_ contain wildcards.  Wildcards match against
                             the  HTTP_HOST  CGI environment variable only. IP
                             addresses can NOT be used if either the first  or
                             second  fields  contain  the  wildcard character.
                             However, if neither the first nor  second  fields
                             contain  the  wildcard character, then the second
                             field can contain an IP address.

                             In the  logindomainlist  file,  an  asterisk  (*)
                             character in either the first and/or second field
                             represents a wildcard. Any asterisk in the second
                             field  will be used to match an access domain. If
                             an asterisk exists in the first  field  then  any
                             characters which the asterisk in the second field
                             represents will replace the asterisk in the first
                             field  when sqwebmail determines the default mail
                             domain. However, asterisks are  not  required  in
                             either  the  first  or  second  fields.  They are
                             totally  optional.   For   example,   given   the
                             following logindomainlist record:


                             If   the   user  logs  into  sqwebmail  with  the
                             following URL:


                             The asterisk in the second field  will  represent
                             the  string  "mydomain".  This  string  will then
                             replace the asterisk in the first field  to  give
                             the following default mail domain:

                             Similarly,  if the following record exists in the
                             logindomainlist file:


                             Then ANY URL the user uses  to  access  sqwebmail
                             will  be  automatically used for the default mail

                             But the first field doesn’t _HAVE_ to contain  an
                             asterisk. The following will work just fine:


                             The  above  example will allow the user to access
                             the "" mail domain from  any  of  the
                             following  URLs:  "", "",
                             "", etc...

                             And finally, the  first  field  doesn’t  have  to
                             contain  anything  at  all! If the first field is
                             empty, that record will serve as an explicit  no-
                             default  mail domain. No default mail domain will
                             be specified if  the  second  field  matches  the
                             user’s  login  URL.  This  is  useful because the
                             logindomainlist is searched from  the  top  down.
                             Any  wildcard  records  at the bottom of the list
                             will be overridden by records closer to the  top.
                             An  "explicit  no-default"  record can be used to
                             specify  certain  domains  as  "system   account"
                             domains   so  that  no  default  mail  domain  is

              This  file,  if  exists,  sets  the  global  defaults  for  mail
              filtering  in  the webmail server. Mail filtering in the webmail
              server  is  a  subject  worthy  of  special  mention.   A   full
              description  of  how to install and configure webmail-based mail
              filtering is included in the  installation  notes  for  Courier.
              Refer   to   the   installlation   instructions  for  additional

              This file, if exists, specifies the location of shared  maildirs
              for the webmail and IMAP server.  Normally, each mailbox must be
              separately configured to access every  shared  maildir,  by  the
              maildirmake(1)  command.  This file allows shared maildirs to be
              set globally for everyone. Everyone’s webmail  and  IMAP  server
              will  pick  up  the shared maildirs specified in this file.  See
              maildirmake(1) for more information.

              This file contains one line whose contents is a pathname to  the
              maildrop(1)  mail  delivery  agent.  If  Courier  knows that the
              delivery agent used to delivery mail locally is maildrop(1) then
              certain  delivery optimizations are possible. This configuration
              file does NOT actually specify that maildrop(1) should  be  used
              as  a  local  mail  delivery  agent,  it  only  specifies  where
              maildrop(1)  is  installed.  The  default  local  mail  delivery
              instructions  are  specified in the courierd configuration file.
              If  the  specified  delivery  instruction  specify  running   an
              external  program  whose  pathname  matches the one specified by
              this configuration file, Courier assumes that it’s  maildrop(1),
              and   will   use  maildrop-specific  options  to  optimize  mail

              This configuration file is initialized, by default, to point  to
              the  version  of maildrop(1) that’s integrated with Courier. The
              integrated  version  of  maildrop(1)  is   configured   slightly
              differently than the standalone version of maildrop(1).

              Although you can set the maildrop configuration file to point to
              some other version of the maildrop mail filter, you MUST set the
              maildropfilter  configuration  file (see below), to point to the
              integrated version of maildrop.

              This file contains one line whose contents is a pathname to  the
              maildrop(1)  mail  delivery  filter.  In  addition  to  being  a
              delivery agent, maildrop can also be used as  a  mail  filtering
              engine.   If  this  file  exists,  Courier  will  be  capable of
              invoking recipient-specified mail  filters  when  a  message  is
              received.  If  the  mail  filtering  rules  reject  the message,
              Courier will not accept the message  for  delivery.  This  means
              that  when  receiving  mail  via  ESMTP, Courier will reject the
              ESMTP transaction without even accepting the  message  from  the
              remote mail server.

              This  file  is  not  installed  by  default.  To  activate  mail
              filtering for local recipients, simply copy the contents of  the
              maildrop configuration file to maildropfilter.

              This  file  contains  systemwide mail filtering instructions for
              maildrop(1) deliveries.  This configuration  file  is  optional,
              and  is  used by maildrop(1) when it is invoked as a traditional
              post-delivery  mail  filter.   See  maildropfilter(6)  for  more

       me     This  file  contains  one line whose contents is a valid machine
              name. When a single installation of Courier  is  shared  over  a
              network,  each machine that’s running Courier must have a unique
              me file. If me is  missing,  Courier  uses  the  result  of  the
              gethostname() system call.

              Warning:  If you change the contents of this configuration file,
              you must run the makealiases command again, else your mail  will
              promptly  begin to bounce.  If you don’t have this configuration
              file defined, and you change the system’s network host name, you
              also must run makealiases.

              If  a  message  does  not have a Message-ID: header, Courier may
              decide to create one. The host portion of the new header will be
              set  to  the  contents  of msgidhost, which contains one line of
              text. If msgidhost does not exist, me will be used in its place.
              Changes to this file take effect immediately.

              Courier’s  webmail  server lets the contents of the From: header
              be set for mailed messages. If this configuration  file  exists,
              the ability to set the contents of the From: header is disabled.

       queuelo, queuehi, queuefill
              These  configuration  settings   tune   Courier’s   mail   queue
              processing.   Courier  does  not  load  the  entire  mail  queue
              metadata in memory.  queuelo contains a  number  that  specifies
              the  queue  ‘‘low watermark’’ message count.  queuehi contains a
              number that  specifies  the  queue  ‘‘high  watermark’’  message
              count.  queuefill specifies a time interval, ‘‘queue refill’’ in
              seconds.  The number in queuefill may optionally be followed  by
              "m", indicating that the queue refill is specified in minutes.

              queuehi specifies the maximum number of messages that are loaded
              into memory.  Courier reads the mail queue on disk until  either
              it reads all of it, or it reads the number of messages specified
              by queuehi.  As messages are delivered they are removed from the
              memory  and  disk.   Messages  that  are  deferred  for  another
              delivery attempt are removed from memory, but kept on the  disk.

              When  the  number  of  messages  in  memory falls below queuelo,
              Courier goes back to disk and attempts to fill the memory  queue
              to the top, again.

              This  is,  basically,  a  capsule  summary  of  the  mail  queue
              processing logic.  Many small, low level  details  are  omitted;
              this  is  just  an executive overview.  When new messages arrive
              during a large mail backlog, the new messages  are  also  loaded
              into  the  memory  queue,  if there’s room for them.  Therefore,
              during a large mail  backlog  Courier  simultaneously  tries  to
              clear the existing backlog, and process any new mail at the same
              time.  Up to Courier 0.41, all of this generally  translates  to
              Courier  giving  priority  to newly arrived mail, and processing
              the backed up mail queue if spare resources are available.

              The queuefill setting was added in Courier 0.42, in  an  attempt
              to  keep new mail from excessively delaying existing mail during
              a major queue backup.   queuefill  specifies  a  time  interval.
              When  Courier completely fills the memory queue it sets a timer.
              After the interval given by queuefill Courier will go  back  and
              re-fill  the  mail  queue even if the number of messages did not
              fall below the low watermark.  If Courier finds  older  messages
              in  the  mail  queue  they  will  be  pushed  to  the top of the
              scheduling queue, and given priority.

              Smaller queuefill time intervals means more  frequent  trips  to
              the  disk, and more overhead.  But, in exchange for that, during
              a mail backlog Courier will spend more time handling  a  greater
              number  of  delayed  messages.   Larger queuefill time intervals
              means less frequent trips to the disk,  and  less  overhead,  in
              exchange for less "fairness" during large mail backlogs.

              queuefill   defaults   to   five   minutes,  if  not  specified.
              Explicitly setting it to 0  seconds  turns  off  the  queue  re-
              filling  completely, essentially reverting to pre-0.42 behavior.
              The default queuelo and queuehi values are computed at run time.
              queuelo  defaults  to  the  larger  of 200, and the sum total of
              configured mail delivery slots, both local and remote.  queuehi,
              if  not  explicitly  set,  defaults  to the smaller of twice the
              queuelo, or queuelo plus 1000.

              This  file  specifies  how  long  Courier  normally   tries   to
              repeatedly  deliver a message, before giving up and returning it
              as  undeliverable.   Messages  are   immediately   returned   as
              undeliverable  when  a permanent failure is encountered (such as
              the recipient address not being valid).  Attempts to deliver the
              message  when there’s a temporary, transient, error (such as the
              network being down) will be repeatedly made for the duration  of
              time  specified by this configuration file. This file contains a
              number followed by the letter ’w’ for weeks, or ’d’ for days. It
              is  also  possible to use ’h’ for hours, ’m’ for minutes, or ’s’
              for  seconds.  Only  integers   are   allowed,   fractions   are
              prohibited.  However, you can use ’1w2d’ to specify one week and
              two days.  If  queuetime  is  missing,  Courier  makes  repeated
              delivery attempts for one week.

       retryalpha, retrybeta, retrygamma, retrydelta
              These  control  files  specify  the  schedule with which Courier
              tries to deliver each message that has a  temporary,  transient,
              delivery  failure.   retryalpha  and  retrygamma  contain a time
              interval, specified in the same way as queuetime. retrybeta  and
              retrymaxdelta contain small integral numbers only.

              Courier will first make retrybeta delivery attempts, waiting for
              the time interval specified by retryalpha between each  attempt.
              Then,  Courier  waits  for  the  amount  of  time  specified  by
              retrygamma, then Courier will make  another  retrybeta  delivery
              attempts,   retryalpha   amount   of   time   apart.   If  still
              undeliverable, Courier waits retrygamma*2 amount of time  before
              another  retrybeta  delivery attempts, with retryalpha amount of
              time apart. The next delay will be retrygamma*4 amount  of  time
              long,  the next one retrygamma*8, and so on.  retrymaxdelta sets
              the upper limit on the exponential backoff.  Eventually  Courier
              will  keep  waiting  retrygamma*(2^retrymaxdelta) amount of time
              before making retrybeta delivery attempts retryalpha  amount  of
              time apart, until the queuetime interval expires.

              The default values are:

                     Five minutes

                     Three times

                     Fifteen minutes


       This  results  in  Courier  delivering  each  message  according to the
       following schedule, in minutes: 5, 5, 5, 15, 5, 5, 30, 5, 5, 60, 5,  5,
       then repeating 120, 5, 5, until the message expires.

              Maximum  size of the message, in bytes, that Courier accepts for
              delivery.  Courier rejects larger messages. If sizelimit is  set
              to  zero,  Courier  accepts  as  large message as available disk
              space permits. If the environment variable SIZELIMIT is  set  at
              the  time  a  new  message  is received, it takes precedence and
              Courier uses the contents of the environment  variable  instead.
              Changes  to  this  file  take effect immediately.  The SIZELIMIT
              environment variable is for use by  individual  mail  submission
              agents.    For   example,  it  can  be  set  by  the  smtpaccess
              configuration file (see makesmtpaccess(8) for more  information)
              for mail from certain IP addresses.

              If  sizelimit  does  not  exist,  and  SIZELIMIT is not set, the
              maximum message size defaults to 10485760 bytes.

              submitdelay  specifies  the  delay  before  the  first  delivery
              attempt for a message that has been entered into the mail queue.
              Normally,  the  first  delivery  attempt  is  made  as  soon  as
              possible.  This  setting delays the initial delivery attempt. It
              is normally used when you have  a  mail  filter  installed  that
              detects  duplicate  messages arriving in a short period of time.
              If the mail  filter  detects  this  situation  it  can  use  the
              cancelmsg(1)  command  to reject duplicate messages in the queue
              (and return them back to the envelope sender).

              submitdelay specifies a time interval  in  the  same  format  as

              If this configuration file exists, Courier’s webmail server will
              set the X-Sender: header on all outgoing  messages.  This  is  a
              good  idea  if  the  webmail  server  allows the user to set the
              contents of the From: header.  Note  that  Courier  records  the
              system  userid of the sender in all locally-sent messages (which
              includes messages  mailed  by  the  webmail  server),  which  is
              sufficient  in  most cases. In cases where you have many virtual
              accounts that share the same system userid,  this  configuration
              file  provides  a  way  to positively identify the sender of the
              outgoing message.

       uucpme uucpme sets the UUCP nodename of the Courier  mail  relay.   See
              courieruucp(8) for more information.

              uucpneighbors  is  used  by  the  courieruucp  module to specify
              Courier’s  configuration  for  relaying  mail  via  UUCP.    See
              courieruucp(8) for more information.

              If  this  file  exists,  headers  of  messages sent to/from UUCP
              addresses  will  be  rewritten.   Normally,  only  the   message
              envelope  sender  and recipients are rewritten, the existence of
              this file causes the headers to be rewritten as well.

              warntime specifies an amount of  time  in  the  same  format  as
              queuetime.  If a message still has not been delivered after this
              period of time, Courier sends a  warning  message  (a  "delayed"
              Delivery  Status  Notification)  to  the  sender. If warntime is
              missing, Courier sets warntime to four hours.

              Note:  The  time  interval  specified  by   warntime   is   only
              approximate.   Courier   sends   a   delayed   Delivery   Status
              Notification at the conclusion of the first  attempted  delivery
              after warntime has elapsed.

       HTML  output  from  the  webmail  server is generated from the template
       files in  /usr/lib/courier/sqwebmail/html/en-us.   It  is  possible  to
       translate  the  webmail  interface  into  another  language  simply  by
       creating           another           subdirectory            underneath
       /usr/lib/courier/sqwebmail/html,  then  meticulously  translating  each
       .html file.  Each template file contains well-formed HTML, with dynamic
       content marked off by tags.  Note that the large comment blocks in each
       HTML file need to be translated too, since they are inserted as dynamic
       content, elsewhere.

       The   directory   /usr/lib/courier/sqwebmail/html/en-us  also  contains
       several configuration files, in addition to the  HTML  template  files.
       Doing  so  allows this configuration information to be defined for each
       available language.

              This file consists of a single line of  text,  which  names  the
              character  set  used by the HTML template files.  It is possible
              to specify multiple  character  set,  by  separating  them  with
              commas,  provided  that  HTML  templates  use  only  the  common
              portions of all listed character set.

              The default English HTML templates use strictly the ‘‘us-ascii’’
              subset,   and   the  CHARSET  contains  utf-8,iso-8859-1.   When
              multiple character sets are  listed,  the  first  character  set
              that’s supported by the browser is picked, so with UTF-8 capable
              browsers the default webmail interface will use  UTF-8,  falling
              back to ISO-8859-1 for browsers that do not support UTF-8.

       footer The  contents  of  this  file, if it exists, are appended to all
              messages sent by the webmail server.

              This file consists of a single line of text, which contains  the
              name of the dictionary used for spell-checking.  It is passed as
              an argument to ispell, or aspell.

              This file consists of a single line of text, which should always
              be the same as the name of its directory (en-us).

              This file is not needed at runtime, its contents are used during
              installation.   See  webmail/html/README_LANG  in   the   source
              distribution for more information.

       LOCALE The corresponding C locale for these templates.

              This  file  lists  the  available timezones on the login screen.
              See the comments in this file for more information.


       Flushing a single message will not work if the message queue is  backed
       up.   When  that  happens,  your  only available option is to flush the
       entire queue.

       courier start fails if Courier has detected a fatal operational  error.
       In  this  situation  the top-level courierd daemon sleeps for a minute,
       before automatically restarting. During  this  sleep  interval  courier
       stop does not work.


       cancelmsg(1),  maildirmake(1),  maildrop(1),  preline(1),  sendmail(1),
       testmxlookup(1),     dot-courier(5),     authlib(7),     courierfax(8),
       courierfilter(8),  filterctl(8), courierldapaliasd(8), courierpop3d(8),
       courierpop3d(8), couriertcpd(8), courieruucp(8),  esmtpd(8),  imapd(8),
       localmailfilter(7),   mailq(1),  makeacceptmailfor(8),  makealiases(8),
       makehosteddomains(8),      makepercentrelay(8),      makesmtpaccess(8),
       makeuserdb(8), pw2userdb(8), mkesmtpdcert(8), mkimapdcert(8), pop3d(8),
       submit(8), userdb(8).