Provided by: bind9_9.3.2-2ubuntu1_i386 bug


       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool


       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-e end-time]
                       [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-k key] [-l domain]
                       [-i interval] [-n nthreads] [-o origin] [-p]
                       [-r randomdev] [-s start-time] [-t] [-v level] [-z]
                       {zonefile} [key...]


       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of
       delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are
       secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
       file for each child zone.


       -a     Verify all generated signatures.

       -c class
              Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -k key Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
              This option may be specified multiple times.

       -l domain
              Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets.
              The domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -d directory
              Look for keyset files in directory as the directory

       -g     Generate DS records for child zones from keyset files. Existing
              DS records will be removed.

       -s start-time
              Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
              become valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time.
              An absolute start time is indicated by a number in
              YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on
              May 30th, 2000. A relative start time is indicated by +N, which
              is N seconds from the current time. If no start-time is
              specified, the current time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock
              skew) is used.

       -e end-time
              Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
              expire. As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in
              YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time relative to the start time is
              indicated with +N, which is N seconds from the start time. A
              time relative to the current time is indicated with now+N. If no
              end-time is specified, 30 days from the start time is used as a

       -f output-file
              The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The
              default is to append .signed to the input file.

       -h     Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -i interval
              When a previously signed zone is passed as input, records may be
              resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
              offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record
              expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it
              is considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

              The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference
              between the signature end and start times. So if neither
              end-time or start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates
              signatures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of
              7.5 days. Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to
              expire in less than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.

       -n ncpus
              Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread
              is started for each detected CPU.

       -o origin
              The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
              assumed to be the origin.

       -p     Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster,
              but less secure, than using real random data. This option may be
              useful when signing large zones or when the entropy source is

       -r randomdev
              Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
              not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default
              source of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the
              name of a character device or file containing random data to be
              used instead of the default. The special value keyboard
              indicates that keyboard input should be used.

       -t     Print statistics at completion.

       -v level
              Sets the debugging level.

       -z     Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.

              The file containing the zone to be signed.

       key    The keys used to sign the zone. If no keys are specified, the
              default all zone keys that have private key files in the current


       The following command signs the zone with the DSA key
       generated in the dnssec-keygen man page. The zone’s keys must be in the
       zone. If there are keyset files associated with child zones, they must
       be in the current directory., the following command would
       be issued:

       dnssec-signzone -o

       The command would print a string of the form:

       In this example, dnssec-signzone creates the file This file should be referenced in a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.


       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2535.


       Internet Systems Consortium