Provided by: e2fsprogs_1.38-2ubuntu2_i386 bug


       e2fsck - check a Linux ext2/ext3 file system


       e2fsck [ -pacnyrdfkvstDFSV ] [ -b superblock ] [ -B blocksize ] [ -l|-L
       bad_blocks_file  ]  [  -C  fd  ]  [  -j   external-journal   ]   [   -E
       extended_options ] device


       e2fsck  is  used to check a Linux second extended file system (ext2fs).
       E2fsck also supports ext2 filesystems containing a journal,  which  are
       also sometimes known as ext3 filesystems, by first applying the journal
       to the filesystem before  continuing  with  normal  e2fsck  processing.
       After  the  journal  has  been  applied,  a filesystem will normally be
       marked as clean.  Hence, for ext3 filesystems, e2fsck will normally run
       the  journal  and  exit,  unless  its superblock indicates that further
       checking is required.

       device is  the  device  file  where  the  filesystem  is  stored  (e.g.

       Note  that  in  general  it  is  not  safe  to  run  e2fsck  on mounted
       filesystems.  The only exception is if the -n option is specified,  and
       -c,  -l, or -L options are not specified.   However, even if it is safe
       to do so, the results printed by e2fsck are not valid if the filesystem
       is  mounted.    If  e2fsck  asks  whether  or  not  you  should check a
       filesystem which is mounted, the only correct answer is  ‘‘no’’.   Only
       experts  who  really know what they are doing should consider answering
       this question in any other way.


       -a     This option does the  same  thing  as  the  -p  option.   It  is
              provided  for backwards compatibility only; it is suggested that
              people use -p option whenever possible.

       -b superblock
              Instead of using  the  normal  superblock,  use  an  alternative
              superblock  specified  by  superblock.   This option is normally
              used when  the  primary  superblock  has  been  corrupted.   The
              location   of   the   backup  superblock  is  dependent  on  the
              filesystem’s blocksize.  For filesystems with 1k  blocksizes,  a
              backup  superblock  can  be found at block 8193; for filesystems
              with 2k blocksizes, at block 16384; and for  4k  blocksizes,  at
              block 32768.

              Additional  backup  superblocks  can  be determined by using the
              mke2fs program using the  -n  option  to  print  out  where  the
              superblocks  were  created.    The  -b  option  to mke2fs, which
              specifies blocksize of the filesystem must be specified in order
              for  the  superblock  locations  that  are  printed  out  to  be

              If an alternative superblock is specified and the filesystem  is
              not  opened  read-only,  e2fsck  will make sure that the primary
              superblock is  updated  appropriately  upon  completion  of  the
              filesystem check.

       -B blocksize
              Normally,  e2fsck  will  search  for  the  superblock at various
              different block sizes in an  attempt  to  find  the  appropriate
              block  size.   This  search  can  be fooled in some cases.  This
              option forces e2fsck to only try locating the  superblock  at  a
              particular  blocksize.   If  the superblock is not found, e2fsck
              will terminate with a fatal error.

       -c     This option causes e2fsck to run  the  badblocks(8)  program  to
              find  any blocks which are bad on the filesystem, and then marks
              them as bad by adding them to the  bad  block  inode.   If  this
              option  is specified twice, then the bad block scan will be done
              using a non-destructive read-write test.

       -C fd  This option causes e2fsck to write completion information to the
              specified file descriptor so that the progress of the filesystem
              check can be  monitored.   This  option  is  typically  used  by
              programs  which  are  running  e2fsck.   If  the file descriptor
              specified is 0, e2fsck will print a completion bar  as  it  goes
              about  its  business.  This requires that e2fsck is running on a
              video console or terminal.

       -d     Print  debugging  output  (useless  unless  you  are   debugging

       -D     Optimize  directories  in filesystem.  This option causes e2fsck
              to try to optimize all directories, either by reindexing them if
              the  filesystem  supports directory indexing,  or by sorting and
              compressing  directories  for  smaller   directories,   or   for
              filesystems using traditional linear directories.

       -E extended_options
              Set   e2fsck  extended  options.   Extended  options  are  comma
              separated, and may take an argument using the equals (’=’) sign.
              The following options are supported:

                          Assume  the  format of the extended attribute blocks
                          in the filesystem is the specified  version  number.
                          The  version  number  may  be  1  or 2.  The default
                          extended attribute version format is 2.

       -f     Force checking even if the file system seems clean.

       -F     Flush the filesystem device’s buffer  caches  before  beginning.
              Only really useful for doing e2fsck time trials.

       -j external-journal
              Set  the pathname where the external-journal for this filesystem
              can be found.

       -k     When combined with the -c option, any existing bad blocks in the
              bad  blocks  list are preserved, and any new bad blocks found by
              running badblocks(8) will be added to the  existing  bad  blocks

       -l filename
              Add  the  block numbers listed in the file specified by filename
              to the list of bad blocks.  The format of this file is the  same
              as the one generated by the badblocks(8) program.  Note that the
              block numbers are based on  the  blocksize  of  the  filesystem.
              Hence,   badblocks(8)   must  be  given  the  blocksize  of  the
              filesystem in order to obtain correct results.  As a result,  it
              is  much simpler and safer to use the -c option to e2fsck, since
              it will assure that the correct parameters  are  passed  to  the
              badblocks program.

       -L filename
              Set  the  bad  blocks list to be the list of blocks specified by
              filename.  (This option is the same as the -l option, except the
              bad  blocks list is cleared before the blocks listed in the file
              are added to the bad blocks list.)

       -n     Open the filesystem read-only, and assume an answer of  ‘no’  to
              all  questions.   Allows  e2fsck  to  be used non-interactively.
              (Note: if the -c, -l, or -L options are specified in addition to
              the -n option, then the filesystem will be opened read-write, to
              permit the bad-blocks list to be  updated.   However,  no  other
              changes will be made to the filesystem.)

       -p     Automatically  repair  ("preen")  the  file  system  without any

       -r     This option does  nothing  at  all;  it  is  provided  only  for
              backwards compatibility.

       -s     This  option  will  byte-swap the filesystem so that it is using
              the normalized, standard byte-order (which  is  i386  or  little
              endian).   If  the  filesystem  is already in the standard byte-
              order, e2fsck will take no action.

       -S     This option will byte-swap the  filesystem,  regardless  of  its
              current byte-order.

       -t     Print  timing  statistics  for  e2fsck.   If this option is used
              twice, additional timing statistics are printed  on  a  pass  by
              pass basis.

       -v     Verbose mode.

       -V     Print version information and exit.

       -y     Assume  an answer of ‘yes’ to all questions; allows e2fsck to be
              used non-interactively.


       The  exit  code  returned  by  e2fsck  is  the  sum  of  the  following
            0    - No errors
            1    - File system errors corrected
            2    - File system errors corrected, system should
                   be rebooted
            4    - File system errors left uncorrected
            8    - Operational error
            16   - Usage or syntax error
            32   - E2fsck canceled by user request
            128  - Shared library error


       The following signals have the following effect when sent to e2fsck.

              This  signal causes e2fsck to start displaying a completion bar.
              (See discussion of the -C option.)

              This signal causes e2fsck to stop displaying a completion bar.


       Almost any piece of software will have bugs.  If you manage to  find  a
       filesystem  which  causes e2fsck to crash, or which e2fsck is unable to
       repair, please report it to the author.

       Please include as much information as  possible  in  your  bug  report.
       Ideally,  include a complete transcript of the e2fsck run, so I can see
       exactly what error messages are displayed.   (Make  sure  the  messages
       printed by e2fsck are in English; if your system has been configured so
       that e2fsck’s messages have  been  translated  into  another  language,
       please  set  the  the  LC_ALL  environment  variable  to  C so that the
       transcript of e2fsck’s output will be useful to me.)   If  you  have  a
       writable  filesystem  where the transcript can be stored, the script(1)
       program is a handy way to save the output of e2fsck to a file.

       It is also useful to send the output of  dumpe2fs(8).   If  a  specific
       inode  or  inodes  seems  to  be giving e2fsck trouble, try running the
       debugfs(8) command and send the output of the stat(1u) command  run  on
       the  relevant  inode(s).  If the inode is a directory, the debugfs dump
       command will allow you to extract the contents of the directory  inode,
       which  can  sent  to me after being first run through uuencode(1).  The
       most useful data you can send to help reproduce the bug is a compressed
       raw  image  dump of the filesyste, generated using e2image(8).  See the
       e2image(8) man page for more details.

       Always include the full version string which e2fsck displays when it is
       run, so I know which version you are running.


       This version of e2fsck was written by Theodore Ts’o <>.


       mke2fs(8), tune2fs(8), dumpe2fs(8), debugfs(8), e2image(8)