Provided by: lsof_4.76.dfsg.1-1_i386 bug

NAME

       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS

       lsof  [  -?abChlnNOPRstUvVX  ]  [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [
       +|-D D ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k  ]  [
       +|-L  [l]  ]  [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t] ] [ -S
       [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x [fl] ]  [  -z  [z]  ]  [  --  ]
       [names]

DESCRIPTION

       Lsof  revision  4.76  lists information about files opened by processes
       for the following UNIX dialects:

            AIX 5.[123]
            Apple Darwin 7.x and 8.x for Power Macintosh systems
            BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [67].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [67].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00, 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[01234567] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,  a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
       socket.)  A specific file or all the files in  a  file  system  may  be
       selected by path.

       Instead  of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the  -F,  option  description,  and  the
       OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
       mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r [t] option description for more information.

OPTIONS

       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any  list  request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files,  NFS  files  won’t  be  listed  unless  -N is also
       specified; or if a user list is specified  with  the  -u  option,  UNIX
       domain  socket  files,  belonging  to  users  not in the list, won’t be
       listed unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated  are  ORed  -  i.e.,
       specifying  the  -i  option  without  an  address  and the -ufoo option
       produces a listing of all network files OR files belonging to processes
       owned  by  user  ‘‘foo’’.   Three  exceptions are: 1) the ‘^’ (negated)
       login name or user ID (UID), specified with the -u option; 2)  the  ‘^’
       (negated)  process  ID  (PID), specified with the -p option; and 3) the
       ‘^’ (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified with  the  -g  option.
       Since  they  represent  exclusions,  they  are applied without ORing or
       ANDing and take effect before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The  -a  option  may  be  used  to  AND  the  selections.  For example,
       specifying -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing  of  only  UNIX  socket
       files that belong to processes owned by user ‘‘foo’’.

       Caution:  the  -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
       it can’t be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by  placing  it  between  them,  even  though  its  placement  there is
       acceptable.  Wherever -a  is  placed,  it  causes  the  ANDing  of  all
       selection options.

       Items  of  the  same  selection  set - command names, file descriptors,
       network addresses, process identifiers, user identifiers, zone names  -
       are  joined  in  a  single  ORed  set  and  applied  before  the result
       participates in ANDing.   Thus,  for  example,  specifying  -i@aaa.bbb,
       -i@ccc.ddd,  -a,  and  -ufff,ggg  will select the listing of files that
       belong to either login ‘‘fff’’ OR ‘‘ggg’’ AND have network  connections
       to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options  may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the
       option set ‘‘-a -b -C’’ may be stated as -abC.  However,  since  values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -S, -T, -x and
       -z.  when you have no values for them be  careful  that  the  following
       character isn’t ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent  the  n  field  identifier  character
       following  the  -F  option.   When  ambiguity  is possible, start a new
       option with a ‘-’ character - e.g., ‘‘-F -n’’.  If the next option is a
       file  name,  follow  the  possibly ambiguous option with ‘‘--’’ - e.g.,
       ‘‘-F -- name’’.

       Either the ‘+’ or the ‘-’ prefix may be applied to a group of  options.
       Options that don’t take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ‘‘+M -i’’ may
       be  stated  as  ‘‘+Mi’’  and  the  group means the same as the separate
       options.  Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group  does  take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g.,
       +|-M; ‘‘-iM’’ is not the same request as ‘‘-i +M’’.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These  two  equivalent  options  select  a usage (help) output
                list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output  when  it
                detects  an  error in the options supplied to it, after it has
                displayed messages explaining each  error.   (Escape  the  ‘?’
                character as your shell requires.)

       -a       This  option  causes  list  selection  options to be ANDed, as
                described above.

       -A A     This option is available on systems configured for  AFS  whose
                AFS kernel code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows
                the lsof user to specify A as  an  alternate  name  list  file
                where  the  kernel  addresses  of the dynamic modules might be
                found.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                for more information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and
                how they affect lsof.

       -b       This option causes lsof to avoid kernel functions  that  might
                block - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

                See  the  BLOCKS  AND  TIMEOUTS  and  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS
                sections for information on using this option.

       -c c     This  option  selects  the  listing  of  files  for  processes
                executing  the  command  that begins with the characters of c.
                Multiple commands may be specified, using multiple -c options.
                They  are  joined in a single ORed set before participating in
                AND option selection.

                If c begins and  ends  with  a  slash  (’/’),  the  characters
                between  the  slashes  is interpreted as a regular expression.
                Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
                to  prevent  their  interpretation  by the shell.  The closing
                slash may be followed by these modifiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

                The  simple  command  specification  is tested first.  If that
                test fails, the command regular expression is applied.  If the
                simple  command  test succeeds, the command regular expression
                test isn’t made.  This may result in ‘‘no  command  found  for
                regex:’’ messages when lsof’s -V option is specified.

       +c w     This  option  defines the maximum number of initial characters
                of the name, supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command
                associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.
                (The lsof default is nine.)

                Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply  all  command  name
                characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
                obtains command name.  Often  dialects  limit  the  number  of
                characters  supplied  in  those  sources.   For example, Linux
                2.4.27 and Solaris 9 both limit  command  name  length  to  16
                characters.

                If w is zero (’0’), all command characters supplied to lsof by
                the UNIX dialect will be printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ‘‘COMMAND’’,
                it will be raised to that length.

       -C       This option disables the reporting of any path name components
                from the kernel’s name  cache.   See  the  KERNEL  NAME  CACHE
                section for more information.

       +d s     This  option  causes  lsof to search for all open instances of
                directory s and the files and directories it contains  at  its
                top  level.   This option does NOT descend the directory tree,
                rooted at s.  The +D  D  option  may  be  used  to  request  a
                full-descent directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing  of  the  +d  option does not follow symbolic links
                within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does  it  search for open files on file system mount points on
                subdirectories of s unless the -x or  -x   f  option  is  also
                specified.

                Note:  the  authority  of the user of this option limits it to
                searching for files that the user has  permission  to  examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     This  option  specifies  a  list  of file descriptors (FDs) to
                exclude from or include  in  the  output  listing.   The  file
                descriptors are specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
                ‘‘cwd,1,3’’, ‘‘^6,^2’’.  (There should be  no  spaces  in  the
                set.)

                The  list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin
                with ’^’.  It is an inclusion list if  no  entry  begins  with
                ’^’.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A  file  descriptor  number range may be in the set as long as
                neither member is empty, both members  are  numbers,  and  the
                ending  member is larger than the starting one - e.g., ‘‘0-7’’
                or ‘‘3-10’’.  Ranges may be specified for  exclusion  if  they
                have  the  ’^’  prefix  -  e.g.,  ‘‘^0-7’’  excludes  all file
                descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a  single  ORed
                set before participating in AND option selection.

                When  there  are  exclusion  and inclusion members in the set,
                lsof reports them as errors and exits with a  non-zero  return
                code.

                See  the  description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in
                the OUTPUT section for more  information  on  file  descriptor
                names.

       +D D     This  option  causes  lsof to search for all open instances of
                directory D and all the files and directories it  contains  to
                its complete depth.

                Processing  of  the  +D  option does not follow symbolic links
                within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
                does  it  search for open files on file system mount points on
                subdirectories of D unless the -x or  -x   f  option  is  also
                specified.

                Note:  the  authority  of the user of this option limits it to
                searching for files that the user has  permission  to  examine
                with the system stat(2) function.

                Further  note: lsof may process this option slowly and require
                a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
                must  descend  the entire directory tree, rooted at D, calling
                stat(2) for each file and directory, building a  list  of  all
                the  files  it finds, and searching that list for a match with
                every open file.  When directory D is large, these  steps  can
                take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     This  option directs lsofs use of the device cache file.  The
                use of this option is sometimes restricted.   See  the  DEVICE
                CACHE  FILE  section  and the sections that follow it for more
                information on this option.

                -D must be followed by a function letter; the function  letter
                may  optionally  be  followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes
                these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by  a  path  name,  are
                sometimes  restricted.   When  these functions are restricted,
                they will not appear in the description of the -D option  that
                accompanies  -h  or  -?   option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE
                FILE  section  and  the  sections  that  follow  it  for  more
                information on these functions and when they’re restricted.

                The  ?   function  reports  the read-only and write paths that
                lsof can use for the device  cache  file,  the  names  of  any
                environment  variables  whose  values  lsof  will examine when
                forming the device cache file path, and  the  format  for  the
                personal device cache file path.  (Escape the ‘?’ character as
                your shell requires.)

                When available, the b, r, and u functions may be  followed  by
                the  device  cache  file’s  path.   The  standard  default  is
                .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the real user ID  that
                executes  lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
                configured and  compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h  and  -?
                options  show  the  current default prefix - e.g., ‘‘.lsof’’.)
                The suffix, hostname, is the first  component  of  the  host’s
                name returned by gethostname(2).

                When  available,  the  b  function directs lsof to build a new
                device cache file at the default or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
                file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
                to the kernel.

                The r function directs lsof to read the device  cache  at  the
                default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
                device cache file when none exists  or  the  existing  one  is
                improperly structured.  The r function, when specified without
                a path name, prevents  lsof  from  updating  an  incorrect  or
                outdated  device  cache  file,  or  creating  a new one in its
                place.   The  r  function  is  always  available  when  it  is
                specified  without  a path name argument; it may be restricted
                by the permissions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
                cache  file at the default or specified path, if possible, and
                to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
                file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f  by  itself  clarifies  how  path  name  arguments are to be
                interpreted.  When followed by  c,  f,  g,  G,  or  n  in  any
                combination  it  specifies  that  the  listing  of kernel file
                structure information is to  be  enabled  (‘+’)  or  inhibited
                (‘-’).

                Normally  a  path  name  argument is taken to be a file system
                name if it matches a mounted-on  directory  name  reported  by
                mount(8),  or  if  it  represents a block device, named in the
                mount output and associated with  a  mounted  directory  name.
                When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
                be file system names, and lsof will complain if any  are  not.
                This  can  be  useful,  for example, when the file system name
                (mounted-on device) isn’t a block device.   This  happens  for
                some CD-ROM file systems.

                When  -f  is specified by itself, all path name arguments will
                be taken to be simple files.  Thus, for example,  the  ‘‘-f --
                /’’  arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a ‘/’
                path name, not all open files in the ‘/’ (root) file system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated  and
                aren’t  followed  by  a  character  (e.g., of the file or file
                system name) that might be taken as a parameter.  For example,
                use ‘‘--’’ after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
                requested  with  the  +f  [cfgGn]  option  form,  is  normally
                inhibited,  and  is  not  available  for some dialects - e.g.,
                /proc-based Linux.  When the prefix to f is a plus sign (‘+’),
                these characters request file structure information:

                     c    file structure use count
                     f    file structure address
                     g    file flag abbreviations
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal
                     n    file structure node address

                When the prefix is minus (‘-’) the same characters disable the
                listing of the indicated values.

                File  structure  addresses,  use  counts,  flags,   and   node
                addresses  may  be used to detect more readily identical files
                inherited by child processes and identical  files  in  use  by
                different  processes.   Lsof  column  output  can be sorted by
                output columns holding  the  values  and  listed  to  identify
                identical  file  use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an
                AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f     This option specifies a character list, f,  that  selects  the
                fields to be output for processing by another program, and the
                character that terminates each output field.  Each field to be
                output  is  specified with a single character in f.  The field
                terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed  to  NUL  (000).
                See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of
                the field  identification  characters  and  the  field  output
                process.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all standard
                fields are selected (except the  raw  device  field  and  zone
                field  for  compatibility reasons) and the NL field terminator
                is used.

                When the field selection character list contains only  a  zero
                (‘0’),  all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
                for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
                used.

                Other  combinations  of  fields  and  their  associated  field
                terminator character must be set with explicit entries  in  f,
                as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When  a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
                not  normally  list  -  e.g.,  PPID,  selected   with   -R   -
                specification  of  the  field character - e.g., ‘‘-FR’’ - also
                selects the listing of the item.

                When the field selection character list  contains  the  single
                character  ‘?’,  lsof  will  display  a help list of the field
                identification characters.  (Escape the ‘?’ character as  your
                shell requires.)

       -g [s]   This  option  excludes or selects the listing of files for the
                processes whose optional process group  IDentification  (PGID)
                numbers  are  in  the comma-separated set s - e.g., ‘‘123’’ or
                ‘‘123,^456’’.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID  numbers  that  begin  with  ‘^’   (negation)   represent
                exclusions.

                Multiple  PGID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
                participating  in  AND  option   selection.    However,   PGID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

                The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
                When specified without a PGID set that’s all it does.

       -i [i]   This option selects the listing of files any of whose Internet
                address matches the address specified in i.  If no address  is
                specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and
                x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with  no  following  address,  only
                files   of  the  indicated  IP  version,  IPv4  or  IPv6,  are
                displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be  used  only  if  the
                dialects   supports   IPv6,   as  indicated  by  ‘‘[46]’’  and
                ‘‘IPv[46]’’  in  lsofs  -h  or  -?   output.)    Sequentially
                specifying  -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i,
                and vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is  the  same
                as specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a limit of 100) may be specified
                with multiple -i options.  (A  port  number  or  service  name
                range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in  square
                brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          ’6’ may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither ’4’ nor
                          ’6’ is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP or UDP.
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6  options  may  be  used only if the UNIX dialect supports
                IPv6.  To see if the  dialect  supports  IPv6,  run  lsof  and
                specify  the  -h  or  -?   (help)  option.   If  the displayed
                description  of  the   -i   option   contains   ‘‘[46]’’   and
                ‘‘IPv[46]’’, IPv6 is supported.

                IPv4  host names and addresses may not be specified if network
                file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host  names
                and  addresses  may not be specified if network file selection
                is limited to IPv4 with -i  4.   When  an  open  IPv4  network
                file’s  address  is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file’s
                type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be  selected
                by ’6’, not ’4’.

                At  least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR hostname
                , hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The ‘@’ character,
                leading  the host specification, is always required; as is the
                ‘:’, leading the port specification.  Specify either  hostname
                or  hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number
                list.  If a service name list is specified, the  protocol  may
                also  need to be specified if the TCP and UDP port numbers for
                the service name are different.  Use any case - lower or upper
                - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
                entries are  separated  by  commas  and  whose  numeric  range
                entries  are  separated  by  minus  signs.   There  may  be no
                embedded spaces, and all service  names  must  belong  to  the
                specified  protocol.  Since service names may contain embedded
                minus signs, the starting entry of a range can’t be a  service
                name; it can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP or UDP time service port

       -k k     This  option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place of
                /vmunix, /mach, etc.  This option is not available  under  AIX
                on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l       This  option  inhibits  the  conversion  of user ID numbers to
                login names.  It is also useful  when  login  name  lookup  is
                working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This  option  enables  (‘+’)  or disables (‘-’) the listing of
                file link counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren’t
                available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When  +L  is  specified  without  a following number, all link
                counts will be listed.  When -L is specified (the default), no
                link counts will be listed.

                When  +L  is  followed  by  a number, only files having a link
                count less than that number will be listed.   (No  number  may
                follow  -L.)   A specification of the form ‘‘+L1’’ will select
                open files that have been unlinked.  A  specification  of  the
                form ‘‘+aL1 <file_system>’’ will select unlinked open files on
                the specified file system.

                For other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and  a
                post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m   This  option  specifies  an  alternate  kernel  memory file or
                activates mount table supplement processing.

                The option form -m m specifies a kernel  memory  file,  m,  in
                place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

                The  option  form  +m requests that a mount supplement file be
                written to the standard output file.  All  other  options  are
                silently ignored.

                There  will  be  a  line in the mount supplement file for each
                mounted  file  system,  containing  the  mounted  file  system
                directory,  followed by a single space, followed by the device
                number in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get  device  numbers
                for  file  systems  when  it  can’t  get  them  via stat(2) or
                lstat(2).

                The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement  file.

                Note:  the  +m  and  +m  m  options  are not available for all
                supported dialects.  Check the  output  of  lsofs  -h  or  -?
                options to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables  (+)  or  disables  (-)  the  reporting  of portmapper
                registrations for  local  TCP  and  UDP  ports.   The  default
                reporting   mode   is   set  by  the  lsof  builder  with  the
                HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect’s machine.h header file;
                lsof   is   distributed   with   the   HASPMAPENABLED  #define
                deactivated, so portmapper reporting is  disabled  by  default
                and  must  be  requested  with +M.  Specifying lsofs -h or -?
                option will report the  default  mode.   Disabling  portmapper
                registration  when  it is already disabled or enabling it when
                already enabled is acceptable.  in a warning.

                When  portmapper  registration  reporting  is  enabled,   lsof
                displays the portmapper registration (if any) for local TCP or
                UDP ports in square brackets immediately  following  the  port
                numbers   or   service   names   -  e.g.,  ‘‘:1234[name]’’  or
                ‘‘:name[100083]’’.  The registration information may be a name
                or  number, depending on what the registering program supplied
                to the portmapper when it registered the port.

                When portmapper registration reporting is  enabled,  lsof  may
                run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
                the portmapper becomes  congested  or  stopped.   Reverse  the
                reporting   mode   to  determine  if  portmapper  registration
                reporting is slowing or blocking lsof.

                For  purposes  of  portmapper  registration   reporting   lsof
                considers a TCP or UDP port local if: it is found in the local
                part of its containing kernel structure; or if it  is  located
                in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure and the
                local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or if it is
                located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure
                and  the   foreign   Internet   address   is   INADDR_LOOPBACK
                (127.0.0.1).   This  rule  may  make  lsof ignore some foreign
                ports on machines with multiple interfaces  when  the  foreign
                Internet  address  is  on a different interface from the local
                one.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)   for
                further   discussion   of  portmapper  registration  reporting
                issues.

       -n       This option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host
                names  for network files.  Inhibiting conversion may make lsof
                run faster.  It is also useful when host name  lookup  is  not
                working properly.

       -N       This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       This  option directs lsof to display file offset at all times.
                It causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to  be  changed  to
                OFFSET.   Note:  on  some  UNIX  dialects  lsof  can’t  obtain
                accurate or consistent file offset information from its kernel
                data  sources,  sometimes  just  for particular kinds of files
                (e.g., socket files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The  FAQ  section
                gives its location.)  for more information.

                The  -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can’t both
                be  specified.   When  neither  is  specified,  lsof  displays
                whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available
                for the type of the file.

       -o o     This option defines the number of decimal  digits  (o)  to  be
                printed  after the ‘‘0t’’ for a file offset before the form is
                switched to ‘‘0x...’’.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs
                lsof to use the ‘‘0t’’ form for all offset output.

                This  option  does  NOT  direct  lsof to display offset at all
                times; specify -o (without a  trailing  number)  to  do  that.
                This  option  only specifies the number of digits after ‘‘0t’’
                in either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.   Thus,
                for  example,  to  direct  lsof to display offset at all times
                with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The default number of digits allowed after ‘‘0t’’ is  normally
                8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
                description of the -o o option in the output of the -h  or  -?
                option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       This  option  directs  lsof  to bypass the strategy it uses to
                avoid being blocked by some kernel operations  -  i.e.,  doing
                them  in  forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
                and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for  more  information  on
                kernel operations that may block lsof.

                While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
                may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn’t respond to
                a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     This  option  excludes or selects the listing of files for the
                processes whose optional process IDentification (PID)  numbers
                are   in   the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,  ‘‘123’’  or
                ‘‘123,^456’’.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID  numbers  that  begin  with   ‘^’   (negation)   represent
                exclusions.

                Multiple  process  ID  numbers are joined in a single ORed set
                before participating in AND option  selection.   However,  PID
                exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       This option inhibits the conversion of port  numbers  to  port
                names  for  network files.  Inhibiting the conversion may make
                lsof run a little faster.  It is also useful  when  host  name
                lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t] This  option  puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open
                files as selected by other options, delays t seconds  (default
                fifteen),  then  repeats  the  listing,  delaying  and listing
                repetitively until stopped  by  a  condition  defined  by  the
                prefix to the option.

                If  the prefix is a ‘-’, repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be
                terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

                If the prefix is ‘+’, repeat mode will end the first cycle  no
                open  files  are  listed  - and of course when lsof is stopped
                with an interrupt or  quit  signal.   When  repeat  mode  ends
                because  no  files  are  listed, the process exit code will be
                zero if any open files were ever listed;  one,  if  none  were
                ever listed.

                Lsof  marks  the  end  of  each listing: if field output is in
                progress (the -F, option has been specified),  the  marker  is
                ‘m’;  otherwise  the  marker  is  ‘‘========’’.  The marker is
                followed by a NL character.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof  startup  overhead,  so  it  is  more
                efficient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively from
                a shell script, for example.

                To use repeat  mode  most  efficiently,  accompany  +|-r  with
                specification  of  other lsof selection options, so the amount
                of kernel memory access lsof does will be kept to  a  minimum.
                Options  that  filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,
                -u - are the most efficient selectors.

                Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see  the
                -F,  option description) and a supervising awk or Perl script,
                or a C program.

       -R       This  option  directs  lsof  to  list   the   Parent   Process
                IDentification number in the PPID column.

       -s       This  option  directs  lsof to display file size at all times.
                It causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to  be  changed  to
                SIZE.  If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

                The -o (without  a  following  decimal  digit  count)  and  -s
                options  are mutually exclusive; they can’t both be specified.
                When neither is specified, lsof displays whatever value - size
                or offset - is appropriate and available for the type of file.

                Since some types of files don’t have  true  sizes  -  sockets,
                FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
                amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   This option specifies an optional time-out seconds  value  for
                kernel  functions  - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that
                might otherwise deadlock.  The  minimum  for  t  is  two;  the
                default,  fifteen;  when no value is specified, the default is
                used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   This  option  controls   the   reporting   of   some   TCP/TPI
                information,   also  reported  by  netstat(1),  following  the
                network addresses.  In normal output the  information  appears
                in  parentheses,  each  item  except  state  identified  by  a
                keyword, followed by ‘=’, separated from others  by  a  single
                space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not  all  values  are  reported  for all UNIX dialects.  Items
                values (when available) are reported after the item  name  and
                ’=’.

                When  the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
                PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with  a  ‘T’  leading
                character.

                -T   with   no   following  key  characters  disables  TCP/TPI
                information reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
                TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not  all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.  State
                may be selected for all dialects and is reported  by  default.
                The  -h  or  -?   help output for the -T option will show what
                selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed
                by  one or more selection characters - the displaying of state
                is disabled by default, and it  must  be  explicitly  selected
                again  in  the characters following -T.  (In effect, then, the
                default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue  lengths
                and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket  options,  socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
                and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the  UNIX
                dialect)  in  the form of the names that commonly appear after
                SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect’s header  files  -
                most     often     <sys/socket.h>,    <sys/socketvar.h>    and
                <netinet/tcp_var.h>.   Consult  those  header  files  for  the
                meaning of the flags, options, states and values.

                ‘‘SO=’’  precedes  socket  options and values; ‘‘SS=’’, socket
                states; and ‘‘TF=’’, TCP flags and values.

                If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an  ’=’
                and   the   name   --  e.g.,  ‘‘SO=LINGER=5’’,  ‘‘SO=QLIM=5’’,
                ‘‘TF=MSS=512’’.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details on what socket options and values, socket states,  and
                TCP  flags  and  values  may  be displayed for particular UNIX
                dialects may be found in the answer to the ‘‘Why doesn’t  lsof
                report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and values
                for my dialect?’’ and ‘‘Why doesn’t lsof  report  the  partial
                listen  queue connection count for my dialect?’’  questions in
                the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t       This option specifies that lsof should  produce  terse  output
                with  process  identifiers  only and no header - e.g., so that
                the output may be piped to kill(1).  This option  selects  the
                -w option.

       -u s     This  option  selects  the listing of files for the user whose
                login names or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated  set
                s  -  e.g.,  ‘‘abe’’,  or  ‘‘548,root’’.   (There should be no
                spaces in the set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                If  a login name or user ID is preceded by a ‘^’, it becomes a
                negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
                user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
                selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections;  it
                is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
                the listing of the files of  the  process.   For  example,  to
                direct  lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to root
                processes, specify ‘‘-u^root’’ or ‘‘-u^0’’.

       -U       This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       This option selects the listing of lsof  version  information,
                including:   revision   number;   when  the  lsof  binary  was
                constructed; who constructed the binary and where; the name of
                the  compiler  used  to construct the lsof binary; the version
                number of the compiler when readily  available;  the  compiler
                and loader flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
                information, typically the output of uname’s -a option.

       -V       This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to
                list  and failed to find - command names, file names, Internet
                addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs,  PGIDs,  and
                UIDs.

                When   other   options   are   ANDed  to  search  options,  or
                compile-time options restrict the listing of some files,  lsof
                may  not  report  that it failed to find a search item when an
                ANDed option or compile-time option prevents  the  listing  of
                the open file containing the located search item.

                For example, ‘‘lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999’’ may not report
                a failure to locate open files at ‘‘TCP@foobar’’ and  may  not
                list  any,  if  none  have a file descriptor number of 999.  A
                similar    situation    arises    when     HASSECURITY     and
                HASNOSOCKSECURITY are defined at compile time and they prevent
                the listing of open files.

       +|-w     Enables  (+)  or  disables  (-)  the  suppression  of  warning
                messages.

                The  lsof builder may choose to have warning messages disabled
                or enabled by default.  The default warning message  state  is
                indicated  in  the  output of the -h or -?  option.  Disabling
                warning messages when they are already  disabled  or  enabling
                them when already enabled is acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x  [fl] This  option  may  accompany  the  +d and +D options to direct
                their processing to cross  over  symbolic  links  and|or  file
                system  mount  points  encountered when scanning the directory
                (+d) or directory tree (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without  a  following  parameter,
                cross-over  processing  of both symbolic links and file system
                mount points is enabled.   Note  that  when  -x  is  specified
                without  a parameter, the next argument must begin with ’-’ or
                ’+’.

                The optional ’f’ parameter enables  file  system  mount  point
                cross-over   processing;   ’l’,   symbolic   link   cross-over
                processing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a  +d
                or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of
                executed text file and shared library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function,
                its  use  on  a  busy  AIX  system  might cause an application
                process to hang so completely that it can  neither  be  killed
                nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of
                its happening, but I think there is a  remote  possibility  it
                could happen.

                By  default  use  of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above
                lsof may need setuid-root permission to  perform  the  actions
                this option requests.

                The  lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted
                to processes whose real UID is root.  If that has  been  done,
                the  -X  option  will  not appear in the -h or -?  help output
                unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The  default
                lsof  distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default
                it will appear in the help output.

                When AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof  may  not  be  able  to
                report  information  for  all text and loader file references,
                but it may also avoid exacerbating  an  AIX  kernel  directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The  readx()  function,  used  by lsof or any other program to
                access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
                Stale  Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel’s dir_search()
                function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy
                of   a   file  system  directory  has  been  zeroed.   Another
                application process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel  to
                search  the  directory  -  e.g.,  by using open(2) - can cause
                dir_search() to loop forever,  thus  hanging  the  application
                process.

                Consult  the  lsof  FAQ  (The FAQ section gives its location.)
                and the 00README file of the  lsof  distribution  for  a  more
                complete  description  of  the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR,
                and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This Linux option requests that lsof  skip  the  reporting  of
                information on all open TCP and UDP IPv4 and IPv6 files.

                This  Linux  option  is  most  useful  when  the system has an
                extremely  large  number  of  open  TCP  and  UDP  files,  the
                processing  of  whose  information  in  the /proc/net/tcp* and
                /proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long  time,  and  whose
                reporting is not of interest.

                Use  this option with care and only when you are sure that the
                information you want lsof to  display  isn’t  associated  with
                open TCP or UDP socket files.

       -z [z]   specifies  how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to be
                handled.

                Without a following  argument  -  e.g.,  NO  z  -  the  option
                specifies  that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output
                column.

                The -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That  causes
                lsof  to  list  only  open  files  for processes in that zone.
                Multiple -z z option and argument pairs may  be  specified  to
                form  a  list of named zones.  Any open file of any process in
                any of the zones will be listed, subject to  other  conditions
                specified by other options and arguments.

       --       The  double minus sign option is a marker that signals the end
                of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example,  when  the
                first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
                when the absence of a value for the last keyed option must  be
                signified  by  the  presence  of a minus sign in the following
                option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These are path names of  specific  files  to  list.   Symbolic
                links  are  resolved  before  use.   The  first  name  may  be
                separated from the preceding options with the ‘‘--’’ option.

                If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or  the
                device  of  the file system, lsof will list all the files open
                on the file system.  To be considered a file system, the  name
                must  match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or
                match the name of a block device associated with a  mounted-on
                directory  name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to
                consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
                (-f).

                If  name  is  a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on
                directory name of a file system,  it  is  treated  just  as  a
                regular  file  is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to
                processes that have it open as a file or as a process-specific
                directory,  such as the root or current working directory.  To
                request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
                use the +d s and +D D options.

                If  a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files -
                e. g, AIX’s /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list  all  the  associated
                multiplexed  files  on  the  device  that  are  open  -  e.g.,
                /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If a name is a UNIX domain  socket  name,  lsof  will  usually
                search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly as
                it  is  specified  and  is  recorded  in  the  kernel   socket
                structure.   (See  the next paragraph for an exception to that
                rule for Linux.)  Specifying a relative path - e.g., ./file  -
                in place of the file’s absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won’t
                work because lsof must match the characters you  specify  with
                what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

                If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof
                is able to search for it  by  its  device  and  inode  number,
                allowing  name  to be a relative path.  The case requires that
                the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash (’/’) be
                used  by  the  process  that  created the socket, and hence be
                stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires  that  lsof
                be  able  to  obtain  the  device and node numbers of both the
                absolute  path  in  /proc/net/unix  and  name  via  successful
                stat(2)  system  calls.   When  those conditions are met, lsof
                will be able to search for the UNIX domain  socket  when  some
                path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if the
                path is /dev/log, and an lsof search  is  initiated  when  the
                working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If  a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files
                whose device and inode match that of the specified path  name.

                If  you  have also specified the -b option, the only names you
                may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
                supplies  alternate  device  numbers.  See the AVOIDING KERNEL
                BLOCKS  and  ALTERNATE  DEVICE  NUMBERS  sections   for   more
                information.

                Multiple  file  names  are  joined in a single ORed set before
                participating in AND option selection.

AFS

       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and  AFS
       versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not been tested there.  Depending on how AFS is implemented,  lsof  may
       recognize  AFS  files  in  other  dialects,  or  may  have difficulties
       recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects  when  AFS  kernel  support is implemented via dynamic modules
       whose addresses do not appear in the kernel’s variable name  list.   In
       that  case,  lsof  may  have to guess at the identity of AFS files, and
       might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that  is
       needed  for  calculating  AFS  volume  node  numbers.   When lsof can’t
       compute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect  implementations  of  lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in  the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See  the  lsof  FAQ  (The  FAQ  section  gives its location.)  for more
       information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how  they  affect
       lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don’t seem to participate in the kernel’s name
       cache operations, lsof can’t identify  path  name  components  for  AFS
       files.

SECURITY

       Lsof  has  three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its
       default compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with  it.
       Second,  by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable device
       cache file in the home directory of the  real  user  ID  that  executes
       lsof.   (The  list-all-open-files  and  device  cache  features  may be
       disabled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k  and  -m  options  name
       alternate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting  the  listing  of  all  open  files  is  controlled  by the
       compile-time   HASSECURITY   and   HASNOSOCKSECURITY   options.    When
       HASSECURITY  is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all
       open files.  The non-root user may list only open  files  of  processes
       with  the same user IDentification number as the real user ID number of
       the lsof process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined,  anyone
       may  list  open  socket  files,  provided they are selected with the -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option,  gives  the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See  the  Security section of the 0README file of the lsof distribution
       for  information  on   building   lsof   with   the   HASSECURITY   and
       HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is controlled by the compile-time HASDCACHE  option.   See  the  DEVICE
       CACHE  FILE  section and the sections that follow it for details on how
       its path is formed.  For security considerations  it  is  important  to
       note  that  in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID under
       which lsof is executed is root, the device cache file will  be  written
       in  root’s  home  directory  - e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not
       defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in  response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output  will
       have no -D option description.

       Before  you  decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining  all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion of
       it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ  (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN  IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the  -k  and  -m options, lsof checks the user’s authority to read them
       with access(2).  This is intended to  prevent  whatever  special  power
       lsofs modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT

       This section describes the information lsof lists for each  open  file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs  printable  (declared  so  by  isprint(3))  8   bit
       characters.   Non-printable  characters  are  printed  in  one of three
       forms: the C ‘‘\[bfrnt]’’ form; the control character ‘^’  form  (e.g.,
       ‘‘^@’’); or hexadecimal leading ‘‘\x’’ form (e.g., ‘‘\xab’’).  Space is
       non-printable in the COMMAND column (‘‘\x20’’) and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE  is  defined  in the dialect’s
       machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8  bit  characters
       of  a  language  locale.   The lsof process must be supplied a language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a known
       language  locale  in  which  the  extended  characters  are  considered
       printable  by  isprint(3).   Otherwise  lsof  considers  the   extended
       characters  non-printable  and  prints  them according to its rules for
       non-printable  characters,  stated  above.   Consult   your   dialect’s
       setlocale(3) man page for the names of other environment variables that
       may be used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsofs  language  locale  support  for  a  dialect  also  covers   wide
       characters  -  e.g.,  UTF-8  -  when  HASSETLOCALE  and HASWIDECHAR are
       defined in the dialect’s machine.h header file,  and  when  a  suitable
       language  locale  has  been  defined  in  the  appropriate  environment
       variable for the lsof process.  Wide  characters  are  printable  under
       those  conditions  if iswprint(3) reports them to be.  If HASSETLOCALE,
       HASWIDECHAR and a  suitable  language  locale  aren’t  defined,  or  if
       iswprint(3)   reports  wide  characters  that  aren’t  printable,  lsof
       considers the wide characters non-printable and prints each of their  8
       bits according to its rules for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult the answers to the "Language locale support" questions  in  the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof   dynamically   sizes  the  output  columns  each  time  it  runs,
       guaranteeing that each column is a minimum size.   It  also  guarantees
       that  each  column  is  separated  from its predecessor by at least one
       space.

       COMMAND    contains the first nine characters of the name of  the  UNIX
                  command  associated with the process.  If a non-zero w value
                  is specified to the +c w option,  the  column  contains  the
                  first   w  characters  of  the  name  of  the  UNIX  command
                  associated with the process up to the  limit  of  characters
                  supplied  to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description
                  of the +c w command or the lsof FAQ  for  more  information.
                  The FAQ section gives its location.)

                  If   w  is  less  than  the  length  of  the  column  title,
                  ‘‘COMMAND’’, it will be raised to that length.

                  If a zero w value is specified  to  the  +c  w  option,  the
                  column  contains  all the characters of the name of the UNIX
                  command associated with the process.

                  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in  its
                  structures  are  displayed  in field output when the command
                  name descriptor (‘c’) is  specified.   See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
                  OTHER  COMMANDS  section  for information on selecting field
                  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       ZONE       is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be
                  selected with the -z option.

       PPID       is  the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.
                  It is only displayed when the -R option has been  specified.

       PGID       is  the  process group IDentification number associated with
                  the process.  It is only displayed when the  -g  option  has
                  been specified.

       USER       is  the user ID number or login name of the user to whom the
                  process belongs, usually the  same  as  reported  by  ps(1).
                  However,  on  Linux USER is the user ID number or login that
                  owns the directory in /proc  where  lsof  finds  information
                  about  the process.  Usually that is the same value reported
                  by ps(1), but may differ when the process  has  changed  its
                  effective  user  ID.   (See  the  -l  option description for
                  information on when a  user  ID  number  or  login  name  is
                  displayed.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD  is  followed  by one of these characters, describing the
                  mode under which the file is open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       ‘-’ if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The  mode  character  is  followed  by  one  of  these  lock
                  characters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of  the
                  file;
                       X  for  an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the      entire
                  file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See the LOCKS section  for  more  information  on  the  lock
                  information character.

                  The  FD  column  contents  constitutes  a  single  field for
                  parsing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE       is the type of the node associated with  the  file  -  e.g.,
                  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ‘‘IPv4’’ for an IPv4 socket;

                  or  ‘‘IPv6’’  for  an  open  IPv6 network file - even if its
                  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

                  or ‘‘ax25’’ for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ‘‘inet’’ for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ‘‘lla’’ for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ‘‘rte’’ for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ‘‘sock’’ for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ‘‘unix’’ for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ‘‘x.25’’ for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ‘‘BLK’’ for a block special file;

                  or ‘‘CHR’’ for a character special file;

                  or ‘‘DEL’’ for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ‘‘DIR’’ for a directory;

                  or ‘‘DOOR’’ for a VDOOR file;

                  or ‘‘FIFO’’ for a FIFO special file;

                  or ‘‘KQUEUE’’ for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ‘‘LINK’’ for a symbolic link file;

                  or ‘‘MPB’’ for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ‘‘MPC’’ for a multiplexed character file;

                  or ‘‘NOFD’’ for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that  can’t
                  be  opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME column,
                  followed by an error message;

                  or ‘‘PAS’’ for a /proc/as file;

                  or ‘‘PAXV’’ for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ‘‘PCRE’’ for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ‘‘PCTL’’ for a /proc control file;

                  or ‘‘PCUR’’ for the current /proc process;

                  or ‘‘PCWD’’ for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ‘‘PDIR’’ for a /proc directory;

                  or ‘‘PETY’’ for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ‘‘PFD’’ for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ‘‘PFDR’’ for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ‘‘PFIL’’ for an executable /proc file;

                  or ‘‘PFPR’’ for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ‘‘PGD’’ for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ‘‘PGID’’ for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ‘‘PIPE’’ for pipes;

                  or ‘‘PLC’’ for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ‘‘PLDR’’ for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ‘‘PLDT’’ for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ‘‘PLPI’’ for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ‘‘PLST’’ for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ‘‘PLU’’ for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ‘‘PLWG’’ for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ‘‘PLWI’’ for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ‘‘PLWS’’ for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ‘‘PLWU’’ for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ‘‘PLWX’’ for a /proc/xregs file’

                  or ‘‘PMAP’’ for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ‘‘PMEM’’ for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ‘‘PNTF’’ for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ‘‘POBJ’’ for a /proc/object file;

                  or ‘‘PODR’’ for a /proc/object directory;

                  or ‘‘POLP’’ for an old format  /proc  light  weight  process
                  file;

                  or ‘‘POPF’’ for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ‘‘POPG’’ for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ‘‘PORT’’ for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ‘‘PREG’’ for a /proc register file;

                  or ‘‘PRMP’’ for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ‘‘PRTD’’ for a /proc root directory;

                  or ‘‘PSGA’’ for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ‘‘PSIN’’ for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ‘‘PSTA’’ for a /proc status file;

                  or ‘‘PSXSEM’’ for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ‘‘PSXSHM’’ for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ‘‘PUSG’’ for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ‘‘PW’’ for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ‘‘PXMP’’ for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ‘‘REG’’ for a regular file;

                  or ‘‘SMT’’ for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ‘‘STSO’’ for a stream socket;

                  or ‘‘UNNM’’ for an unnamed type file;

                  or  ‘‘XNAM’’ for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown
                  type;

                  or ‘‘XSEM’’ for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ‘‘XSD’’ for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f  has  been
                  specified to +f;

       FCT        contains  the  file  reference  count  from  the kernel file
                  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f,  this  field  contains
                  the  contents  of  the  f_flag[s]  member of the kernel file
                  structure and the kernel’s per-process open file  flags  (if
                  available);  ‘G’ causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;
                  ‘g’, as short-hand names; two lists may  be  displayed  with
                  entries  separated  by  commas,  the  lists  separated  by a
                  semicolon (‘;’); the first list may contain short-hand names
                  for f_flag[s] values from the following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this  list of names was derived from F* #define’s in dialect
                  header  files   <fcntl.h>,   <linux</fs.h>,   <sys/fcntl.c>,
                  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;  see the lsof.h header
                  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
                  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
                  names for kernel  per-process  open  file  flags  from  this
                  table:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or   INODE-ADDR   for  some  dialects)  contains  a  unique
                  identifier for the file node (usually the  kernel  vnode  or
                  inode  address,  but  also  occasionally  a concatenation of
                  device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains the device numbers,  separated  by  commas,  for  a
                  character  special, block special, regular, directory or NFS
                  file;

                  or ‘‘memory’’ for a memory  file  system  node  under  Tru64
                  UNIX;

                  or  the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket
                  stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The
                  kernel  reference  address  may  be  used  for  FIFO’s,  for
                  example.);

                  or the base address or device name of a Linux  AX.25  socket
                  device.

                  Usually  only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel
                  addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is the size of the file or the  file  offset  in  bytes.   A
                  value  is  displayed in this column only if it is available.
                  Lsof  displays  whatever  value  -  size  or  offset  -   is
                  appropriate  for  the  type  of  the file and the version of
                  lsof.

                  On  some  UNIX  dialects  lsof  can’t  obtain  accurate   or
                  consistent  file  offset  information  from  its kernel data
                  sources, sometimes just for particular kinds of files (e.g.,
                  socket  files.)  In other cases, files don’t have true sizes
                  - e.g., sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays  for  their
                  sizes  the  content  amounts it finds in their kernel buffer
                  descriptors (e.g.,  socket  buffer  size  counts  or  TCP/IP
                  window  sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
                  its location.)  for more information.

                  The file  size  is  displayed  in  decimal;  the  offset  is
                  normally  displayed  in  decimal with a leading ‘‘0t’’ if it
                  contains 8 digits or less; in  hexadecimal  with  a  leading
                  ‘‘0x’’  if  it  is  longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o
                  option description for information on when 8  might  default
                  to some other value.)

                  Thus  the  leading ‘‘0t’’ and ‘‘0x’’ identify an offset when
                  the column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e.,  its
                  title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
                  column  OFFSET.   The  offset  always  begins with ‘‘0t’’ or
                  ‘‘0x’’ as described above.

                  The lsof user can control the switch from ‘‘0t’’  to  ‘‘0x’’
                  with  the  -o  o  option.   Consult its description for more
                  information.

                  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
                  size  (or  nothing  if  no size is available) and labels the
                  column SIZE.  The -o and -s options are mutually  exclusive;
                  they can’t both be specified.

                  For  files that don’t have a fixed size - e.g., don’t reside
                  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
                  about  the  current  size  or  position of the file if it is
                  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ‘‘TCP’’;

                  or ‘‘STR’’ for a stream;

                  or ‘‘CCITT’’ for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which  the
                  file resides;

                  or  the  name of a file specified in the names option (after
                  any symbolic links have been resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or the local and remote  Internet  addresses  of  a  network
                  file;  the  local  host  name  or IP number is followed by a
                  colon (’:’), the  port,  ‘‘->’’,  and  the  two-part  remote
                  address;  IP  addresses may be reported as numbers or names,
                  depending on the +|-M, -n, and -P  options;  colon-separated
                  IPv6   numbers   are   enclosed  in  square  brackets;  IPv4
                  INADDR_ANY and IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED  addresses,  and
                  zero  port  numbers  are represented by an asterisk (’*’); a
                  UDP destination address may be followed  by  the  amount  of
                  time   elapsed  since  the  last  packet  was  sent  to  the
                  destination; TCP and UDP remote addresses may be followed by
                  TCP/TPI   information   in   parentheses   -   state  (e.g.,
                  ‘‘(ESTABLISHED)’’, ‘‘(Unbound)’’), queue sizes,  and  window
                  sizes  (not  all  dialects)  -  in a fashion similar to what
                  netstat(1) reports; see the -T  option  description  or  the
                  description  of  the  TCP/TPI  field  in  OUTPUT  FOR  OTHER
                  PROGRAMS for more information  on  state,  queue  size,  and
                  window size;

                  or  the  address  or  name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly
                  including a stream clone device name, a file system object’s
                  path  name,  local and foreign kernel addresses, socket pair
                  information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ‘‘STR’’, followed by the stream name;

                  or a stream character device name, followed  by  ‘‘->’’  and
                  the  stream name or a list of stream module names, separated
                  by ‘‘->’’;

                  or ‘‘STR:’’ followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
                  module names, separated by ‘‘->’’;

                  or  system  directory name, ‘‘ -- ’’, and as many components
                  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel’s name cache
                  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
                  more information.);

                  or ‘‘PIPE->’’, followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
                  address;

                  or  ‘‘COMMON:’’,  followed  by  the vnode device information
                  structure’s device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

                  or the address family, followed by a slash  (‘/’),  followed
                  by  fourteen  comma-separated  bytes  of  a non-Internet raw
                  socket address;

                  or the HP-UX x.25 local address,  followed  by  the  virtual
                  connection  number  (if any), followed by the remote address
                  (if any);

                  or ‘‘(dead)’’ for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically
                  terminal  files  that  have  been flagged with the TIOCNOTTY
                  ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or ‘‘rd=<offset>’’ and ‘‘wr=<offset>’’ for the values of the
                  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

                  or  ‘‘clone n:/dev/event’’ for SCO OpenServer file clones of
                  the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of
                  the file;

                  or  ‘‘(socketpair:  n)’’ for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX
                  domain  socket,  created  by  the   socketpair(3N)   network
                  function;

                  or  ‘‘no  PCB’’ for socket files that do not have a protocol
                  block associated  with  them,  optionally  followed  by  ‘‘,
                  CANTSENDMORE’’  if  sending on the socket has been disabled,
                  or ‘‘, CANTRCVMORE’’ if receiving on  the  socket  has  been
                  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

                  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
                  in the form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed  in  parentheses
                  by  the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the connection
                  state;

                  or ‘‘dgram’’ or ‘‘stream’’ for the type UnixWare  7.1.1  and
                  above  in-kernel  UNIX  domain  sockets, followed by a colon
                  (’:’) and the local path name when  available,  followed  by
                  ‘‘->’’  and the remote path name or kernel socket address in
                  hexadecimal when available.

       For dialects that support a ‘‘namefs’’ file system, allowing  one  file
       to   be   attached   to   another   with  fattach(3C),  lsof  will  add
       ‘‘(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)’’   to    the    NAME    column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will be ‘‘<-’’ if <address2> has been fattach’ed to  this  vnode  whose
       address  is  <address1>; and ‘‘->’’ if <address1>, the vnode address of
       this vnode, has been  fattach’ed  to  <address2>.   <address1>  may  be
       omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

LOCKS

       Lsof  can’t  adequately  report  the  wide variety of UNIX dialect file
       locks in a single character.  What it reports in a single character  is
       a  compromise  between  the  information it finds in the kernel and the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only  reports  the  status of the first lock it encounters.  If it is a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       -  i.e.,  ‘r’,  ‘w’,  or  ‘x’  -  rather than the upper case equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks  held  by  local  processes  on
       local  files.   When  a local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
       (e.g., NFS) file, the remote  server  host  usually  records  the  lock
       state.   One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and in
       all versions above 2.4,  the  Solaris  kernel  records  information  on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof  has  trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS

       When  the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable
       for processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a  C
       program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a
       leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)  The data of the field
       follows  immediately  after  the  field  identification  character  and
       extends to the field terminator.

       It  is  possible  to think of field output as process and file sets.  A
       process set begins with a field whose identifier is  ‘p’  (for  process
       IDentifier  (PID)).   It extends to the beginning of the next PID field
       or the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever  comes
       first.   Included  in  the  process  set  are  fields that identify the
       command, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, and  the  user
       ID (UID) number or login name.

       A  file  set  begins  with  a  field  whose identifier is ‘f’ (for file
       descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the  file’s  access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the next  file  or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with  a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof  always produces one field, the PID (‘p’) field.  All other fields
       may be declared optionally in the field identifier character list  that
       follows  the -F option.  When a field selection character identifies an
       item lsof does not normally list -  e.g.,  PPID,  selected  with  -R  -
       specification of the field character - e.g., ‘‘-FR’’ - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult to identify file sets.  To help you  avoid  this  difficulty,
       lsof  supports  the -F option; it selects the output of all fields with
       NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output  of  all  fields
       with  NUL  terminators).   For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof  will  produce.   The  single  character
       listed first is the field identifier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file’s device character code
            D    file’s major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            i    file’s inode number
            k    link count
            l    file’s lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file’s offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            g    process group ID
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file’s size (decimal)
            S    file’s stream identification
            t    file’s type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 ‘=’ is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn’t reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can  get  on-line  help  information on these characters and their
       descriptions by specifying the  -F?   option  pair.   (Escape  the  ‘?’
       character  as  your  shell  requires.)  Additional information on field
       content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ‘‘-F pcfn’’ will select the process  ID  (‘p’),  command
       name (‘c’), file descriptor (‘f’) and file name (‘n’) fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ‘‘-F pcfn0’’ selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn’t  produce  all  fields for every process or file set, only
       those that are available.  Some fields  are  mutually  exclusive:  file
       device  characters  and  file  major/minor  device  numbers; file inode
       number and protocol name; file name  and  stream  identification;  file
       size  and  offset.  One or the other member of these mutually exclusive
       sets will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0  (zero)
       field  identifier  character  may  be  specified  to  change  the field
       terminator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier to
       process  with  xargs  (1),  for example, or with programs whose quoting
       mechanisms may not easily cope with the  range  of  characters  in  the
       field  output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends each
       process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included  in  the  lsof  distribution.   The  first is a C header file,
       lsof_fields.h, that  contains  symbols  for  the  field  identification
       characters,  indexes  for  storing  them  in  a  table, and explanation
       strings that may be compiled into  programs.   Lsof  uses  this  header
       file.

       The  second  aid  is a set of sample scripts that process field output,
       written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl 5.  They’re  located  in  the  scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The  third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test
       suite is written in C and uses field output  to  validate  the  correct
       operation  of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c file
       of the  lsof  distribution.   The  library  uses  the  first  aid,  the
       lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS

       Lsof  can  be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2),
       readlink(2), and stat(2).  These functions are stalled in  the  kernel,
       for  example,  when  the  hosts  where  mounted NFS file systems reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers  and  child  processes,
       but  the  techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to
       break a block, it will report the break with  an  error  message.   The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default  timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?  option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two
       seconds,   but  you  should  avoid  small  values,  since  slow  system
       responsiveness can cause short  timeouts  to  expire  unexpectedly  and
       perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system
       information, it normally  continues,  although  with  less  information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof  can  also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child
       processes  when  using  the  kernel  functions  that  might  block   by
       specifying  the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start up with
       less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the kernel situations that
       might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS

       You  can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option  usually  requires  that  your  system  supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2)  kernel  functions.   See
       the  ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on alternate
       device numbers.

       Second, you can’t specify names for lsof to locate unless they’re  file
       system  names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and inode
       numbers of files listed with names in the  lsof  options,  and  the  -b
       option  prevents  lsof  from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof only
       has device numbers for the  file  systems  that  have  alternates,  its
       ability  to  locate  files  on  file  systems depends completely on the
       availability and accuracy of the  alternates.   If  no  alternates  are
       available,  or if they’re incorrect, lsof won’t be able to locate files
       on the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that  lsof  obtains
       from  your  system’s mount table are symbolic links, lsof won’t be able
       to resolve the links.  This is because the -b  option  causes  lsof  to
       avoid  the  kernel  readlink(2)  function  it  uses to resolve symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it  needs  to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs it to
       avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying  the  -w  option,
       but  if  you do, you won’t see the alternate device numbers reported in
       the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS

       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it  can’t  get
       information  about  a  mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2)
       kernel functions, or because you specified  the  -b  option,  lsof  can
       obtain  some  of  the  information  it  needs  -  the device number and
       possibly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When that
       is  possible, lsof will report the device number it obtained.  (You can
       suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if your mount table is  supported  with  an
       /etc/mtab  or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding
       a ‘‘dev=xxxx’’ field for mount points that do not  have  one  in  their
       options  strings.  Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e., some
       mount tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts  are
       read-only and can’t be modified.

       You  may  also  be  able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m
       options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the output
       of  lsofs  -h  or  -?   options  to see if the +m and +m m options are
       available.

       The ‘‘xxxx’’ portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the  file
       system’s device number.  (Consult the st_dev field of the output of the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)   Here’s  an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab for a
       file system remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There’s an advantage to having ‘‘dev=xxxx’’ entries in your mount table
       file,  especially  for  file  systems  that are mounted from remote NFS
       servers.  When a remote server crashes and you  want  to  identify  its
       users  by  running  lsof  on one of its clients, lsof probably won’t be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.   If  it  can  obtain  the file system’s device number from the
       mount table, it will be able to display the files open on  the  crashed
       NFS server.

       Some  dialects  that  do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file
       for the mount table may still provide an alternative device  number  in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD,
       NetBSD, OpenBSD,  and  Tru64  UNIX.   Lsof  knows  how  to  obtain  the
       alternative  device  number  for  these  dialects  and uses it when its
       attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If you’re not sure your dialect supplies alternate device  numbers  for
       file  systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:

              lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning  messages  that  begin  ‘‘assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...’’.

KERNEL NAME CACHE

       Lsof  is  able  to  examine the kernel’s name cache or use other kernel
       facilities (e.g., the ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path()  function  under  Tru64
       UNIX)  on  some dialects for most file system types, excluding AFS, and
       extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS  file  system
       path  lookups don’t use the kernel’s name cache; some Solaris VxFS file
       system operations apparently don’t use it, either.)

       Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.   If  lsof
       can’t  report  all  components in a path, it reports in the NAME column
       the file system name, followed by a space, two ‘-’ characters,  another
       space,  and  the  name  components it has located, separated by the ‘/’
       character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified  -
       the  extent  to  which  it can report path name components for the same
       file may vary from  cycle  to  cycle.   That’s  because  other  running
       processes  can  cause  the kernel to remove entries from its name cache
       and replace them with others.

       Lsofs use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files  can
       lead  it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.  This
       can happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as  a
       key  (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file system
       is reused.  If the UNIX dialect’s kernel doesn’t purge the  name  cache
       entry  for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to the
       wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ  (The  FAQ  section  gives  its
       location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            BSDI BSD/OS
            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can’t report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can’t report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE

       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with  stat(2)
       functions  can  be  time  consuming.  What’s more, the information that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or  /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof where
       it’s not needed.)  The local system administrator who builds  lsof  can
       control  the  way  the device cache file path is formed, selecting from
       these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state  of  device  cache  support.   The  help output lists the default
       read-mode device cache file path that is  in  effect  for  the  current
       invocation  of  lsof.   The  -D?  option output lists the read-only and
       write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable  environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof   can   detect  that  the  current  device  cache  file  has  been
       accidentally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the
       computation  and  verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check
       (CRC) sum on the file’s contents.  When  lsof  senses  something  wrong
       with  the  file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current
       cache file and create a new copy, but only to a path that  the  process
       can legitimately write.

       The  path  from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache
       file may not be the same as the  path  to  which  it  can  legitimately
       write.   Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device cache
       file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the path  from
       which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If  available,  the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device
       cache file.  (It’s always available when specified without a path  name
       argument.)

       When  a  new  device  is added to the system, the device cache file may
       need to be recreated.  Since lsof compares  the  mtime  of  the  device
       cache  file  with  the  mtime  and  ctime  of  the  /dev  (or /devices)
       directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that
       case  lsof  issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device
       cache file.

       Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to  the
       real  UID  of  the executing process, and its permission modes to 0600,
       this restricting its reading and writing to the file’s owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS

       Two permissions of the lsof executable affect  its  ability  to  access
       device  cache  files.   The  permissions  are  set  by the local system
       administrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It  comes  into  effect
       when  lsof  is executed; its effective UID is then root, while its real
       (i.e., that of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The  lsof  distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The  second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect
       when the effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of  the  lsof
       process  is  set  to  one that can access kernel memory devices - e.g.,
       ‘‘kmem’’, ‘‘sys’’, or ‘‘system’’.

       An lsof process that  has  setgid  permission  usually  surrenders  the
       permission  after  it  has accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it
       does that, lsof can allow more liberal device  cache  path  formations.
       The  lsof  distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run
       setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[123]
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [67].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [67].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[01234567] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof  for  these  dialects  does  not  support  a  device cache, so the
       permissions given to the executable don’t apply  to  the  device  cache
       file.

            Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION

       The  -D  option  provides limited means for specifying the device cache
       file path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write  device
       cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to
       request that the cache file be built in a specific location  (b[path]);
       read  but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The b,
       r, and u functions are restricted  under  some  conditions.   They  are
       restricted  when  the  lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted  when  the  lsof  process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn’t surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section  for  a
       list  of  implementations  that  normally  don’t surrender their setgid
       permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to  read  device  information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof  to  read  the  device  cache
       file,  but  not  update  it.   When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device cache file path.  The r function is  always  available
       when  it  is  specified  without  a path name argument.  If lsof is not
       running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a  path  name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When  available,  the  u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache file.  If it can’t read the file, or if it  finds  the
       contents  of  the  file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the  device
       cache  file,  but  only  to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE

       Lsofs second choice for the device cache file is the contents  of  the
       LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from
       the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable:  lsof will not write a device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn’t surrender its setgid
       permission.   (See  the  LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE
       ACCESS section for information on implementations that don’t  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable or change its name when  building  lsof.   Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable’s name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH

       The  local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by  a special system administration procedure when the system is booted
       or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined,  it  is
       lsofs third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof  will  never  write  to  the system-wide device cache file path by
       default.  It  must  be  explicitly  named  with  a  -D  function  in  a
       root-owned  procedure.   Once  the file has been written, the procedure
       must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read  and  owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)

       The  default  device  cache  file  path of the lsof distribution is one
       recorded in the home directory of the  real  UID  that  executes  lsof.
       Added  to  the  home  directory  is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsofs fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the
       default.  If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can’t find  the
       system-wide  device  cache  file.   This is the only time lsof uses two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component  is  the  base  name  of  the
       executing  host,  as  returned  by  gethostname(2).   The  base name is
       defined  to  be  the  characters  preceding  the  first  ‘.’   in   the
       gethostname(2)  output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains
       no ‘.’.

       The device cache file belongs to  the  user  ID  and  is  readable  and
       writable  by  the  user  ID  alone  -  i.e.,  its modes are 0600.  Each
       distinct real user ID on a given host that executes lsof has a distinct
       device  cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes device
       cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into  which  device  cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The  personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a
       device cache file that lsof will attempt to read, and will  attempt  to
       write  should  it  not  exist  or  should  its contents be incorrect or
       outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal device  cache  file.   The  conversions  used  in  the  format
       specification   are   described  in  the  00DCACHE  file  of  the  lsof
       distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH

       If this option is defined by the local system administrator  when  lsof
       is  built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the  path  at  the
       place  marked  by  the  local  system  administrator  with  the  ‘‘%p’’
       conversion in the  HASPERSDC  format  specification  of  the  dialect’s
       machine.h  header file.  (It’s placed right after the home directory in
       the default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for  example,  if  LSOFPERSDCPATH  contains  ‘‘LSOF’’,  the  home
       directory is ‘‘/Homes/abe’’, the host name is ‘‘lsof.itap.purdue.edu’’,
       and the  HASPERSDC  format  is  the  default  (‘‘%h/%p.lsof_%L’’),  the
       modified personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  is  ignored  when  the lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache  file  path  if
       the  lsof  process  doesn’t surrender setgid permission.  (See the LSOF
       PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list  of
       implementations that normally don’t surrender their setgid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal  device
       cache  file  paths  by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to
       name it, and lsof doesn’t surrender its  setgid  permission,  you  will
       have  to  allow  lsof  to  create  device  cache  files at the standard
       personal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option  when  lsof  is
       built;  change the name of the environment variable from LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the  personal
       path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component
       entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option  for  the  environment
       variable’s name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V
       option is specified, lsof will indicate the search items it  failed  to
       list.

       It  returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to  /dev  (or  /devices)  or  one  of  its
       subdirectories,  or  get information on a file in them with stat(2), it
       issues a warning message and continues.  That lsof will  issue  warning
       messages about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in
       its help output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -   with  the
       message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by  the  setting  of  the  WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In this case, the
       output from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after  lsof  has
       created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES

       For  a  more  extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID  is
       1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming  the  UNIX  dialect  supports  IPv6,  to  list only open IPv6
       network files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of  host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To  list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ‘‘abe’’,  or  user  ID  1234,  or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP ‘lsof -t /u/abe/bar‘

       To  find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with
       the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To find processes  with  open  files  on  the  NFS  file  system  named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field  output  for  each  process,  file
       descriptor,  file device number, and file inode number for each file of
       each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process  running  the
       lsof command for login ID ‘‘abe’’ every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To  list  the  current working directory of processes running a command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an ’o’ or ’O’ in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To  find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form
       address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To  find  an  IP  version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by an associated numeric colon-form address that  has  a  run  of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

BUGS

       Since  lsof  reads  kernel  memory  in its search for open files, rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has  multiple  record  locks,  the  lock  status  character
       (following  the  file  descriptor)  is derived from a test of the first
       lock structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks
       that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can’t search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless it is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise  it  is
       limited  to  searching for files to which its user or its set-GID group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends  on  the  UNIX  operating  system.   Some  dialects  store  the
       destination address in the raw socket’s protocol control block, some do
       not.

       Lsof can’t always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor device numbers  that  the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones  that
       it  reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and  Tru64
       UNIX  dialects,  Linux,  and  dialects  derived  from  SYSV  R4 - e.g.,
       FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and  file  size  -
       are  unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.   All
       entries  for  files  other than the current working directory, the root
       directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem  descriptors.

       Lsof  can’t  search  for  Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their
       kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for
       a named pipe.

       Lsof  can’t  report  fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00
       locks because of insufficient access to kernel data or  errors  in  the
       kernel  data.   See  the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
       for details.

       The AIX SMT file  type  is  a  fabrication.   It’s  made  up  for  file
       structures    whose    type    (15)    isn’t   defined   in   the   AIX
       /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.   One  way  to  create  such  file
       structures  is  to  run  X  clients  with  the  DISPLAY variable set to
       ‘‘:0.0’’.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based  Linux  lsof,
       because it doesn’t read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT

       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines  a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the
                         names of other variables that can be used in place of
                         LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines  the  path  to  a device cache file.  See the
                         DEVICE  CACHE  PATH  FROM  AN  ENVIRONMENT   VARIABLE
                         section for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines  the  middle component of a modified personal
                         device cache file path.  See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL
                         DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ

       Frequently-asked  questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES

       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsofs  device  cache  file (The suffix, hostname, is
                         the first component of the host’s  name  returned  by
                         gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS

       Lsof  was  written  by  Victor  A.  Abell  <abe@purdue.edu>  of  Purdue
       University.  Many others have contributed to lsof.  They’re  listed  in
       the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION

       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You’ll find the lsof  distribution  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you’ll be given a list
       of  some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains
       a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with  caution  -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some     pre-compiled     Lsof    executables    are    available    on
       lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is discouraged - it’s  better  that
       you  build  your  own  from  the  sources.   If you feel you must use a
       pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions that  appear  in  the
       README  files of the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in
       the 00* files of the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof  distribution  can  be  found  in  its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO

       Not  all  the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),
       gethostname(2),  isprint(3),  kill(1),  lstat(2), modload(8), mount(8),
       netstat(1),  ofiles(8L),  perl(1),  ps(1),  readlink(2),  setlocale(3),
       stat(2), uname(1).

                                 Revision-4.76                         LSOF(8)