Provided by: courier-mta_0.47-13ubuntu5_i386 bug

NAME

       makealiases - Create an alias database

SYNOPSIS

       makealiases  [ -protocol=protocol ] [ -alias=filename ] [ -src=pathname
       ] [ -tmp=filename ] [ -chk ] [ -dump ] [ module ]

DESCRIPTION

       Courier’s /etc/courier/aliases.dat file is a unified implementation  of
       sendmail-style  address  aliasing,  qmail-style  virtual  domains, plus
       several Courier-style enhancements.

       The term aliasing refers to substituting  one  or  more  addresses  for
       another address. A one-to-one substitution results in Courier accepting
       mail for one address, and delivering the mail  to  another  address.  A
       one-to-many  substitution  results  in  Courier  accepting mail for one
       address, and delivering a separate copy of the message to every address
       defined by the alias.

       /etc/courier/aliases.dat   is  a  binary  database  file.   makealiases
       creates the binary database file by reading the aliases from plain text
       files, and makealiases creates /etc/courier/aliases.dat by default.

       makealiases  creates  /etc/courier/aliases.dat  from one or more source
       files, which are plain text files that  may  be  created  by  any  text
       editor.  The format of those source files is defined below. By default,
       makealiases obtains the source text from /etc/courier/aliases. If  this
       is  a  text  file, it is used verbatim. If this is a directory (Courier
       creates it as a directory by default), all the non-hidden files in this
       directory are concatenated together.

OPTIONS

       -alias=filename
              Create filename, instead of /etc/courier/aliases.dat.

       -chk   Try  to  search  for bad addresses used in the aliases.dat file.
              This option takes some time to complete. It does not  create  an
              aliases.dat  file,  but  instead  tries  to  check every address
              specified by the source text file. Why is this necessary? That’s
              because  non-delivery reports will not be sent to the sender for
              failures in delivering mail to an aliased address.  This  is  by
              design.  Courier  considers aliases to be private mailing lists.
              Because non-delivery notices are not sent,  bad  addresses  will
              not be immediately detected.

              Note:  The  -chk  option is really effective for addresses which
              are local, because there is no real way to determine if a remote
              mail address is valid.

       -dump  Do  not  create aliases.dat, instead display the contents of the
              alias database, in plain text form. The  contents  will  be  the
              combined  contents  of  all the source files, with all addresses
              converted to canonical format, with duplicates removed and  sub-
              aliases expanded.

       -src=pathname
              Use pathname instead of /etc/courier/aliases as the source file.
              pathname can also refer to a directory. This concatenates  every
              non-hidden file in the directory.

       -tmp=filename
              Use    filename    as    a    temporary    file,    instead   of
              /etc/courier/aliases.tmp.  makealiases requires a temporary file
              for  its own purposes, which is automatically removed when done.
              This temporary file  MUST  reside  on  the  same  filesystem  as
              aliases.dat.  If  the  -alias  option  specifies  a  file  on  a
              different filesystem,  use  this  option  to  specify  where  to
              temporary   place   a  file  in  the  same  filesystem.  Because
              makealiases always uses the same name for a temporary  file  you
              cannot run more than one makealiases process at the same time.

       -protocol=protocol
              Use  an  alias  list  that’s  private  to  messages  coming from
              protocol.  See below.

       The optional module specifies the module whose rewriting rules are used
       to  convert  E-mail  addresses into a canonical form. If not specified,
       the local module’s address rewriting rules will be used.

PROTOCOL ALIASES

       Addresses in /etc/courier/aliases.dat will be checked in every message.
       Use  the  -protocol  option to create aliases that will be checked only
       for message that are received via a specific protocol, such  as  ESMTP,
       UUCP,  or  locally-generated  mail.  This  allows  you, for example, to
       create an alias such as "everyone", which is only avaliable to  locally
       generated  mail,  and  does  not  work for mail received via ESMTP. The
       argument to the -protocol option is one of: esmtp, uucp, or local.

       Protocol-specific alias  files  are  /etc/courier/aliases-protocol.dat,
       where "protocol" is the specific protocol, such as "local", "esmtp", or
       "uucp",  and  the  source   file   read   by   makealiases   would   be
       /etc/courier/aliases-protocol.  If  the  -protocol option is specified,
       makealiases will access these files instead of /etc/courier/aliases.dat
       and /etc/courier/aliases.

ALIAS SPECIFICATIONS

       The  sources  file  used  to create the binary aliases.dat database are
       plain text files that may be created using any editor.

       Each alias specification takes the following form:

       alias: address1, address2, ...

       Mail received by Courier addressed to alias will be  delivered  to  the
       list  of addresses specified. The list of addresses may be split across
       multiple lines, if the second and subsequent line starts with  a  space
       character.

       Lines starting with the # character are ignored, they are comments.

       alias is not restricted to be a local address.  It may be any valid RFC
       2822 address. All addresses do not necessary have to be in a  canonical
       form.

       alias: :include:/absolute/pathname

       This   notation   reads  the  list  of  addresses  from  another  file,
       /absolute/pathname.  This file should  contain  one  address  per  line
       (comma separated addresses on the same line will also work).

              Note:

              If alias refers to a local, existing, account, this account will
              never get  any  mail.  Any  mail  with  the  account  listed  as
              recipient  will be redirected to all the addresses specified for
              that alias. To have a copy of the mail delivered to the account,
              define  it  as  one  of  the  addresses in the alias itself. For
              example:

              larry: larry, moe, curly, shemp

              Larry will still receive his mail, but copies will will also  be
              sent  to Moe, Curly, and Shemp. If Larry wasn’t specified in the
              alias, he would never get any mail, it will all be forwarded  to
              Moe, Curly, and Shemp.

DUPLICATE ADDRESSES

       Alias definitions may refer to other alias definitions, and makealiases
       automatically incorporates addresses from other aliases.  If  the  same
       address  is  listed  in  multiple  aliases, and two or more of them are
       specified as recipients of the same  message,  only  one  copy  of  the
       message will be delivered to the address.

VIRTUAL DOMAINS

       The  following  special  syntax  implements a virtual domain. A virtual
       domain redirects all mail for an entire domain to one user:

       @domain: user

       This special entry  results  in  any  recipient  address  of  the  form
       foo@domain  to be rewritten as user-foo@me, where me is the hostname of
       the machine, which we expect to be a local domain.

       The following examples use the alias entry  "@example.com:  john",  and
       "domain.com"    is    in    the    control/me    file.    The   address
       "postmaster@example.com"  becomes   "john-postmaster@domain.com",   and
       "sales-info@example.com" becomes "john-sales-info@domain.com.

       The  intended  behavior  is  to use an actual account named john.  As a
       result of the virtual domain address rewriting,  delivery  instructions
       for   postmaster@example.com   can   now   be   specified   by   john’s
       $HOME/.courier-postmaster file, and delivery  instructions  for  sales-
       info@example.com  may be specified by $HOME/.courier-sales-info. john’s
       $HOME/.courier-default may be used to specify delivery instructions for
       any  other  address  in  the example.com domain, which does not have an
       explicit .courier file.

       If the alias entry was "@example.com: john-example", the  corresponding
       files   in  john’s  $HOME  directory  are  .courier-example-postmaster,
       .courier-example-sales-info,  and  .courier-example-default.  See  dot-
       courier(5) for more information on .courier files.

              Note:

              Virtual  domain  rewriting  is  NOT  recursive,  unlike  regular
              aliases. For example:

              tom: john@example.com
              @example.com: larry

              You should explicitly expand the alias out:

              tom: larry-john

PROGRAM OR MAILBOX ALIASES

       The following notation associates an address directly with  a  mailbox,
       or with a program:

       info: /var/shared/info

       Messages  addressed  to  "info"  will  be  delivered  to the mailbox or
       maildir /var/shared/info.  A full pathname must be specified.

       info: | /usr/local/shared/info

       Mail addressed to "info" will be delivered to  the  indicated  program.
       The program receives each message on standard input.

       Program/mailbox  delivery  notation is primarily used to support legacy
       sendmail aliases entries.  This is considered to be a  legacy  feature,
       and  new  installations  should  create  a dot-courier(5) file with the
       necessary delivery instructions.  In  fact,  aliases  for  programs  or
       mailboxes  is  not directly supported by Courier’s aliasing mechanisms.
       It’s implemented by having the makealiases script automatically  create
       a .courier file, and point the alias address to it.

       See dot-courier(5) for more information.

              Note:  Unlike sendmail, Courier delivers as user "daemon" (group
              daemon) when delivering to programs or mailboxes.

UUCP VIRTUAL DOMAINS

       The following notation allows mail addressed to a certain domain to  be
       forwarded via uucp:

       @domain: uucp!bang!path!

       The  trailing ! tells Courier not to append a dash, so user@domain gets
       rewritten as uucp!bang!path!user, and not uucp!bang!path-user, which is
       probably not what you want.

DELIVERY STATUS NOTIFICATIONS

       An  alias  with  only  one  address  does  not  affect  delivery status
       notification attributes of an E-mail message.

       An alias with multiple addresses is  treated  like  a  private  mailing
       list,  as  defined  by  RFC 1894.  If the message requests a successful
       delivery notification, Courier generates a delivery status notification
       for  the  successful  delivery  to  the aliased address, and each alias
       recipient address will have DSNs set to NEVER.

BUGS

       This has nothing to do with Courier’s support for a  Qmail-style  alias
       account.

       owner-foo feature of sendmail’s aliasing is not supported.

       Courier  normally  tries  to  eliminate  duplicate  addresses listed as
       recipients for the same message. Some mail servers are not  capable  of
       delivering  messages  with  multiple  recipients,  and  will transmit a
       separate copy of the same message addressed to each recipient.  Courier
       can’t  do anything in this case. Each copy of the same original text is
       considered an individual, separate, message.

       Duplicate elimination can fail in certain rare circumstances, involving
       exotic features of RFC 2822 concerning case sensitivity.

       "@example.com:  jack,  jill" is allowed, but strongly discouraged under
       the penalty of law.

       Because multiple-recipient aliases are  treated  like  private  mailing
       lists,  failure  DSNs  are  turned  off, and a bad recipient address is
       hardly noticed by anyone.

       The makealiases command may execute while Courier is running,  and  any
       changes   take  effect  immediately.  However,  only  one  instance  of
       makealiases is permitted to run at the same time.

SEE ALSO

       esmtpd(8).