Provided by: mdadm_1.12.0-1ubuntu5_i386 bug


       mdadm - manage MD devices aka Linux Software Raid.


       mdadm [mode] <raiddevice> [options] <component-devices>


       RAID  devices  are  virtual devices created from two or more real block
       devices.  This  allows  multiple  devices  (typically  disk  drives  or
       partitions  there-of)  to be combined into a single device to hold (for
       example) a single filesystem.  Some RAID levels include redundancy  and
       so can survive some degree of device failure.

       Linux  Software  RAID  devices are implemented through the md (Multiple
       Devices) device driver.

       Currently, Linux supports LINEAR md devices,  RAID0  (striping),  RAID1
       (mirroring), RAID4, RAID5, RAID6, MULTIPATH, and FAULTY.

       MULTIPATH  is  not a Software RAID mechanism, but does involve multiple
       devices.  For MULTIPATH each device is a path to  one  common  physical
       storage device.

       FAULTY  is  also  not  true  RAID, and it only involves one device.  It
       provides a layer over a true device that can be used to inject  faults.


       mdadm has 7 major modes of operation:

              Assemble  the parts of a previously created array into an active
              array. Components can be explicitly given  or  can  be  searched
              for.   mdadm  checks  that  the  components  do form a bona fide
              array, and can, on request, fiddle superblock information so  as
              to assemble a faulty array.

       Build  Build  an  array  that doesn’t have per-device superblocks.  For
              these  sorts  of  arrays,  mdadm  cannot  differentiate  between
              initial  creation  and subsequent assembly of an array.  It also
              cannot perform any checks that  appropriate  devices  have  been
              requested.   Because of this, the Build mode should only be used
              together with a complete understanding of what you are doing.

       Create Create a new array with per-device superblocks.

       Manage This is for doing things to specific components of an array such
              as adding new spares and removing faulty devices.

       Misc   This  mode  allows  operations  on  independent  devices such as
              examine MD superblocks, erasing  old  superblocks  and  stopping
              active arrays.

       Follow or Monitor
              Monitor  one  or  more  md devices and act on any state changes.
              This is only meaningful for raid1, 4, 5, 6 or  multipath  arrays
              as  only  these  have  interesting state.  raid0 or linear never
              have missing, spare, or failed drives, so there  is  nothing  to

       Grow   Grow  (or shrink) an array, or otherwise reshape it in some way.
              Currently supported growth options including changing the active
              size  of  componenet  devices in RAID level 1/4/5/6 and changing
              the number of active devices in RAID1.


       Available options are:

       -A, --assemble
              Assemble a pre-existing array.

       -B, --build
              Build a legacy array without superblocks.

       -C, --create
              Create a new array.

       -Q, --query
              Examine a device to see (1) if it is an md device and (2) if  it
              is  a  component  of  an  md  array.   Information about what is
              discovered is presented.

       -D, --detail
              Print detail of one or more md devices.

       -E, --examine
              Print content of md superblock on device(s).

       -F, --follow, --monitor
              Select Monitor mode.

       -G, --grow
              Change the size or shape of an active array.

       -h, --help
              Display general help message or, after one of the above options,
              a mode specific help message.

              Display  more  detailed help about command line parsing and some
              commonly used options.

       -V, --version
              Print version information for mdadm.

       -v, --verbose
              Be more verbose about what is happening.  This can be used twice
              to be extra-verbose.  The extra verbosity currently only affects
              --detail --scan and --examine --scan.

       -b, --brief
              Be less verbose.  This is  used  with  --detail  and  --examine.
              Using  --brief  with  --verbose  gives  an intermediate level of

       -f, --force
              Be more forceful about  certain  operations.   See  the  various
              modes of the exact meaning of this option in different contexts.

       -c, --config=
              Specify the config file.  Default is /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf.   If
              the  config  file given is partitions then nothing will be read,
              but mdadm will act as though the config file  contained  exactly
              DEVICE  partitions and will read /proc/partitions to find a list
              of devices to scan.  If the word none is given  for  the  config
              file,  then mdadm will act as though the config file were empty.

       -s, --scan
              scan config file or /proc/mdstat for  missing  information.   In
              general,  this  option gives mdadm permission to get any missing
              information,  like  component  devices,  array  devices,   array
              identities,  and  alert destination from the configuration file:
              /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf.  One exception is MISC  mode  when  using
              --detail  or  --stop  in which case --scan says to get a list of
              array devices from /proc/mdstat.

For create or build:

       -c, --chunk=
              Specify chunk size of kibibytes.  The default is 64.

              Specify rounding factor for linear array (==chunk size)

       -l, --level=
              Set raid level.  When used with --create, options  are:  linear,
              raid0,  0,  stripe, raid1, 1, mirror, raid4, 4, raid5, 5, raid6,
              6,  multipath,  mp,  fautly.   Obviously  some  of   these   are

              When  used  with  --build, only linear, stripe, raid0, 0, raid1,
              multipath, mp, and faulty are valid.

       -p, --parity=
              Set raid5 parity algorithm. Options are: left-asymmetric,  left-
              symmetric,  right-asymmetric,  right-symmetric,  la, ra, ls, rs.
              The default is left-symmetric.

              This option is also used to set the  failure  mode  for  faulty.
              The options are: write-transient, wt, read-transient, rt, write-
              presistent, wp, read-persistent,  rp,  write-all,  read-fixable,
              rf, clear, flush, none.

              Each  mode can be followed by a number which is used as a period
              between fault  generation.   Without  a  number,  the  fault  is
              generated  once  on  the first relevant request.  With a number,
              the fault will be generated after that many  request,  and  will
              continue to be generated every time the period elapses.

              Multiple  failure  modes  can be current simultaneously by using
              the "--grow" option to set subsequent failure modes.

              "clear" or "none" will remove any pending  or  periodic  failure
              modes, and "flush" will clear any persistant faults.

              To  set  the  parity  with  "--grow",  the  level  of  the array
              ("faulty") must be specified before the fault mode is specified.

              same as --parity

       -n, --raid-devices=
              Specify  the  number of active devices in the array.  This, plus
              the number of spare devices (see below) must equal the number of
              component-devices  (including "missing" devices) that are listed
              on the command line for --create.   Setting  a  value  of  1  is
              probably  a  mistake  and  so requires that --force be specified
              first.  A value of 1 will then be allowed for linear, multipath,
              raid0 and raid1.  It is never allowed for raid4 or raid5.
              This  number  can only be changed using --grow for RAID1 arrays,
              and only on kernels which provide necessary support.

       -x, --spare-devices=
              Specify the number of  spare  (eXtra)  devices  in  the  initial
              array.   Spares can also be added and removed later.  The number
              of component devices listed on the command line must  equal  the
              number of raid devices plus the number of spare devices.

       -z, --size=
              Amount  (in  Kibibytes)  of  space  to  use  from  each drive in
              RAID1/4/5/6.  This must be a multiple of  the  chunk  size,  and
              must  leave about 128Kb of space at the end of the drive for the
              RAID superblock.  If this is not specified (as  it  normally  is
              not)  the smallest drive (or partition) sets the size, though if
              there is a variance among the  drives  of  greater  than  1%,  a
              warning is issued.

              This value can be set with --grow for RAID level 1/4/5/6. If the
              array was created with a size smaller than the currently  active
              drives,  the extra space can be accessed using --grow.  The size
              can be given as max which means to choose the largest size  that
              fits on all current drives.

              Tell  mdadm that the array pre-existed and is known to be clean.
              This is only really useful for Building RAID1 array.   Only  use
              this  if  you really know what you are doing.  This is currently
              only supported for --build.

       -R, --run
              Insist that mdadm run the array, even if some of the  components
              appear  to  be  active in another array or filesystem.  Normally
              mdadm will ask for confirmation before including such components
              in an array.  This option causes that question to be suppressed.

       -f, --force
              Insist that mdadm  accept  the  geometry  and  layout  specified
              without  question.  Normally mdadm will not allow creation of an
              array with only one device, and will try to create a raid5 array
              with  one  missing  drive (as this makes the initial resync work
              faster).  With --force, mdadm will not try to be so clever.

       -a, --auto{=no,yes,md,mdp,part,p}{NN}
              Instruct mdadm to create the device  file  if  needed,  possibly
              allocating   an   unused  minor  number.   "md"  causes  a  non-
              partitionable array to be used.  "mdp", "part" or "p"  causes  a
              partitionable  array (2.6 and later) to be used.  "yes" requires
              the named md device to have  a  from  this.   See  DEVICE  NAMES

              The  argument can also come immediately after "-a".  e.g. "-ap".

              If --scan is also given, then any auto= entries  in  the  config
              file  will over-ride the --auto instruction given on the command

              For partitionable arrays, mdadm will create the device file  for
              the  whole  array  and  for the first 4 partitions.  A different
              number of partitions can be specified at the end of this  option
              (e.g.   --auto=p7).   If  the device name ends with a digit, the
              partition names add a’p’, and a number, e.g. "/dev/home1p3".  If
              there is no trailing digit, then the partition names just have a
              number added, e.g. "/dev/scratch3".

              If the md device name is in a ’standard’ format as described  in
              DEVICE  NAMES,  then  it will be created, if necessary, with the
              appropriate number based on that name.  If the  device  name  is
              not  in one of these formats, then a unused minor number will be
              allocated.  The minor number will be considered unused if  there
              is  no  active  array  for that number, and there is no entry in
              /dev for that number and with a non-standard name.

For assemble:

       -u, --uuid=
              uuid of array to assemble. Devices which don’t  have  this  uuid
              are excluded

       -m, --super-minor=
              Minor  number  of  device  that  array was created for.  Devices
              which don’t have this minor number are excluded.  If you  create
              an  array  as  /dev/md1,  then  all superblocks will contain the
              minor number  1,  even  if  the  array  is  later  assembled  as

              Giving the literal word "dev" for --super-minor will cause mdadm
              to use  the  minor  number  of  the  md  device  that  is  being
              assembled.   e.g.  when assembling /dev/md0, will look for super
              blocks with a minor number of 0.

       -f, --force
              Assemble the array even if some superblocks appear out-of-date

       -R, --run
              Attempt to start the array even if fewer drives were given  than
              are  needed  for  a  full  array. Normally if not all drives are
              found and --scan is not used, then the array will  be  assembled
              but not started.  With --run an attempt will be made to start it

       -a, --auto{=no,yes,md,mdp,part}
              See this option under Create and Build options.

       -U, --update=
              Update the superblock on each device while assembling the array.
              The  argument  given  to  this  flag  can  be  one  of sparc2.2,
              summaries, resync, or super-minor.

              The sparc2.2 option will  adjust the superblock of an array what
              was  created  on  a  Sparc  machine  running a patched 2.2 Linux
              kernel.  This kernel got the alignment of part of the superblock
              wrong.   You can use the --examine --sparc2.2 option to mdadm to
              see what effect this would have.

              The super-minor option will update the prefered minor  field  on
              each  superblock  to  match  the minor number of the array being
              assembled.  This is not needed on 2.6 and later kernels as  they
              make this adjustment automatically.

              The  resync  option  will  cause  the  array  to be marked dirty
              meaning that any redundancy in the array (e.g. parity for raid5,
              copies  for  raid1)  may be incorrect.  This will cause the raid
              system to  perform  a  "resync"  pass  to  make  sure  that  all
              redundant information is correct.

              The   summaries   option  will  correct  the  summaries  in  the
              superblock. That  is  the  counts  of  total,  working,  active,
              failed, and spare devices.

For Manage mode:

       -a, --add
              hotadd listed devices.

       -r, --remove
              remove  listed  devices.   They  must  not be active.  i.e. they
              should be failed or spare devices.

       -f, --fail
              mark listed devices as faulty.

              same as --fail.

For Examine mode:

              If an array was created on a 2.2 Linux kernel patched with  RAID
              support,  the  superblock will have been created incorrectly, or
              at least incompatibly with 2.4 and  later  kernels.   Using  the
              --sparc2.2  flag  with  --examine will fix the superblock before
              displaying it.  If this appears to do the right thing, then  the
              array   can   be   successfully   assembled   using   --assemble

For Misc mode:

       -R, --run
              start a partially built array.

       -S, --stop
              deactivate array, releasing all resources.

       -o, --readonly
              mark array as readonly.

       -w, --readwrite
              mark array as readwrite.

              If the device contains a valid md superblock, the block is over-
              written with zeros.  With --force the block where the superblock
              would be is over-written even if it doesn’t appear to be  valid.

       -t, --test
              When  used  with  --detail,  the  exit status of mdadm is set to
              reflect the status of the device.

For Monitor mode:

       -m, --mail
              Give a mail address to send alerts to.

       -p, --program, --alert
              Give a program to be run whenever an event is detected.

       -d, --delay
              Give a delay in seconds.  mdadm polls the  md  arrays  and  then
              waits this many seconds before polling again.  The default is 60

       -f, --daemonise
              Tell mdadm to run as  a  background  daemon  if  it  decides  to
              monitor  anything.  This causes it to fork and run in the child,
              and to disconnect form the terminal.   The  process  id  of  the
              child  is  written  to stdout.  This is useful with --scan which
              will only continue monitoring if a mail address or alert program
              is found in the config file.

       -i, --pid-file
              When  mdadm  is  running  in  daemon  mode, write the pid of the
              daemon process to the specified file, instead of printing it  on
              standard output.

       -1, --oneshot
              Check  arrays only once.  This will generate NewArray events and
              more  significantly  DegradedArray  and  SparesMissing   events.
                      mdadm --monitor --scan -1
              from  a  cron  script  will  ensure  regular notification of any
              degraded arrays.

       -t, --test
              Generate a TestMessage alert for every array found  at  startup.
              This  alert  gets  mailed and passed to the alert program.  This
              can be used for  testing  that  alert  message  do  get  through


       Usage: mdadm --assemble md-device options-and-component-devices...

       Usage: mdadm --assemble --scan md-devices-and-options...

       Usage: mdadm --assemble --scan options...

       This  usage  assembles  one  or  more  raid  arrays  from  pre-existing
       components.  For each array, mdadm needs to know  the  md  device,  the
       identity  of the array, and a number of component-devices. These can be
       found in a number of ways.

       In the first usage example (without the --scan) the first device  given
       is  the md device.  In the second usage example, all devices listed are
       treated as md devices and assembly is attempted.  In the  third  (where
       no  devices  are  listed)  all  md  devices  that  are  listed  in  the
       configuration file are assembled.

       If precisely one device is listed, but --scan is not given, then  mdadm
       acts  as  though --scan was given and identify information is extracted
       from the configuration file.

       The identity can be given with the --uuid  option,  with  the  --super-
       minor  option,  can be found  in the config file, or will be taken from
       the super block on the first component-device  listed  on  the  command

       Devices  can  be  given on the --assemble command line or in the config
       file. Only devices which have an md superblock which contains the right
       identity will be considered for any array.

       The  config  file  is  only  used  if explicitly named with --config or
       requested with (a  possibly  implicit)  --scan.   In  the  later  case,
       /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf is used.

       If  --scan is not given, then the config file will only be used to find
       the identity of md arrays.

       Normally the array will be started after it is assembled.   However  if
       --scan  is  not  given  and  insufficient drives were listed to start a
       complete (non-degraded) array, then the array is not started (to  guard
       against  usage  errors).   To  insist that the array be started in this
       case (as may work for RAID1, 4, 5 or 6), give the --run flag.

       If an auto option is given, either on the command line (--auto)  or  in
       the  configuration file (e.g. auto=part), then mdadm will create the md
       device if necessary or will re-create it if it doesn’t look  usable  as
       it is.

       This can be useful for handling partitioned devices (which don’t have a
       stable device number - it can change after a  reboot)  and  when  using
       "udev"  to manage your /dev tree (udev cannot handle md devices because
       of the unusual device initialisation conventions).

       If the option to "auto" is "mdp" or "part"  or  (on  the  command  line
       only)  "p",  then  mdadm  will  create a partitionable array, using the
       first free one that is not inuse, and does not already have an entry in
       /dev (apart from numeric /dev/md* entries).

       If  the  option  to  "auto"  is  "yes" or "md" or (on the command line)
       nothing, then mdadm will create  a  traditional,  non-partitionable  md

       It  is  expected  that  the "auto" functionality will be used to create
       device  entries  with  meaningful  names  such  as  "/dev/md/home"   or
       "/dev/md/root",  rather than names based on the numerical array number.

       When using this option to create  a  partitionable  array,  the  device
       files  for  the  first  4  partitions  are also created. If a different
       number is required it can be simply appended to the auto option.   e.g.
       "auto=part8".   Partition names are created by appending a digit string
       to the device name, with an intervening "p" if  the  device  name  ends
       with a digit.

       The  --auto  option  is  also  available in Build and Create modes.  As
       those modes do not use a config file, the "auto="  config  option  does
       not apply to these modes.


       Usage:   mdadm  --build  device  --chunk=X  --level=Y  --raid-devices=Z

       This usage is similar to --create.  The difference is that  it  creates
       an array without a superblock. With these arrays there is no difference
       between initially creating the array and  subsequently  assembling  the
       array,  except  that hopefully there is useful data there in the second

       The level may raid0, linear, multipath, or  faulty,  or  one  of  their
       synonyms. All devices must be listed and the array will be started once


       Usage: mdadm --create device --chunk=X --level=Y
                   --raid-devices=Z devices

       This usage will initialise a new md array, associate some devices  with
       it, and activate the array.

       If  the  --auto  option  is  given  (as described in more detail in the
       section on Assemble mode), then the md device will be  created  with  a
       suitable device number if necessary.

       As  devices  are  added,  they  are checked to see if they contain raid
       superblocks or filesystems.  They  are  also  checked  to  see  if  the
       variance in device size exceeds 1%.

       If  any  discrepancy is found, the array will not automatically be run,
       though the presence of a --run can override this caution.

       To create a "degraded" array in which some devices are missing,  simply
       give  the  word  "missing"  in place of a device name.  This will cause
       mdadm to leave the corresponding slot in the array empty.  For a  RAID4
       or  RAID5 array at most one slot can be "missing"; for a RAID6 array at
       most two slots.  For a RAID1 array, only one real device  needs  to  be
       given.  All of the others can be "missing".

       When creating a RAID5 array, mdadm will automatically create a degraded
       array with an extra spare drive.  This is because  building  the  spare
       into a degraded array is in general faster than resyncing the parity on
       a non-degraded, but not clean, array.  This feature can be  over-ridden
       with the --force option.

       The General Management options that are valid with --create are:

       --run  insist  on running the array even if some devices look like they
              might be in use.

              start the array readonly - not supported yet.


       Usage: mdadm device options... devices...

       This usage will allow individual devices in  an  array  to  be  failed,
       removed  or  added.  It is possible to perform multiple operations with
       on command. For example:
         mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/hda1 -r /dev/hda1 -a /dev/hda1
       will firstly mark /dev/hda1 as faulty in /dev/md0 and will then  remove
       it  from the array and finally add it back in as a spare.  However only
       one md array can be affected by a single command.


       Usage: mdadm options ...  devices ...

       MISC mode includes a number of  distinct  operations  that  operate  on
       distinct devices.  The operations are:

              The  device  is examined to see if it is (1) an active md array,
              or (2) a component of an md array.  The  information  discovered
              is reported.

              The  device should be an active md device.  mdadm will display a
              detailed description of the array.  --brief or --scan will cause
              the output to be less detailed and the format to be suitable for
              inclusion in /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf.  The exit  status  of  mdadm
              will normally be 0 unless mdadm failed to get useful information
              about the device(s).  However if the  --test  option  is  given,
              then the exit status will be:

              0      The array is functioning normally.

              1      The array has at least one failed device.

              2      The  array  has  multiple  failed  devices  and  hence is
                     unusable (raid4 or raid5).

              4      There was an error while trying to get information  about
                     the device.

              The  device  should  be  a component of an md array.  mdadm will
              read the md superblock of the device and display  the  contents.
              If  --brief  is  given, or --scan then multiple devices that are
              components of the one array are grouped together and reported in
              a  single entry suitable for inclusion in /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf.

              Having --scan without listing any devices will cause all devices
              listed in the config file to be examined.

       --stop The   devices   should   be  active  md  arrays  which  will  be
              deactivated, as long as they are not currently in use.

       --run  This will fully activate a partially assembled md array.

              This will mark an active array as read-only, providing  that  it
              is not currently being used.

              This will change a readonly array back to being read/write.

       --scan For  all  operations  except  --examine,  --scan  will cause the
              operation to be applied to all arrays  listed  in  /proc/mdstat.
              For  --examine,  --scan  causes all devices listed in the config
              file to be examined.


       Usage: mdadm --monitor options... devices...

       This usage causes mdadm to periodically poll a number of md arrays  and
       to report on any events noticed.  mdadm will never exit once it decides
       that there are arrays to be checked, so it should normally  be  run  in
       the background.

       As  well  as  reporting  events,  mdadm may move a spare drive from one
       array to another if they  are  in  the  same  spare-group  and  if  the
       destination array has a failed drive but no spares.

       If  any devices are listed on the command line, mdadm will only monitor
       those devices. Otherwise all arrays listed in  the  configuration  file
       will  be  monitored.   Further,  if  --scan is given, then any other md
       devices that appear in /proc/mdstat will also be monitored.

       The result of monitoring the arrays is the generation of events.  These
       events  are  passed  to  a  separate  program (if specified) and may be
       mailed to a given E-mail address.

       When passing event to program, the program is run once for  each  event
       and  is given 2 or 3 command-line arguements.  The first is the name of
       the event (see below).  The second is the name of the md  device  which
       is affected, and the third is the name of a related device if relevant,
       such as a component device that has failed.

       If --scan is given, then  a  program  or  an  E-mail  address  must  be
       specified  on  the  command line or in the config file.  If neither are
       available, then mdadm will not monitor anything.  Without --scan  mdadm
       will continue monitoring as long as something was found to monitor.  If
       no program or email is given, then each event is reported to stdout.

       The different events are:

                  An md array which previously was configured  appears  to  no
                  longer be configured.

                  If  mdadm  was  told  to  monitor an array which is RAID0 or
                  Linear, then it will report DeviceDisappeared with the extra
                  information  Wrong-Level.   This is because RAID0 and Linear
                  do not  support  the  device-failed,  hot-spare  and  resync
                  operations which are monitored.

                  An md array started reconstruction.

                  Where  NN  is 20, 40, 60, or 80, this indicates that rebuild
                  has passed that many percentage of the total.

                  An md array that was  rebuilding,  isn’t  any  more,  either
                  because it finished normally or was aborted.

           Fail   An  active  component  device of an array has been marked as

                  A spare component device which was being rebuilt to  replace
                  a faulty device has failed.

                  A  spare component device which was being rebuilt to replace
                  a faulty device as been successfully rebuild  and  has  been
                  made active.

                  A new md array has been detected in the /proc/mdstat file.

                  A  newly noticed array appears to be degraded.  This message
                  is not generated when mdadm notices a  drive  failure  which
                  causes  degradation,  but  only  when  mdadm notices that an
                  array is degraded when it first sees the array.

                  A spare drive has been moved from one array in a spare-group
                  to another to allow a failed drive to be replaced.

                  If  mdadm  has been told, via the config file, that an array
                  should have a certain number of  spare  devices,  and  mdadm
                  detects  that  it  has  fewer that this number when it first
                  sees the array, it will report a SparesMissing message.

                  An array was found at  startup,  and  the  --test  flag  was

       Only  Fail , FailSpare , DegradedArray , and TestMessage cause Email to
       be sent.  All events cause the program to be run.  The program  is  run
       with  two  or  three  arguments,  they  being the event name, the array
       device and possibly a second device.

       Each event has an associated array device (e.g.  /dev/md1) and possibly
       a  second  device.   For  Fail,  FailSpare,  and SpareActive the second
       device is the relevant component  device.   For  MoveSpare  the  second
       device is the array that the spare was moved from.

       For  mdadm  to  move  spares  from  one array to another, the different
       arrays  need  to  be  labelled  with  the  same  spare-group   in   the
       configuration file.  The spare-group name can be any string. It is only
       necessary that different spare groups use different names.

       When mdadm detects that an array which is in a spare  group  has  fewer
       active  devices than necessary for the complete array, and has no spare
       devices, it will look for another array in the same  spare  group  that
       has  a  full  complement  of  working  drive and a spare.  It will then
       attempt to remove the spare from the second drive and  add  it  to  the
       first.   If the removal succeeds but the adding fails, then it is added
       back to the original array.


       The GROW mode is used for changing the  size  or  shape  of  an  active
       array.  For this to work, the kernel must support the necessary change.
       Various types of growth may be added during 2.6  development,  possibly
       including restructuring a raid5 array to have more active devices.

       Currently  the only support available is to change the "size" attribute
       for arrays with redundancy,  and  the  raid-disks  attribute  of  RAID1

       Normally  when  an array is built the "size" it taken from the smallest
       of the drives.  If all the small drives in an  arrays  are,  one  at  a
       time,  removed  and replaced with larger drives, then you could have an
       array of  large  drives  with  only  a  small  amount  used.   In  this
       situation,  changing  the  "size" with "GROW" mode will allow the extra
       space to start being used.  If the size is increased  in  this  way,  a
       "resync" process will start to make sure the new parts of the array are

       Note that when an array changes size, any filesystem that may be stored
       in  the  array  will  not  automatically  grow  to  use the space.  The
       filesystem will need to be explicitly told to use the extra space.

       A RAID1 array can work with  any  number  of  devices  from  1  upwards
       (though  1  is  not very useful).  There may be times which you want to
       increase or decrease the number of active devices.  Note that  this  is
       different to hot-add or hot-remove which changes the number of inactive

       When reducing the number of devices in a RAID1 array, the  slots  which
       are  to be removed from the array must already be vacant.  That is, the
       devices that which were in those slots must be failed and removed.

       When the number of devices  is  increased,  any  hot  spares  that  are
       present will be activated immediately.


         mdadm --query /dev/name-of-device
       This  will  find  out  if a given device is a raid array, or is part of
       one, and will provide brief information about the device.

         mdadm --assemble --scan
       This will assemble and start all arrays listed in the standard  confile
       file.  This command will typically go in a system startup file.

         mdadm --stop --scan
       This  will  shut  down  all  array  that can be shut down (i.e. are not
       currently in use).  This will typically go in a system shutdown script.

         mdadm --follow --scan --delay=120
       If  (and  only  if)  there  is an Email address or program given in the
       standard config file, then monitor the status of all arrays  listed  in
       that file by polling them ever 2 minutes.

         mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/hd[ac]1
       Create /dev/md0 as a RAID1 array consisting of /dev/hda1 and /dev/hdc1.

         echoDEVICE /dev/hd*[0-9] /dev/sd*[0-9]> mdadm.conf
         mdadm --detail --scan >> mdadm.conf
       This will create a  prototype  config  file  that  describes  currently
       active  arrays that are known to be made from partitions of IDE or SCSI
       drives.  This file should be reviewed  before  being  used  as  it  may
       contain unwanted detail.

         echoDEVICE /dev/hd[a-z] /dev/sd*[a-z]> mdadm.conf
          mdadm  --examine  --scan --config=mdadm.conf >> mdadm.conf This will
       find what arrays could be assembled from existign IDE  and  SCSI  whole
       drives  (not  partitions)  and store the information is the format of a
       config file.  This file is very  likely  to  contain  unwanted  detail,
       particularly  the  devices=  entries.  It should be reviewed and edited
       before being used as an actual config file.

         mdadm --examine --brief --scan --config=partitions
         mdadm -Ebsc partitions
       Create a list of devices by reading /proc/partitions,  scan  these  for
       RAID superblocks, and printout a brief listing of all that was found.

         mdadm -Ac partitions -m 0 /dev/md0
       Scan all partitions and devices listed in /proc/partitions and assemble
       /dev/md0 out of all such devices with a RAID superblock  with  a  minor
       number of 0.

         mdadm --monitor --scan --daemonise > /var/run/mdadm
       If  config  file contains a mail address or alert program, run mdadm in
       the background in monitor mode monitoring all md devices.   Also  write
       pid of mdadm daemon to /var/run/mdadm.

         mdadm --create --help
       Providew help about the Create mode.

         mdadm --config --help
       Provide help about the format of the config file.

         mdadm --help
       Provide general help.


       If  you’re using the /proc filesystem, /proc/mdstat lists all active md
       devices with information about them.  mdadm uses this  to  find  arrays
       when  --scan is given in Misc mode, and to monitor array reconstruction
       on Monitor mode.

       The config file lists which devices may  be  scanned  to  see  if  they
       contain  MD  super block, and gives identifying information (e.g. UUID)
       about known MD arrays.  See mdadm.conf(5) for more details.


       While entries in the /dev directory can have any format you like, mdadm
       has  an  understanding of ’standard’ formats which it uses to guide its
       behaviour when creating device files via the --auto option.

       The standard names for non-partitioned arrays  (the  only  sort  of  md
       array available in 2.4 and earlier) either of


       where  NN is a number.  The standard names for partitionable arrays (as
       available from 2.6 onwards) is one of


       Partition numbers should be indicated by added  "pMM"  to  these,  thus


       mdadm was previously known as mdctl.

       mdadm  is  completely separate from the raidtools package, and does not
       use the /etc/raidtab configuration file at all.


       For information on the various levels of RAID, check out:


       The lastest version of mdadm should always be available from


       mdadm.conf(5), md(4).

       raidtab(5), raid0run(8), raidstop(8), mkraid(8).