Provided by: mkisofs_2.01+01a01-4ubuntu6_i386 bug

NAME

       mkisofs  - create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional
       Rock Ridge attributes.

SYNOPSIS

       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION

       mkisofs  is  effectively  a  pre-mastering  program  to   generate   an
       ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

       mkisofs  is  capable  of  generating  the  System  Use Sharing Protocol
       records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.   This
       is  used  to  further describe the files in the iso9660 filesystem to a
       unix host, and provides information such as longer filenames,  uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links, block and character devices.

       If  Joliet  or  HFS  hybrid command line options are specified, mkisofs
       will create additional filesystem meta data for  Joliet  or  HFS.   The
       file  content in this case refers to the same data blocks on the media.
       It will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless  the  Joliet  or  HFS
       hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when  accessed  from  a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO9660  files  when  accessed  from  other  machines.  HFS  stands for
       Hierarchical File  System  and  is  the  native  file  system  used  on
       Macintosh computers.

       As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660
       for each file. These extensions provide each file  with  CREATOR,  TYPE
       and  certain  Finder  Flags when accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS
       MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory  tree,  and  generates  a
       binary image which will correspond to an ISO9660 or HFS filesystem when
       written to a block device.

       Each file written to the iso9660 filesystem must have a filename in the
       8.3  format  (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even
       if Rock Ridge is in use.  This filename is used on systems that are not
       able  to  make  use  of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and
       each filename in each  directory  must  be  different  from  the  other
       filenames  in  the  same  directory.   mkisofs  generally tries to form
       correct names by forcing the unix filename to upper case and truncating
       as  required,  but  often times this yields unsatisfactory results when
       there are cases where the truncated names are not all unique.   mkisofs
       assigns  weightings  to  each  filename,  and  if  two  names  that are
       otherwise the same are found  the  name  with  the  lower  priority  is
       renamed  to  have a 3 digit number as an extension (where the number is
       guaranteed to be unique).  An  example  of  this  would  be  the  files
       foo.bar  and  foo.bar.~1~  -  the  file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as
       FOO000.BAR;1 and the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS options, mkisofs will attempt  to  recognise
       files  stored  in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the
       data and resource forks as well as any relevant finder information. See
       the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE  FORMATS section below for more about formats
       mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is  not  designed  to  communicate  with  the  writer
       directly.   Most  writers have proprietary command sets which vary from
       one manufacturer to  another,  and  you  need  a  specialized  tool  to
       actually burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest    version    of    cdrecord    is     available     from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also  you  should  know  that most cd writers are very particular about
       timing.  Once you start to burn a disc, you  cannot  let  their  buffer
       empty  before  you  are  done,  or you will end up with a corrupt disc.
       Thus it is critical that you be able to maintain an uninterrupted  data
       stream  to  the  writer  for  the  entire  time  that the disc is being
       written.

       pathspec is the path of the  directory  tree  to  be  copied  into  the
       iso9660  filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge the files found in all of the specified path components  to  form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the paths at points other than the root directory, and it  is  possible
       to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than what they have in the  source  filesystem.   This  is  easiest  to
       illustrate  with a couple of examples.   Let’s start by assuming that a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in  the  cdrom
       image.

            foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will  include  the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

            foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.   The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist on the
       cdrom  image  -  the  directories  do  not need to appear in one of the
       paths.  By default, any directories that are created on  the  fly  like
       this  will  have  permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person
       running mkisofs.  If you  wish  other  permissions  or  owners  of  the
       intermediate  directories,  see  -uid,  -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs will also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled with  Cygnus’
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS

       -abstract FILE
              Specifies the abstract file name.  There is space  on  the  disc
              for  37  characters  of information.  This parameter can also be
              set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.  If specified  in
              both places, the command line version is used.

       -A application_id
              Specifies  a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
              header.  This should describe the application that  will  be  on
              the  disc.   There  is  space  on the disc for 128 characters of
              information.  This  parameter  can  also  be  set  in  the  file
              .mkisofsrc  with  APPI=id.   If  specified  in  both places, the
              command line version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin  with  a  period.   Usually,  a
              leading  dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain
              MS-DOS compatibility.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
              This  options  allows lower case characters to appear in iso9660
              filenames.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
              some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
              This  options  allows  more  than  one  dot to appear in iso9660
              filenames.  A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may
              be allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
              Specifies the bibliographic file name.  There is  space  on  the
              disc  for 37 characters of information.  This parameter can also
              be set in the file .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename.  If specified
              in both places, the command line version is used.

       -cache-inodes
              Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
              mkisofs finds a hard link (a file with multiple names), then the
              file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
              on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is  default  on  UNIX  like
              operating  systems.   Be  careful  when  using  this option on a
              filesystem without unique inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
              files containing the wrong content on CD.

       -no-cache-inodes
              Do  not  cache  inode and device numbers.  This option is needed
              whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers. It  is
              the  default  on Cygwin.  As the Microsoft operating system that
              runs below Cygwin is not  POSIX  compliant,  it  does  not  have
              unique  inode numbers.  Cygwin creates fake inode numbers from a
              hash algorithm that is not 100% correct.  If mkisofs would cache
              inodes on Cygwin, it would believe that some files are identical
              although they are not. The result in this case  are  files  that
              contain  the  wrong content if a significant amount of different
              files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is  to  be  archived.
              This  does not happen when the -no-cache-inodes is used, but the
              disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot detect hardlinks anymore and
              the resulting CD image may be larger than expected.

       -alpha-boot alpha_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the boot image to be used
              when making an Alpha/SRM  bootable  CD.  The  pathname  must  be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.

       -hppa-bootloader hppa_bootloader_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the boot image to be used
              when making an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must  be  relative
              to  the  source  path  specified  to mkisofs.  Other options are
              required, at the very least a kernel  file  name  and  the  boot
              command  line.  See  the  HPPA  NOTES  section  below  for  more
              information.

       -hppa-cmdline hppa_boot_command_line
              Specifies the command line to be passed to the hppa boot  loader
              when  making  a bootable CD. Separate the parameters with spaces
              or commas. More options must be passed to mkisofs, at  the  very
              least  a kernel file name and the boot loader file name. See the
              HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-kernel-32 hppa_kernel_32
              Specifies the path and filename of the 32-bit kernel image to be
              used  when  making  an  HPPA  bootable  CD. The pathname must be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.  Other options
              are  required,  at  the very least the boot loader file name and
              the boot command line. See the HPPA NOTES section below for more
              information.

       -hppa-kernel-64 hppa_kernel_64
              Specifies the path and filename of the 64-bit kernel image to be
              used when making an HPPA  bootable  CD.  The  pathname  must  be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.  Other options
              are required, at the very least the boot loader  file  name  and
              the boot command line. See the HPPA NOTES section below for more
              information.

       -hppa-ramdisk hppa_ramdisk_image
              Specifies the path and filename of the ramdisk image to be  used
              when  making  an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must be relative
              to the source path specified  to  mkisofs.   This  parameter  is
              optional.   Other  options  are  required,  at  the very least a
              kernel file name and the boot command line. See the  HPPA  NOTES
              section below for more information.

       -mips-boot mips_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the boot image to be used
              when making an SGI/big-endian MIPS  bootable  CD.  The  pathname
              must  be relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.  This
              option may be specified several times to allow the  addition  of
              multiple boot images, up to a maximum of 15.

       -mipsel-boot mipsel_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the boot image to be used
              when making an DEC/little-endian MIPS bootable CD. The  pathname
              must be relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies  a comma separated list of boot images that are needed
              to make a bootable CD for sparc systems.  Partition  0  is  used
              for  the  ISO-9660  image,  the  first  image  file is mapped to
              partition 1.  There may be empty fields in the  comma  separated
              list.   The  maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it is
              impossible to specify more than 7 partition images.  This option
              is required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If the
              -B or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the first sector of
              the  resulting  image  will  contain a Sun disk label. This disk
              label specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image and  slice  1  ...
              slice  7  for the boot images that have been specified with this
              option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of  the  additional
              boot  images  must  contain  a  primary  boot that works for the
              appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each of  the  images
              usually  contains  an ufs filesystem that is used primary kernel
              boot stage.

              The implemented boot method is the boot method found with  SunOS
              4.x  and  SunOS  5.x.   However,  it  does  not  depend on SunOS
              internals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this
              reason,  it  should  be usable for any OS that boots off a sparc
              system.

              For more information also see the NOTES section below.

              If the special  filename  ...   is  used,  the  actual  and  all
              following  boot partitions are mapped to the previous partition.
              If mkisofs is called with -G image -B ...  all  boot  partitions
              are mapped to the partition that contains the iso9660 filesystem
              image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
              sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
              Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the boot image to be used
              when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
              relative  to  the source path specified to mkisofs.  This option
              is required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The boot  image
              must  be  exactly  the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB
              floppy, and mkisofs will use this size when creating the  output
              iso9660 filesystem. It is assumed that the first 512 byte sector
              should be read from the boot image (it is essentially  emulating
              a  normal  floppy  drive).   This will work, for example, if the
              boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

              If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need  to  add
              one  of  the  options: -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.  If the
              system should not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

              If the -sort option has not been specified, the boot images  are
              sorted  with  low  priority (+2) to the beginning of the medium.
              If you don’t like this, you need to specify a sort weight  of  0
              for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
              Start  with  a  new  set  of  "El Torito" boot parameters.  This
              allows to have more than one El Torito boot on a CD.  A  maximum
              of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a single CD.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              Specifies  a comma separated list of boot images that are needed
              to make a bootable CD for sparc systems.  Partition  0  is  used
              for  the  ISO-9660  image,  the  first  image  file is mapped to
              partition 1.  There may be empty fields in the  comma  separated
              list.   The  maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it is
              impossible to specify more than 7 partition images.  This option
              is required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If the
              -B or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the first sector of
              the  resulting  image  will  contain a Sun disk label. This disk
              label specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image and  slice  1  ...
              slice  7  for the boot images that have been specified with this
              option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of  the  additional
              boot  images  must  contain  a  primary  boot that works for the
              appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each of  the  images
              usually  contains  an ufs filesystem that is used primary kernel
              boot stage.

              The implemented boot method is the boot method found with  SunOS
              4.x  and  SunOS  5.x.   However,  it  does  not  depend on SunOS
              internals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this
              reason,  it  should  be usable for any OS that boots off a sparc
              system.

              For more information also see the NOTES section below.

              If the special  filename  ...   is  used,  the  actual  and  all
              following  boot partitions are mapped to the previous partition.
              If mkisofs is called with -G image -B ...  all  boot  partitions
              are mapped to the partition that contains the iso9660 filesystem
              image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
              sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
              Specifies  the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
              used when making a generic bootable CD.  The  generic_boot_image
              will  be  placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16
              sectors are the sectors that  are  located  before  the  iso9660
              primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together with
              the -sparc-boot option, the Sun  disk  label  will  overlay  the
              first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
              Specifies  that  the  boot  image  used  to  create  "El Torito"
              bootable CDs is a hard disk image.  The  hard  disk  image  must
              begin   with  a  master  boot  record  that  contains  a  single
              partition.

       -no-emul-boot
              Specifies that  the  boot  image  used  to  create  "El  Torito"
              bootable CDs is a ’no emulation’ image. The system will load and
              execute this image without performing any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
              Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should  be  marked  as
              not  bootable. The system will provide an emulated drive for the
              image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
              Specifies the load segment address of the  boot  image  for  no-
              emulation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
              Specifies  the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in
              no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
              Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
              Specifies  that  a  56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM
              layout will be patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.  If this
              option  is  given,  the  boot  file  is  modified  in the source
              filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file  cannot  be
              easily  regenerated!   See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section
              for a description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
              This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create  a  CDextra
              or the image of a second session or a higher level session for a
              multi session disk.  The option -C takes a pair of  two  numbers
              separated  by  a comma. The first number is the sector number of
              the first sector in the last session of the disk that should  be
              appended to.  The second number is the starting sector number of
              the new session.  The expected pair of numbers may be  retrieved
              by  calling  cdrecord  -msinfo  ...  If the -C option is used in
              conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
              image  that  is  intended  to  be a continuation of the previous
              session.  If the -C  option  is  used  without  the  -M  option,
              mkisofs  will  create  a filesystem image that is intended to be
              used for a second session on a CDextra. This is a multi  session
              CD  that  holds  audio  data  in the first session and a ISO9660
              filesystem in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
              Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to  be  used
              when  making  an  "El  Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
              relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.   This  option
              is  required  to make a bootable CD.  This file will be inserted
              into the output tree and not created in the  source  filesystem,
              so  be  sure  the  specified  filename does not conflict with an
              existing file, as it will  be  excluded.  Usually  a  name  like
              "boot.catalog" is chosen.

              If  the  -sort  option  has not been specified, the boot catalog
              sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
              If  you  don’t like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0
              for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
              Check all filenames imported from  old  session  for  compliance
              with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules.  It his option is
              not present, only names with a length > 31 are checked as  these
              files are a hard violation of the iso9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
              Check  all  old  sessions  for  compliance  with  actual mkisofs
              iso9660 file naming rules.  This is a high level option that  is
              a combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
              the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
              Specifies the Copyright file name.  There is space on  the  disc
              for  37  characters  of information.  This parameter can also be
              set in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.  If specified  in
              both places, the command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them
              in the way we see them.
              If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660
              standard, but it happens to work  on  many  systems.   Use  with
              caution.

       -dir-mode mode
              Overrides  the  mode  of directories used to create the image to
              mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -dvd-video
              Generate  DVD-Video  compliant  UDF file system. This is done by
              sorting the order of the content of the appropriate files and by
              adding  padding  between  the  files  if  needed.  Note that the
              sorting only works if the DVD-Video filenames include upper case
              characters only.

       -f     Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When this
              option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using  Rock
              Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
              Overrides  the mode of regular files used to create the image to
              mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -gid gid
              Overrides  the  gid  read  from the source files to the value of
              gid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output
              more verbose but may have other effects in future.

       -graft-points
              Allow to use graft points for filenames. If this option is used,
              all  filenames  are  checked  for  graft points. The filename is
              divided at the first unescaped equal sign.  All  occurrences  of
              ’\\’   and   ’=’   characters  must  be  escaped  with  ’\\’  if
              -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
              Hide  glob  from  being  seen  on  the  ISO9660  or  Rock  Ridge
              directory.   glob  is  a shell wild-card-style pattern that must
              match any part of the filename or path.  Multiple globs  may  be
              hidden.   If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that
              directory will be hidden.  In order to match a  directory  name,
              make   sure  the  pathname  does  not  include  a  trailing  ’/’
              character.  All the hidden files will still be  written  to  the
              output  CD  image  file.   Should  be used with the -hide-joliet
              option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hidden glob
              Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for glob.
              This  attribute will prevent glob from being listed on DOS based
              systems if the /A flag is not used for the listing.  glob  is  a
              shell  wild-card-style  pattern  that must match any part of the
              filename or path.  In order to match a directory name, make sure
              the   pathname  does  not  include  a  trailing  ’/’  character.
              Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden attribute as
              above.

       -hide-joliet glob
              Hide  glob  from  being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a
              shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any  part  of  the
              filename  or  path.   Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.  If glob
              matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be
              hidden.   In  order  to  match  a  directory name, make sure the
              pathname does not include a trailing  ’/’  character.   All  the
              hidden  files will still be written to the output CD image file.
              Should be used with the -hide option. See README.hide  for  more
              details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
              Hide  the  TRANS.TBL  files  from  the Joliet tree.  These files
              usually don’t make sense in the Joliet World as  they  list  the
              real  name and the ISO9660 name which may both be different from
              the Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
              Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved  in  the  Rock  Ridge
              tree.  It seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
              directory from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option only makes  the
              visible tree better to understand for people who don’t know what
              this directory  is  for.   If  you  need  to  have  no  RR_MOVED
              directory  at  all,  you  should use the -D option. Note that in
              case that the  -D  option  has  been  specified,  the  resulting
              filesystem  is  not  ISO9660  level-1  compliant and will not be
              readable on MS-DOS.  See also NOTES section for more information
              on the RR_MOVED directory.

       -input-charset charset
              Input  charset  that  defines  the characters used in local file
              names.  To get a list  of  valid  charset  names,  call  mkisofs
              -input-charset  help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default
              as charset name. The default initial values  are  cp437  on  DOS
              based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  See CHARACTER
              SETS section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
              Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
              Rock  Ridge  file  names.  Defaults  to  the  input charset. See
              CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -iso-level level
              Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3 and 4.

              With  level  1,  files  may  only  consist  of  one  section and
              filenames are restricted to 8.3 characters.

              With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

              With level 3, no  restrictions  (other  than  ISO-9660:1988)  do
              apply.

              With  all iso9660 levels from 1..3, all filenames are restricted
              to upper case letters,  numbers  and  the  underscore  (_).  The
              maximum  filename  length  is  restricted  to 31 characters, the
              directory nesting level is restricted to 8 and the maximum  path
              length is limited to 255 characters.

              Level  4  officially  does  not  exists  but  mkisofs maps it to
              ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

              With level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version  number
              and  file  structure  version number set to 2 is emitted.  There
              may be more than 8 levels of directory nesting, there is no need
              for  a  file  to  contain  a dot and the dot has no more special
              meaning, file names do not have  version  numbers,  the  maximum
              length  for files and directory is raised to 207.  If Rock Ridge
              is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length is reduced to 197.

              When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced volume
              descriptor  which  looks  similar to a primary volume descriptor
              but is slightly different. Be careful not to use broken software
              to  make  ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy
              and patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular iso9660
              file  names.   This is primarily useful when the discs are to be
              used on Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The Joliet filenames
              are specified in Unicode and each path component can be up to 64
              Unicode characters long.  Note that Joliet is no standard - CD’s
              that  use  only  Joliet  extensions  but  no standard Rock Ridge
              extensions may usually only be used on Microsoft Win32  systems.
              Furthermore,  the  fact  that  the  filenames  are limited to 64
              characters and the fact that Joliet uses the UTF-16  coding  for
              Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
              Allow  Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This
              breaks the Joliet specification - but appears to work. Use  with
              caution.  The  number 103 is derived from: the maximum Directory
              Record Length (254), minus the length of Directory Record  (33),
              minus  CD-ROM  XA System Use Extension Information (14), divided
              by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
              Same  as  using  -input-charset  charset  and  -J  options.  See
              CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow   full  31  character  filenames.   Normally  the  ISO9660
              filename will be in an 8.3 format which is compatible  with  MS-
              DOS,  even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to
              31 characters.   If  you  use  this  option,  the  disc  may  be
              difficult  to use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy on
              some other systems (such as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated    option     reserved     by     POSIX.1-2001,     use
              -allow-leading-dots  instead.  This option will get POSIX.1-2001
              semantics with mkisofs-2.02.

       -jigdo-jigdo jigdo_file
              Produce a jigdo .jigdo file as well as the .iso. See  the  JIGDO
              NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-template template_file
              Produce  a  jigdo  .template  file  as well as the .iso. See the
              JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-min-file-size size
              Specify the minimum size for a file to be listed in  the  .jigdo
              file.  Default (and minimum allowed) is 1KB. See the JIGDO NOTES
              section below for more information.

       -jigdo-force-md5 path
              Specify a file pattern where files  MUST  be  contained  in  the
              externally-suplied  MD5  list  as supplied by -md5-list. See the
              JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-exclude path
              Specify a file pattern where files will not  be  listed  in  the
              .jigdo  file.  See  the  JIGDO  NOTES  section  below  for  more
              information.

       -jigdo-map path
              Specify  a  pattern   mapping   for   the   jigdo   file   (e.g.
              Debian=/mirror/debian).  See  the  JIGDO NOTES section below for
              more information.

       -md5-list md5_file
              Specify a file containing the MD5sums, sizes  and  pathnames  of
              the files to be included in the .jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES
              section below for more information.

       -log-file log_file
              Redirect  all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
              log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
              Exclude glob from being written to CDROM.  glob is a shell wild-
              card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
              path  as  with  option -x).  Technically glob is matched against
              the d->d_name part of the directory entry.  Multiple  globs  may
              be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -m ’*.o’ -m core -m foobar

              would  exclude  all  files  ending  in  ".o",  called  "core" or
              "foobar" to be copied to CDROM. Note that if you had a directory
              called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descendants) would
              be excluded.

              NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
              they  are  wrong.   Both  now  work  identical  and use filename
              globbing. A file  is  excluded  if  either  the  last  component
              matches or the whole path matches.

       -exclude-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be exclude as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
              Allow  37 chars in iso9660 filenames.  This option forces the -N
              option as the extra name space is taken from the space  reserved
              for ISO-9660 version numbers.
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many  systems.   Although  a  conforming  application  needs  to
              provide  a buffer space of at least 37 characters, disks created
              with this option may cause a  buffer  overflow  in  the  reading
              operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
              or

       -M device
              or

       -dev device
              Specifies  path  to  existing  iso9660  image  to be merged. The
              alternate form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the  same
              syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord.  The output of mkisofs
              will be a new session which should get written to the end of the
              image  specified  in  -M.  Typically this requires multi-session
              capability for  the  recorder  and  cdrom  drive  that  you  are
              attempting to write this image to.  This option may only be used
              in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really  uses  the
              version numbers anyway.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
              Mode  to  use when creating new directories in the iso fs image.
              The default mode is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
              Do not include backup files files on the iso9660 filesystem.  If
              the   -no-bak  option  is  specified,  files  that  contain  the
              characters ’~’ or ’#’ or end in  ’.bak’  will  not  be  included
              (these are typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -force-rr
              Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
              previous sessions.  This helps to show rotten iso9660  extension
              records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the  Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
              This may help to avoid getting into trouble when  mkisofs  finds
              illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
              Don’t split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
              (CE) instead. This may waste some space,  but  the  SunOS  4.1.4
              cdrom driver has a bug in reading split SL components (link_size
              = component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

              Note that this option has been introduced by Eric  Youngdale  in
              1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
              it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
              create  defective  CE  signatures if a symlink contained ‘/../’.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
              Don’t split the SL fields, but begin  a  new  Continuation  Area
              (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
              Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split SL fields
              (a ‘/’ can be dropped).

              Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
              1997.  It is questionable whether it makes sense at  all.   When
              it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that did
              create defective CE signatures if a  symlink  contained  ‘/../’.
              This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
              is  the  name  of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image
              should be written.  This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it
              can  correspond  directly to the device name of the optical disc
              writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that the output
              can  also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in
              which case the disk partition can be  mounted  and  examined  to
              ensure that the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).  If the
              option -B is used, then there is a padding at  the  end  of  the
              iso9660   partition   and  before  the  beginning  of  the  boot
              partitions.  The size of this padding  is  chosen  to  make  the
              first boot partition start on a sector number that is a multiple
              of 16.

              The padding is needed as many  operating  systems  (e.g.  Linux)
              implement  read  ahead  bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs
              result in read errors on one or more files that are  located  at
              the  end  of  a  track.  They are usually present when the CD is
              written in Track at Once mode or when the  disk  is  written  as
              mixed mode CD where an audio track follows the data track.

              To  avoid  problems  with  I/O  error  on  the  last file on the
              filesystem, the -pad option has been made the default.

       -no-pad
              Do not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not  make  the
              the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
              A  file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
              to be added to the ISO9660 filesystem. This  list  of  pathspecs
              are  processed after any that appear on the command line. If the
              argument is -, then the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated  option  reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,   use   -publisher
              instead.   This  option  will  get  POSIX.1-2001  semantics with
              mkisofs-2.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
              Specifies a text string that will be  written  into  the  volume
              header.   This  should  describe  the  publisher  of  the CDROM,
              usually with a mailing address and phone number.  There is space
              on  the  disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter
              can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified
              in both places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
              Specifies  a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
              header.  This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually
              with  a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on the
              disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter can also
              be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -print-size
              Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector  size
              (2048  bytes)  and  exit. This option is needed for Disk At Once
              mode and  with  some  CD-R  drives  when  piping  directly  into
              cdrecord.   In  this  case  it is needed to know the size of the
              filesystem before the actual CD-creation is  done.   The  option
              -print-size  allows to get this size from a "dry-run" before the
              CD is actually written.  Old versions of mkisofs did write  this
              information  (among other information) to stderr.  As this turns
              out  to  be  hard  to  parse,  the  number  without  any   other
              information  is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write
              a simple shell script, redirect stderr and catch the number from
              stdout.  This may be done with:

              cdblocks=mkisofs -print-size -quiet ...mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This  makes  mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress output will
              be provided.

       -R     Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock  Ridge  protocol  to
              further describe the files on the iso9660 filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
              to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
              they  are  usually  only  useful on the author’s system, and not
              useful to the client.  All the file read bits are set  true,  so
              that  files and directories are globally readable on the client.
              If any execute bit is set for a file, set  all  of  the  execute
              bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client.
              If any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the  search
              bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
              All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will  be  mounted
              read-only in any case.  If any of the special mode bits are set,
              clear them, because file locks are not  useful  on  a  read-only
              file  system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or gid
              0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is  set  on  all  files.
              This  is  a  result of the lack of file permissions on Win32 and
              the  Cygwin  POSIX  emulation  layer.   See  also   -uid   -gid,
              -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
              The   option  -relaxed-filenames  allows  ISO9660  filenames  to
              include digits, upper case characters and all other 7 bit  ASCII
              characters (resp. anything except lowercase characters).
              This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
              Moves all files and directories into dir in the image.  This  is
              essentially  the  same  as using -graft-points and adding dir in
              front of every pathspec, but is easier to use.

              dir may actually be several levels deep. It is created with  the
              same permissions as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
              This  option  is necessary when writing a multisession image and
              the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
              Using  a directory name not found in the previous session causes
              mkisofs to abort with an error.

              Without  this  option,  mkisofs  would  not  be  able  to   find
              unmodified  files  and  would be forced to write their data into
              the image once more.

              -root and  -old-root  are  meant  to  be  used  together  to  do
              incremental  backups.   The  initial  session  would  e.g.  use:
              mkisofs -root backup_1 dirs.  The next incremental  backup  with
              mkisofs  -root  backup_2  -old-root  backup_1  dirs.  would take
              another snapshot of these directories. The first snapshot  would
              be  found  in  backup_1,  the  second  one in backup_2, but only
              modified or new  files  need  to  be  written  into  the  second
              session.

              Without  these  options,  new  files would be added and old ones
              would be preserved. But old ones would  be  overwritten  if  the
              file  was  modified.  Recovering  the files by copying the whole
              directory back from  CD  would  also  restore  files  that  were
              deleted  intentionally.  Accessing  several  older versions of a
              file requires support by the operating system  to  choose  which
              sessions are to be mounted.

       -sort sort file
              Sort  file  locations  on  the media. Sorting is controlled by a
              file  that  contains  pairs  of  filenames  and  sorting  offset
              weighting.  If the weighting is higher, the file will be located
              closer to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is lower,
              the  file  will be located closer to the end of the media. There
              must be only one space or tabs character  between  the  filename
              and  the  weight and the weight must be the last characters on a
              line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to,
              but  not  including  the  last space or tab character on a line.
              This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of
              a  filename.   This  option  does not sort the order of the file
              names that appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts  the  order
              in which the file data is written to the CD image - which may be
              useful in order to  optimize  the  data  layout  on  a  CD.  See
              README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
              See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
              Set  the  Sun  disk  label  name  for the Sun disk label that is
              created with the -sparc-boot option.

       -split-output
              Split the output image into several files of approximately 1 GB.
              This  helps  to  create  DVD  sized  iso9660 images on operating
              systems without large file support.  Cdrecord  will  concatenate
              more  than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.  To
              make  -split-output  work,  the  -o  filename  option  must   be
              specified.   The   resulting   outout   images  will  be  named:
              filename_00,filename_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
              Select streaming operation and set the media size to #  sectors.
              This  allows  you  to  pipe  the  output of the tar program into
              mkisofs and to create a iso9660 filesystem without the  need  of
              an  intermediate  tar  archive  file.   If  this option has been
              specified, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file with  the
              name STREAM.IMG.  The maximum size of the file (with padding) is
              200 sectors less than the specified media size. If  -no-pad  has
              been  specified,  the  file  size  is  50  sectors less than the
              specified media size.  If the file is smaller, then mkisofs will
              write padding. This may take a while.

              The option -stream-media-size creates simple iso9660 filesystems
              only and may not used  together  with  multi-session  or  hybrid
              filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
              Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
              Specifies  a  comma separated list of filesystem images that are
              needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

              Note that partition 1 is used for the ISO-9660  image  and  that
              partition  2  is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may not be
              used by external partition data.  The first image file is mapped
              to  partition  0.   There  may  be  empty  fields  in  the comma
              separated list, and list entries for partition 1 and 2  must  be
              empty.    The  maximum  number  of  supported  partitions  is  8
              (although the Solaris x86 partition table could support up to 16
              partitions),  so  it  is  impossible  to  specify  more  than  6
              partition images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD
              for Solaris x86 systems.

              If  the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first sector
              of the resulting image will contain a  PC  fdisk  label  with  a
              Solaris  type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at offset 512 and
              spans the whole CD.  In addition,  for  the  Solaris  type  0x82
              fdisk  partition,  there  is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in
              the first sector of the CD.  This disk label specifies  slice  0
              for  the  first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that is used
              to boot the PC and slice 1 for the iso9660 image.  Slice 2 spans
              the  whole  CD  slice  3  ... slice 7 may be used for additional
              filesystem images that have been specified with this option.

              A Solaris x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary  boot  that
              uses  the  El-Torito  no-emulation  boot  mode  and  a secondary
              generic boot that is in CD sectors 1..15.  For this reason, both
              -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
              Set  the  SVr4  disk  label name for the SVr4 disk label that is
              created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
              Specifies the system ID.  There is space  on  the  disc  for  32
              characters  of  information.   This parameter can also be set in
              the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.  If specified  in  both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate  a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which
              can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help  establish
              the  correct  file  names.  There is also information present in
              the file that indicates the major and minor  numbers  for  block
              and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
              file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
              Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
              -T  option.   If you are creating a multi-session image you must
              use the same name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
              Set Unicode conformance level in the  Joliet  SVD.  The  default
              level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include  UDF  support  in  the  generated filesystem image.  UDF
              support is currently in alpha status and for this reason, it  is
              not possible to create UDF only images.  UDF data structures are
              currently coupled to the Joliet structures, so  there  are  many
              pitfalls  with  the  current implementation. There is no UID/GID
              support, there is no  POSIX  permission  support,  there  is  no
              support  for  symlinks.   Note  that  UDF  wastes the space from
              sector ~20 to sector  256  at  the  beginning  of  the  disk  in
              addition to the spcae needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
              Overrides  the  uid  read  from the source files to the value of
              uid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock  Ridge
              extensions.

       -use-fileversion
              The  option  -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use file version
              numbers from the filesystem.  If the option  is  not  specified,
              mkisofs  creates  a  version  number  of  1 for all files.  File
              versions are strings in the range ;1 to ;32767  This  option  is
              the default on VMS.

       -U     Allows   "Untranslated"   filenames,  completely  violating  the
              iso9660 standards described above. Forces on  the  -d,  -l,  -N,
              -allow-leading-dots,    -relaxed-filenames,    -allow-lowercase,
              -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It allows more than
              one  ’.’  character  in  the  filename,  as  well  as mixed case
              filenames.  This is useful on HP-UX system, where  the  built-in
              CDFS  filesystem  does  not  recognize  ANY extensions. Use with
              extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
              Do not translate the characters ’#’ and ’~’  which  are  invalid
              for  iso9660  filenames.   These  characters  are though invalid
              often used by Microsoft systems.
              This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
              many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
              Specifies  the  volume  ID  (volume name or label) to be written
              into the master block.  There  is  space  on  the  disc  for  32
              characters  of  information.   This parameter can also be set in
              the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If specified in both  places,
              the  command  line  version  is used.  Note that if you assign a
              volume ID, this is the name that will be used as the mount point
              used  by  the Solaris volume management system and the name that
              is assigned to the disc  on  a  Microsoft  Win32  or  Apple  Mac
              platform.

       -volset ID
              Specifies  the  volset  ID.   There is space on the disc for 128
              characters of information.  This parameter can also  be  set  in
              the  file  .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.  If specified in both
              places, the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
              Sets the volume set size to #.   The  volume  set  size  is  the
              number  of  CD’s that are in a CD volume set.  A volume set is a
              collection of one or more volumes, on which a set  of  files  is
              recorded.

              Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered
              CD’s that are part of e.g. a Operation System  installation  set
              of  CD’s.  Volume Sets are rather used to record a big directory
              tree that would not fit on a single volume.  Each  volume  of  a
              Volume  Set  contains  a  description of all the directories and
              files that are  recorded  on  the  volumes  where  the  sequence
              numbers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size
              of the current volume.

              Mkisofs currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger
              than 1.

              The  option  -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno
              on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
              Sets the volume set  sequence  number  to  #.   The  volume  set
              sequence  number  is  the index number of the current CD in a CD
              set.   The  option  -volset-size  must   be   specified   before
              -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose  execution.  If  given  twice on the command line, extra
              debug information will be printed.

       -x path
              Exclude path from being written to  CDROM.   path  must  be  the
              complete  pathname  that results from concatenating the pathname
              given as command line argument and the  path  relative  to  this
              directory.  Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

              NOTE:  The  -m and -x option description should both be updated,
              they are wrong.   Both  now  work  identical  and  use  filename
              globbing.  A  file  is  excluded  if  either  the last component
              matches or the whole path matches.

       -z     Generate  special  RRIP  records  for  transparently  compressed
              files.   This is only of use and interest for hosts that support
              transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or  later.   You
              must  specify  the  -R  or  -r  options to enable RockRidge, and
              generate compressed files  using  the  mkzftree  utility  before
              running   mkisofs.   Note  that  transparent  compression  is  a
              nonstandard Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks are  only
              transparently  readable  if  used  on Linux.  On other operating
              systems you will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the
              files.

HFS OPTIONS

       -hfs   Create  an  ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
              conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or the various double dash
              options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD  with Apple’s extensions. Similar to the
              -hfs option, except that the Apple  Extensions  to  ISO9660  are
              added  instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.  Former mkisofs
              versions did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if  -apple
              was  specified.  This  versions  of  mkisofs  does  not  do this
              anymore. If you like to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need  to
              specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
              Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
              a file based on the filename’s extension. A filename  is  mapped
              only  if  it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
              the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
              The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file’s  magic
              number  (usually  the first few bytes of a file). The magic_file
              is only used if a file is not one of the known  Apple/Unix  file
              formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
              -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
              details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
              Set  the  default  CREATOR  for  all  files.  Must  be exactly 4
              characters. See the HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
              details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
              Set   the  default  TYPE  for  all  files.  Must  be  exactly  4
              characters. See the HFS  CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
              details.

       -probe Search  the  contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
              formats.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section  below  for
              more  about  these  formats.  However, the only way to check for
              MacBinary and AppleSingle  files  is  to  open  and  read  them.
              Therefore this option may increase processing time. It is better
              to use one or more  double  dash  options  given  below  if  the
              Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
              Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will
              be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the
              System  Folder).   By  default, empty Desktop files are added to
              the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
              Use the HFS filename as the  starting  point  for  the  ISO9660,
              Joliet  and  Rock  Ridge  file names. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
              NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
              Installs the driver_file that may make  the  CD  bootable  on  a
              Macintosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate  an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table
              is generated, but some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need an HFS
              partition  table  on  the CDROM to be able to recognize a hybrid
              CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
              Make the HFS CD use  the  QuickTime  2.0  Autostart  feature  to
              launch  an  application  or document. The given filename must be
              the name of a document or application located at the  top  level
              of  the  CD.  The  filename  must  be  less  than 12 characters.
              (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
              Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units  of  PC
              Exchange  files.  Implies  the  --exchange  option.  See the HFS
              MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
              Hide glob from the HFS volume. The file or directory will  still
              exist  in  the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a shell
              wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename
              Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs ’*.o’ -hide-hfs foobar

              would  exclude  all files ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from
              the HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory called "foobar"
              it  too  (and  of course all its descendants) would be excluded.
              The glob can  also  be  a  path  name  relative  to  the  source
              directories given on the command line. Example:

              mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

              would  exclude just the file or directory called "html" from the
              "src" directory. Any other file or directory  called  "html"  in
              the  tree  will  not be excluded.  Should be used with the -hide
              and/or -hide-joliet options.  In  order  to  match  a  directory
              name,  make  sure  the  pathname does not include a trailing ’/’
              character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
              A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
              Volume name for the HFS partition. This  is  the  name  that  is
              assigned  to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid used
              with the -V option

       -icon-position
              Use the icon  position  information,  if  it  exists,  from  the
              Apple/Unix  file.  The icons will appear in the same position as
              they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and  size  on
              screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
              Icons, etc.) are also preserved.  This option may become set  by
              default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
              Set  the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View
              etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume.  See  README.rootinfo
              for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
              PReP  boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
              (Alpha)

       -input-hfs-charset charset
              Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS file names
              when  used  with  the  -mac-name option.  The default charset is
              cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER  SETS  and
              HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
              Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
              the HFS file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER
              SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
              By  default,  mkisofs  will create an HFS volume that is locked.
              This  option  leaves  the  volume   unlocked   so   that   other
              applications (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS
              PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using this
              option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
              "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System
              Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the
              directory  must  be the whole path name as mkisofs sees it. e.g.
              if the given pathspec is ./cddata and  the  required  folder  is
              called   System   Folder,   then   the   whole   path   name  is
              "./cddata/System Folder" (remember to use  quotes  if  the  name
              contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
              Override  certain parameters used to create the HFS file system.
              Unlikely  to  be  used  in   normal   circumstances.   See   the
              libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for  AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix
              file formats only. Searching for the other  possible  Apple/Unix
              file  formats  is disabled, unless other double dash options are
              given.

       --netatalk
              Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
              Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
              Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
              Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
              Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
              Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
              Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
              Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft’s Services  for  Macintosh  files  (NT  only)
              (Alpha)

       --osx-double
              Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
              Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS

       mkisofs  processes  file  names  in a POSIX compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for  all  languages,  8-bit
       characters  are  not  sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent  all  known  languages.
       They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by
       Microsoft  with  Win32  with  the  disadvantage that it only supports a
       subset of all codes and that 16-bit characters are not  compliant  with
       the POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern  UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This
       coding allows to use  the  complete  Unicode  code  set.   Each  32-bit
       character  is  represented  by  one  or  more  8-bit  characters.  If a
       character is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used  in  Central  Europe  and  North
       America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.  If
       a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA  and  other  countries
       with  limted  character  set)  is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8
       coded Unicode character.  Character codes that cannot be represented as
       a  single  byte  in UTF-8 (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape
       sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs would not need
       to   recode  characters  in  file  names.   Unfortunately,  Apple  uses
       completely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a Unicode coding that
       is not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all  non  UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual character that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (which is
       the name used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system in use -
       the characters in a character set will reflect the  region  or  natural
       language used by the user.

       Usually   character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,  codes
       0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit  ASCII  characters  and  (on  PC’s  and  Mac’s)
       0x80-0xff  are used for other characters.  Unfortunately even this does
       not follow ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f  for  control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the same character
       code  may  represent a different character in different character sets.
       So a file name generated, say in central Europe, may  not  display  the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To  make  matters  more  complicated,  different  operating systems use
       different character sets for the region or language.  For  example  the
       character  code  for  "small e with acute accent" may be character code
       0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX  system.
       Note  while  the  codings  used on a PC or Mac are nonstandard, Unicode
       codes this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same  value
       as the value used by most UNIX systems.

       As  long  as  not  all  operating systems and applications will use the
       Unicode character set as the basis for file names in a unique  way,  it
       may  be necessary to specify which character set your file names use in
       and which character set the file names should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
              Defines the local character set  you  are  using  on  your  host
              machine.  Any character set conversions that take place will use
              this character set as  the  staring  point.  The  default  input
              character  sets  are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on
              all other systems.

              If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents  of  the
              input  character set will be used in the Joliet directory. Using
              the -jcharset option is the same as using the -input-charset and
              -J options.

       -output-charset
              Defines  the  character  set that will be used with for the Rock
              Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
              likely  to  be useful if used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using
              mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock  Ridge  CDs.
              If  you  are  using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it is likely that
              the output character set will be the same as the input character
              set.

       -input-hfs-charset
              Defines  the  HFS  character set used for HFS file names decoded
              from any of the various Apple/Unix  file  formats.  Only  useful
              when  used  with  -mac-name  option.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
              NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
              Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS file names from
              the  input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
              the character set given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
              to the input HFS character set.

       There  are  a  number  of character sets built in to mkisofs.  To get a
       listing, use mkisofs -input-charset help.  This  list  doesn’t  include
       the  charset  derived from the current locale, if mkisofs is built with
       iconv support.

       Additional character sets  can  be  read  from  file  for  any  of  the
       character  set  options  by  giving  a  filename as the argument to the
       options. The given file will only be read if its name  does  not  match
       one of the built in character sets.

       The  format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files
       available from  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS  The  format  of
       these files is:

            Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
            Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
            Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format
       or comments lines (starting with the # character) are  ignored  without
       any  warnings.  Any  missing  input code is mapped to Unicode character
       0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE  (UTF-16)  or  32  bit
       UNICODE  (UTF-32)  coding  because  this coding is not POSIX compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding which is compatible to
       POSIX  filenames  and  supported  by moder UNIX implementations such as
       Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as  the  argument  to  any  of  the  character set options. This is the
       behaviour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 file names generated  from  the  input  filenames  are  not
       converted  from the input character set. The ISO9660 character set is a
       very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any  character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a ’_’
       character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE

       A Macintosh file has two properties associated  with  it  which  define
       which  application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually  this
       allows  a  Macintosh  user  to  double-click  on  a file and launch the
       correct application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file  can
       be found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE  information  is  stored  in  all  the  various
       Apple/Unix encoded files.  For other files it is possible to  base  the
       CREATOR  and TYPE on the filename’s extension using a mapping file (the
       -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in  the
       first  few  bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these options
       are given, then their order on the command line is  important.  If  the
       -map  option  is  given  first,  then  a  filename  extension  match is
       attempted before a magic number match. However, if the -magic option is
       given  first,  then a magic number match is attempted before a filename
       extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found  then  the
       default  CREATOR  and  TYPE  for  all regular files can be set by using
       entries in  the  .mkisofsrc  file  or  using  the  -hfs-creator  and/or
       -hfs-type  options,  otherwise  the default CREATOR and TYPE are ’unix’
       and ’TEXT’.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format  as  used  by
       aufs.   This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
       CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with the ’#’  character  are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN   XLate   CREATOR   TYPE     Comment
       .tif     Raw     ’8BIM’    ’TIFF’   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx     Ascii   ’BnHq’    ’TEXT’   "BinHex file"
       .doc     Raw     ’MSWD’    ’WDBN’   "Word file"
       .mov     Raw     ’TVOD’    ’MooV’   "QuickTime Movie"
       *        Ascii   ’ttxt’    ’TEXT’   "Text file"

       Where:

              The  first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
              mapped. The default mapping  for  any  filename  extension  that
              doesn’t match is defined with the "*" character.

              The  Xlate  column  defines the type of text translation between
              the Unix and Macintosh file it is ignored  by  mkisofs,  but  is
              kept  to  be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs does not
              alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has it’s TYPE set
              as  ’TEXT’, it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore
              a better choice for the default TYPE may be ’????’

              The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must  be  4  characters  long  and
              enclosed in single quotes.

              The  comment  field is enclosed in double quotes - it is ignored
              by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical to the  magic(4)  file
       used  by  the  Linux  file(1)  command  -  the routines for reading and
       decoding the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This file has four tab separated columns for  the  byte  offset,  type,
       test  and  message.   Lines starting with the ’#’ character are comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type      test       message
       0       string    GIF8       8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort   0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string    SIT!       SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string    \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
       0       string    \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string    %!         ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string    \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string    moov       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string    mdat       txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in the magic(4) man page. The  only
       difference  here  is that for each entry in the magic file, the message
       for the initial offset must be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4  characters  for the TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any
       other  characters  on  this  line  are  ignored.   Continuation   lines
       (starting  with  a  ’>’)  are also ignored i.e. only the initial offset
       lines are used.

       Using the -magic option may significantly increase processing  time  as
       each file has to opened and read to find it’s magic number.

       In  summary,  for  all  files,  the  default  CREATOR is ’unix’ and the
       default TYPE is ’TEXT’.  These can be changed by using entries  in  the
       .mkisofsrc  file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format
       has been selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values
       stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from  their  file  name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If the default match is used in the mapping  file,  then  these  values
       override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A     full     CREATOR/TYPE     database     can     be     found    at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS

       Macintosh files have two parts  called  the  Data  and  Resource  fork.
       Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having one part (or fork). To add  to  this,  Macintosh  files  have  a
       number of attributes associated with them - probably the most important
       are the TYPE and CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept of these  types  of
       attributes.

       e.g.  a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in
       the Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource  fork.  It
       is  usually  the  information  in  the  data fork that is useful across
       platforms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has  to
       be found to cope with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred to as the finder info).  Unfortunately, it  seems  that  every
       software  package  that  stores  Macintosh  files  on Unix has chosen a
       completely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
              Data fork stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork  in  subdirectory
              .resource  with  same  filename  as  data  fork.  Finder info in
              .finderinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
              Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file  with
              same name prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
              file.  Netatalk  uses  the  same  format,   but   the   resource
              fork/finderinfo  stored  in  subdirectory .AppleDouble with same
              name as data fork.

       AppleSingle
              Data structures similar to above, except both forks  and  finder
              info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork and finder info
              together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data  fork.

       IPT UShare
              Very  similar  to  the EtherShare format, but the finder info is
              stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
              Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
              Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files  on  DOS  (FAT)  disks.
              Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork in subdirectory
              resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info  as  one  record  in
              file  finder.dat  (or  FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for each
              data fork directory.

              Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size  of  the
              disk  that  the  PC  Exchange  files are on (or have been copied
              from). This size is given  by  the  -cluster-size  option.   The
              cluster or allocation size can be found by using the DOS utility
              CHKDSK.

              May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or  higher  files  (available
              with  MacOS 8.1).  DOS media containing PC Exchange files should
              be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
              Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored
              in  a  file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same
              name. Finder info as one record in file  .HSancillary.  Separate
              .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
              Allows  Macintoshes  to  store Apple files on SMB servers.  Data
              fork  stored  in  a  file.   Resource   fork   in   subdirectory
              resource.frk.  Uses  the  AppleDouble  format  to store resource
              fork.

       Services for Macintosh
              Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
              fork  is  stored  as  "filename". Resource fork stored as a NTFS
              stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder info is stored
              as  a  NTFS  stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These streams
              are normally invisible to the user.

              Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format.  If  an
              HFS  file  or folder stored on the NT server contains an illegal
              NT character in its name, then NT converts these  characters  to
              Private  Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?
               | also a space or period if it is the  last  character  of  the
              file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
              Apple’ apple logo.

              Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
              by  the  mkisofs  NT executable. Therefore any file or directory
              name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
              contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
              When  HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X on to a non-
              HFS file system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files  are  stored  in
              AppleDouble  format.   Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
              stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder  info
              also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
              Not  really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
              a MacOS X system. Data fork stored  in  a  file.  Resource  fork
              stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with  the same name with the suffix
              ’/rsrc’. The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X  library
              call.

              Notes: (also see README.macosx)

              Only works when used on MacOS X.

              If  a  file  is found with a zero length resource fork and empty
              finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding  -
              therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs  will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other
       flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists,  the  Macintosh
       filename  is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name is
       based on the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE  NAMES  section
       below.

       When  using  the  -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the
       optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record -  in
       much  the  same  way  as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make
       life easy, the Apple extensions are  added  at  the  beginning  of  the
       existing  Rock  Ridge  attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you
       get the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource  fork  to  be  stored  as  an
       ISO9660  associated  file.  This is just like any normal file stored in
       the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is  set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file  seen  by  non-Apple  machines).  Associated  files  are
       normally ignored by other OSs

       When  using  the  -hfs  option,  the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder
       info, are stored in a  separate  HFS  directory,  not  visible  on  the
       ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the same data and resource
       fork files described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use  the  -hfs  option  instead  of  the
       -apple  option,  as  the  latter imposes the limited ISO9660 characters
       allowed in  filenames.  However,  the  Apple  extensions  do  give  the
       advantage that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it
       may be possible to fit more files on a CD - important  when  the  total
       size of the source files is approaching 650MB.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES

       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part of the CD. However,  not  all  the  Apple/Unix
       encodings  store  the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases,
       the Unix filename is used - with escaped  special  characters.  Special
       characters include ’/’ and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs  escapes  these  characters by using ":" followed by the character
       code as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar  scheme,
       but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can’t find an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a  single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the  HFS  directory  separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
       file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a unique name by
       adding ’_’ characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the  starting  point  for  the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames
       using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix files without an HFS name  will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on
       the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this  is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However,
       as mkisofs uses the Unix name as  the  starting  point  for  the  other
       names,  then  the  ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would  be  someimage.gif.bin.   Although  the
       actual data (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS
       filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name  will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not  the  Macintosh
       name.

       The  character  set  used to convert any HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock
       Ridge file name defaults to cp10000 (Mac  Roman).   The  character  set
       used  can be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other built
       in HFS character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),  cp10007  (MacCyrillic),
       cp10029    (MacLatin2),    cp10079    (MacIcelandandic)   and   cp10081
       (MacTurkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character  set.  Only  the  Joliet/Rock  Ridge  names
       derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The  existing  mkisofs  code will filter out any illegal characters for
       the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be  dealing
       directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as is.  But as
       ’/’ is a legal HFS filename character, the  -mac-name  option  converts
       ’/’ to a ’_’ in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO9660 filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers  can
       use  Level  2  filenames, then you can use options like -allow-multidot
       without problems on a Macintosh - still take care over the  names,  for
       example  this.file.name  will  be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have
       one ’.’, also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but  abcdefghi
       will  be seen as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a ’.’ at the end - don’t know if
       this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All  filenames
       will be in upper case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS

       To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top  level)  folder
       includes  a  standard  Macintosh  volume  icon file. To give a volume a
       custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be pasted over the  volume’s
       icon  in  the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called ’Icon\r’ (’\r’ is the ’carriage return’ character)  in  the
       root folder.

       A  custom  folder  icon  is  very  similar  -  an invisible file called
       ’Icon\r’ exits in the folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can  use,
       is  to  format  a  blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac, paste an icon to its
       "Get Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

                  mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as a CAP file system by default. Then run
       mkisofs using something like:

                  mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to  copy  the
       icon  file  from the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

                  hmount /dev/fd0
                  hdir -a
                  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where ’^V^M’ is control-V followed by control-M. Then  run  mkisofs  by
       using something like:

                  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar -
       paste an icon to folder’s "Get Info" box  and  transfer  the  resulting
       ’Icon\r’ file to the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You  may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

HFS BOOT DRIVER

       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A  bootable  HFS  CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a
       bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file  can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our  case)  must  contain  a
       suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For  a  partition to be bootable, it must have it’s boot block set. The
       boot block is in the first two  blocks  of  a  partition.  For  a  non-
       bootable  partition  the  boot block is full of zeros. Normally, when a
       System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot  block
       is  filled  with  a number of required settings - unfortunately I don’t
       know the full spec for  the  boot  block,  so  I’m  guessing  that  the
       following will work OK.

       Therefore,  the  utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from
       the first HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this  is  used
       for the HFS partition created by mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
              By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to
              your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
              License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE

       When the -boot-info-table option is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file  specified  by  the  -b  option  by  inserting  a  56-byte   "boot
       information  table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done
       in the source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this  file  is
       not  easily  recreated!   This  file contains pointers which may not be
       easily or reliably obtained at boot time.

       The format of this table is as follows; all  integers  are  in  section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

         Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
          8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
         12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
         16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
         20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
         24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file
       starting at byte offset 64.  All  linear  block  addresses  (LBAs)  are
       given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

HPPA NOTES

       To  make a bootable CD for HPPA, at the very least a boot loader file (
       -hppa-bootloader ), a  kernel  image  file  (32-  or  64-bit  or  both,
       depending  on  hardware) and a boot command line ( -hppa-cmdline ) must
       be specified. Some systems can boot either a 32- or  a  64-bit  kernel,
       and  the  choice  of  which  one  to  use will be made by the firmware.
       Optionally, a ramdisk  can  be  used  for  the  root  filesystem  using
       -hppa-cmdline.

JIGDO NOTES

       Jigdo  is a useful tool to help in the distribution of large files like
       CD and DVD images. See Richard Atterer’s site for more details.  Debian
       CDs  and  DVD  ISO  images  are published on the web in jigdo format to
       allow end users to download them more efficiently.

       To create jigdo  and  template  files  alongside  the  ISO  image  from
       mkisofs, you must first generate a list of the files that will be used,
       in the following format:

         MD5sum   File size  Path
         32 chars 12 chars   to end of line

       The MD5sum should be written in jigdo’s pseudo-base64 format. The  file
       size should be in decimal, and the path to the file must be absolute.

       Once  you  have this file, call mkisofs with all of your normal command
       line parameters.  Specify  the  output  filenames  for  the  jigdo  and
       template  files using -jigdo-jigdo and -jigdo-template, and pass in the
       location of your MD5 list with the -md5-list option.

       If there are files that you do NOT want to be added into the jigdo file
       (e.g.  if  they  are  likely  to  change  often),  specify  them  using
       -jigdo-ignore. If you want to verify some of  the  files  as  they  are
       written  into  the  image,  specify them using -jigdo-force-md5. If any
       files don’t match, mkisofs will then abort. Both of these options  take
       regular  expressions  as  input.  It is possible to restrict the set of
       files  that  will  be  used  further  based   on   size   -   use   the
       -jigdo-min-file-size option.

       Finally,  the jigdo code needs to know how to map the files it is given
       onto a mirror-style configuration. Specify how to map paths  using  the
       -jigdo-map  option.  Using "Debian=/mirror/debian" will cause all paths
       starting with "/mirror/debian" to be mapped to "Debian:<file>"  in  the
       output jigdo file.

CONFIGURATION

       mkisofs  looks  for  the  .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working
       directory, then in the user’s home directory, and then in the directory
       in which the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series of lines of the form TAG=value ,  and  in  this  way  you  can
       specify certain options.  The case of the tag is not significant.  Some
       fields in the volume header are not settable on the command  line,  but
       can  be  altered through this facility.  Comments may be placed in this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The application identifier should describe the application  that
              will  be  on  the  disc.   There  is  space  on the disc for 128
              characters of information.   May  be  overridden  using  the  -A
              command line option.

       COPY   The  copyright information, often the name of a file on the disc
              containing the copyright notice.  There is space in the disc for
              37  characters  of  information.   May  be  overridden using the
              -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The abstract information, often the name of a file on  the  disc
              containing  an  abstract.   There  is  space  in the disc for 37
              characters  of  information.   May  be  overridden   using   the
              -abstract command line option.

       BIBL   The  bibliographic  information, often the name of a file on the
              disc containing a bibliography.  There is space in the disc  for
              37  characters  of  information.   May  be  overridden using the
              -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually  with  a
              mailing  address  and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
              for 128 characters of information.  May be overridden using  the
              -p command line option.

       PUBL   This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a
              mailing address and phone number.  There is space  on  the  disc
              for  128 characters of information.  May be overridden using the
              -publisher command line option.

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There  is  space  on  the  disc  for  32
              characters  of  information.  May be overridden using the -sysid
              command line option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There  is  space  on  the  disc  for  32
              characters  of  information.   May  be  overridden  using the -V
              command line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.   There  is  space  on  the  disc  for  128
              characters  of information.  May be overridden using the -volset
              command line option.

       HFS_TYPE
              The  default  TYPE  for  Macintosh  files.  Must  be  exactly  4
              characters.   May be overridden using the -hfs-type command line
              option.

       HFS_CREATOR
              The default CREATOR for  Macintosh  files.  Must  be  exactly  4
              characters.   May  be  overridden using the -hfs-creator command
              line option.

       mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults  for  many
       of these fields.  See the file defaults.h.

EXAMPLES

       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where
       the directory cd_dir will become the root directory if the CD, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock  Ridge  extensions  of  the  source  directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with  Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir where all files have at least read permission and all files  are
       owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To  write  a  tar  archive  directly  to a CD that will later contain a
       simple iso9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
       cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions  of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To  create  a  HFS  hybrid  CD  from  the  source directory cd_dir that
       contains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving  all
       files  CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the ’Apple Extensions to ISO9660’, from the  source
       directories  cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based
       on their magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
               cd_dir another_dir

       The  following example puts different files on the CD that all have the
       name  README,  but   have   different   contents   when   seen   as   a
       ISO9660/RockRidge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the
       CD along with the three README files - but only one will be  seen  from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
               -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
               -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
               -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
               README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
               README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e.  the  file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and the
       other two README files will be hidden. Similarly  for  the  Joliet  and
       ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There   are  probably  all  sorts  of  strange  results  possible  with
       combinations of the hide options ...

AUTHOR

       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix,  because  we
       must  generate  a complete  copy of an existing filesystem on a disk in
       the  iso9660 filesystem.  The name mkisofs  is  probably  a  bit  of  a
       misnomer,  since  it  not  only  creates  the  filesystem,  but it also
       populates it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name  for  a  UNIX
       tool  that creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

       Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or <eric@andante.org>  wrote  the
       first  versions  (1993 ... 1998) of the mkisofs utility.  The copyright
       for old versions of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.   Joerg  Schilling  wrote  the SCSI transport library and
       it’s adaptation layer to mkisofs and newer parts (starting  from  1999)
       of the utility, this makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001 Joerg
       Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson  1997,  1998,  1999,  2000,
       2001
       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie
       libfile  code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES

       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to  allow
       mkisofs  to  read  the  previous  session when creating a multi session
       image.

       If mkisofs is creating a filesystem image with  Rock  Ridge  attributes
       and  the  directory  nesting  level of the source directory tree is too
       much for ISO-9660, mkisofs will do  deep  directory  relocation.   This
       results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You cannot avoid this directory.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely  follows  the  official  Sparc CD boot requirements from the
       Boot prom in Sun Sparc systems.  Some  Linux  distributions  for  Sparc
       systems  use  a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately is not Sparc
       CD boot compliant.  It is annoyingly to see that the  Authors  of  SILO
       don’t  fix  SILO  but  instead provide a completely unneeded "patch" to
       mkisofs that incorporates far more source than the fix for  SILO  would
       need.

BUGS

       ·      Any  files  that  have hard links to files not in the tree being
              copied to the iso9660 filesystem will  have  an  incorrect  file
              reference count.

       ·      Does  not  check  for  SUSP  record(s)  in "." entry of the root
              directory to verify the existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.

              This problem is present when reading old sessions  while  adding
              data in multi-session mode.

       ·      Does  not  properly  read relocated directories in multi-session
              mode when adding data.

              Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
              include the deep directory.

              Repeat  by:  create first session with deep directory relocation
              then add new session with a single dir that differs from the old
              deep path.

       ·      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session from TRANS.TBL

       ·      Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED  in  multi-session
              mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS

       I  have  had  to  make several assumptions on how I expect the modified
       libhfs routines to work, however there may be situations that either  I
       haven’t  thought  of,  or  come  across  when  these  assumptions fail.
       Therefore  I  can’t  guarantee  that  mkisofs  will  work  as  expected
       (although  I haven’t had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features
       work fine, however, some are not fully  tested.  These  are  marked  as
       Alpha above.

       Although  HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters,
       the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and  "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then mkisofs will attempt, where possible, to make  a  unique  name  by
       adding ’_’ characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have _N’ (N
       == decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to  generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above for the method and syntax involved). It is not possible to use  a
       new name for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded file called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you  can  not
       use the command line:

              mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs  will  be  unable  to  decode "oldname". However, you can graft
       Apple/Unix encoded files or directories as long as you do  not  attempt
       to give them new names as above.

       When  creating  an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C,
       only files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e.  mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However,  if  each  session is created with the -part option, then each
       session will appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In  this
       case,  it  is  worth  using  the  -V  or -hfs-volid option to give each
       session a unique volume name, otherwise each "volume"  will  appear  on
       the Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic  links  (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid volumes may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes  containing  the
       same data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be significantly larger. As an HFS volume  gets  bigger,  so  does  the
       allocation block size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy).
       For a 650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD  it  will
       be about 70Kb.

       The  maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 - although
       the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by  using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it is set as locked.  The option  -hfs-unlock  will  create  an  output
       image  that  is  unlocked  -  however  no changes should be made to the
       contents of the volume (unless you really know what you are  doing)  as
       it’s not a "real" HFS volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not  the  Macintosh
       name.

       Although  mkisofs  does  not  alter the contents of a file, if a binary
       file has it’s TYPE set as ’TEXT’, it  may  be  read  incorrectly  on  a
       Macintosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ’????’

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2  or  higher  files  (available  with
       MacOS  8.1).   DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported -  see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It  is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options
       with the -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot options.

       mkisofs should be able to create HFS hybrid images over  4Gb,  although
       this has not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO

       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

       Some sort of gui interface.

AVAILABILITY

       mkisofs   is   available   as   part   of  the  cdrecord  package  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree  is  available  as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools  package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING LISTS

       If you want to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, and/or
       mkhybrid, you may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

                           other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail  address  of  the
       list is:

                           cdwrite@lists.debian.org

MAINTAINER

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER

       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       If you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support