Provided by: smail_3.2.0.115-7_i386 bug


       pathalias, makedb - mail routing tools


       /usr/lib/smail/pathalias [ -ivcDfIp ] [ -l host ] [ -d link ] [ files
       ...  ]

       /usr/lib/smail/makedb [ -a ] [ -o dbmfile ] [ files ...  ]


       Pathalias computes the shortest paths and corresponding routes from one
       host  (computer system) to all other known, reachable hosts.  Pathalias
       reads host-to-host connectivity information on standard input or in the
       named  files,  and  writes  a  list of host-route pairs on the standard

       Here are the pathalias options:

       -i    Ignore case:  map all host names to lower case.  By default, case
             is significant.

       -c    Print costs: print the path cost before each host-route pair.

       -v    Verbose: report some statistics on the standard error output.

       -D    Terminal domains: see domains section.

       -f    First  hop  cost: the printed cost is the cost to the first relay
             in a path, instead of the cost of the path itself;  implies  (and
             overrides) the -c option.

       -I    Internet  connected:  assume  a  DEDICATED  link  to  any  fully-
             qualified domain name encountered in the input stream.

       -p    Only parse the maps; don’t compute the tree or  print  the  paths

       -l host
             Set local host name to host.  By default, pathalias discovers the
             local host name in a system-dependent way.

       -d arg
             Declare a dead link, host, or network.  If arg  is  of  the  form
             ‘‘host-1!host-2,’’  the  link from host-1 to host-2 is treated as
             an extremely high cost (i.e., DEAD) link.  If  arg  is  a  single
             host  name,  that  host is treated as dead and is used as a relay
             host of last resort on any path.  If arg is a network  name,  the
             network requires a gateway.

       -t arg
             Trace  input  for  link,  host  or  network on the standard error
             output.  The form of arg is as above.

       -s file
             Dump the edges that constitute the shortest path  tree  into  the
             named file.

       Makedb  takes  pathalias  output  and  creates  or  appends to a dbm(3)

       Here are the makedb options:

       -a    Append to an existing database; by default, makedb truncates  the

       -o dbmfile
             Identify the output file base name.

   Pathalias Input Format
       A  line  beginning  with  white  space  continues  the  preceding line.
       Anything following ‘#’ on an input line is ignored.

       A list of host-to-host connections  consists  of  a  ‘‘from’’  host  in
       column  1,  followed by white space, followed by a comma-separated list
       of ‘‘to’ hosts, called links.  A link may be preceded or followed by  a
       network  character  to  use in the route.  Valid network characters are
       ‘!’ (default), ‘@’, ‘:’, and ‘%’.  A link (and  network  character,  if
       present)  may be followed by a ‘‘cost’’ enclosed in parentheses.  Costs
       may be arbitrary arithmetic expressions involving numbers, parentheses,
       ‘+’,  ‘-’, ‘*’, and ‘/’.  Negative costs are prohibited.  The following
       symbolic costs are recognized:

              LOCAL       25   (local-area network connection)
              DEDICATED   95   (high speed dedicated link)
              DIRECT     200   (toll-free call)
              DEMAND     300   (long-distance call)
              HOURLY     500   (hourly poll)
              EVENING   1800   (time restricted call)
              DAILY     5000   (daily poll, also called POLLED)
              WEEKLY   30000   (irregular poll)

       In addition, DEAD is a very large number (effectively  infinite),  HIGH
       and   LOW  are  -5  and  +5  respectively,  for  baud-rate  or  quality
       bonuses/penalties, and FAST is -80, for adjusting costs of  links  that
       use  high-speed  (9.6  Kbaud  or  more)  modems.   These symbolic costs
       represent  an  imperfect  measure  of  bandwidth,  monetary  cost,  and
       frequency  of  connections.   For most mail traffic, it is important to
       minimize the number of hosts in a route, thus, e.g.,  HOURLY  *  24  is
       much  larger  than  DAILY.   If  no cost is given, a default of 4000 is

       For the most part, arithmetic expressions that mix  symbolic  constants
       other  than HIGH, LOW, and FAST make no sense.  E.g., if a host calls a
       local neighbor whenever there is work,  and  additionally  polls  every
       evening, the cost is DIRECT, not DIRECT+EVENING.

       Some examples:

              down      princeton!(DEDICATED), tilt,
              princeton topaz!(DEMAND+LOW)
              topaz     @rutgers(LOCAL+1)

       If  a  link  is  encountered  more than once, the least-cost occurrence
       dictates  the  cost  and  network  character.   Links  are  treated  as
       bidirectional  but  asymmetric:  for each link declared in the input, a
       DEAD reverse link is assumed.

       If the ‘‘to’’ host in a link is surrounded by angle brackets, the  link
       is  considered  terminal, and further links beyond this one are heavily
       penalized.  E.g., with input

              seismo    <research>(10), research(100), ihnp4(10)
              research  allegra(10)
              ihnp4     allegra(50)

       the path from seismo to research is direct, but the path from seismo to
       allegra uses ihnp4 as a relay, not research.

       The  set  of  names by which a host is known to its neighbors is called
       its aliases.  Aliases are declared as follows:

              name = alias, alias ...

       The name used in the route to or through aliased hosts is the  name  by
       which the host is known to its predecessor in the route.

       Fully  connected networks, such as the ARPANET or a local-area network,
       are declared as follows:

              net = {host, host, ...}

       The host-list may be preceded or followed by a routing  character  (‘!’
       default),  and  may  be followed by a cost (default 4000).  The network
       name is optional; if not given, pathalias makes one up.

              etherhosts = {rahway, milan, joliet}!(LOCAL)
              ringhosts = @{gimli, alida, almo}(DEDICATED)
              = {etherhosts, ringhosts}(0)

       The routing character used in a route to a network member  is  the  one
       encountered  when  ‘‘entering’’  the network.  See also the sections on
       gateways and domains .

       Connection data may be given while hiding host names by declaring

              private {host, host, ...}

       Pathalias will not generate routes for private hosts, but  may  produce
       routes  through  them.  The scope of a private declaration extends from
       the declaration to the end of the input file in which it appears, or to
       a  private  declaration with an empty host list, whichever comes first.
       The latter scope rule offers a way to retain the semantics  of  private
       declarations when reading from the standard input.

       Dead  hosts, links, or networks may be presented in the input stream by

              dead {arg, ...}

       where arg has the same form as the argument to the -d option.

       To force a specific cost for a link, delete all prior declarations with

              delete {host-1!host-2}

       and  declare  the link as desired.  To delete a host and all its links,

              delete {host}

       Error diagnostics refer to the file in which the error was  found.   To
       alter the file name, use

              file {filename}

       Fine-tuning  is  possible  by adjusting the weights of all links from a
       given host, as in

              adjust {host-1, host-2(LOW), host-3(-1)}

       If no cost is given a default of 4000 is used.

       Input from compressed  (and  uncompressed)  files  can  be  piped  into
       pathalias with the following script.

              for i in $*; do
                        case $i in
                        *.Z) echo "file {‘expr $i : ’\(.*\).Z’‘}"
                             zcat $i ;;
                        *)   echo "file {$i}"
                             cat $i ;;
                        echo "private {}"
              done | pathalias

   Output Format
       A  list  of  host-route  pairs is written to the standard output, where
       route is a string appropriate for use with printf(3), e.g.,

              rutgers   princeton!topaz!%s@rutgers

       The ‘‘%s’’ in the route string should be replaced by the user  name  at
       the destination host.  (This task is normally performed by a mailer.)

       Except  for  domains,  the  name  of a network is never used in routes.
       Thus, in the earlier example,  the  path  from  down  to  up  would  be
       ‘‘up!%s,’’ not ‘‘princeton-ethernet!up!%s.’’

       A network is represented by a pseudo-host and a set of network members.
       Links from the members to the network have  the  weight  given  in  the
       input,  while  the  cost from the network to the members is zero.  If a
       network is declared dead, the member-to-network links are marked  dead,
       which effectively prohibits access to the network from its members.

       However,  if the input also shows an explicit link from any host to the
       network, then that host can be used as a gateway.  (In particular,  the
       gateway need not be a network member.)

       E.g., if CSNET is declared dead and the input contains

              CSNET = {...}
              csnet-relay         CSNET

       then routes to CSNET hosts will use csnet-relay as a gateway.

       A  network  whose name begins with ‘.’ is called a domain.  Domains are
       presumed to require gateways, i.e., they are DEAD.  The route given  by
       a  path through a domain is similar to that for a network, but here the
       domain name is tacked onto the end of the next  host.   Subdomains  are


              harvard   .EDU      # harvard is gateway to .EDU domain
              .EDU      = {.BERKELEY, .UMICH}
              .BERKELEY = {ernie}


              ernie     ...!harvard!ernie.BERKELEY.EDU!%s

       Output  is given for the nearest gateway to a domain, e.g., the example
       above gives

              .EDU      ...!harvard!%s

       Output is given for a subdomain if it has a different  route  than  its
       parent domain, or if all its ancestor domains are private.

       If  the -D option is given on the command line, pathalias treats a link
       from a domain to a host  member  of  that  domain  as  terminal.   This
       property  extends  to  host members of subdomains, etc, and discourages
       routes that use any domain member as a relay.

       Makedb builds a dbm(3) database from the standard  input  or  from  the
       named  files.   Input is expected to be sequence of ASCII records, each
       consisting of a key field and a data field separated by a  single  tab.
       If the tab is missing, the data field is assumed to be empty.


       /usr/local/lib/palias.{dir,pag}     default dbm output
       newsgroup comp.mail.maps            likely location of some input files


       The -i option should be the default.

       The order of arguments is significant.  In particular, -i and -t should
       appear early.

       Pathalias  can  generate  hybrid  (i.e.  ambiguous)  routes,  which are
       abhorrent and most certainly should not be given  as  examples  in  the
       manual  entry.   Experienced  mappers  largely  shun ‘@’ when preparing
       input; this is historical, but also reflects UUCP’s facile  syntax  for
       source routes.

       Multiple  ‘@’s  in  routes  are  loathsome, so pathalias resorts to the
       ‘‘magic %’’ rule when necessary.  This  convention  is  not  documented
       anywhere, including here.

       The  -D  option elides insignificant routes to domain members.  This is
       benign, perhaps even beneficial, but confusing, since the  behavior  is
       undocumented and somewhat unpredictable.


       getopt(3),  available  from comp.sources.unix archives (if not in the C
       P. Honeyman and S.M. Bellovin, ‘‘PATHALIAS or The Care and  Feeding  of
       Relative  Addresses,’’  in  Proc.  Summer  USENIX Conf., Atlanta, 1986.
       This     document     is      also      available      online      from