Provided by: pound_1.9.4-1_i386 bug


       pound - HTTP/HTTPS reverse-proxy and load-balancer


       pound  [-v] [-c] [-f config_file] [-p pid_file]


       Pound  is  a  reverse-proxy  load balancing server. It accepts requests
       from HTTP/HTTPS clients  and  distributes  them  to  one  or  more  Web
       servers.  The  HTTPS requests are decrypted and passed to the back-ends
       as plain HTTP.

       If more than one back-end server is defined, Pound chooses one of  them
       randomly, based on defined priorities. By default, Pound keeps track of
       associations between clients and back-end servers (sessions).


       Options available (see also below for configuration file options):

       -v     Verbose mode: error messages will be  sent  to  stdout  even  if
              Pound  was  configured  to  log  to syslog. This applies only to
              startup messages, before Pound puts itself  in  the  background.
              Normal operational messages will still go to syslog.

       -c     Check  only:  Pound  will  exit  immediately  after  parsing the
              configuration file. This may be used for running a quick  syntax
              check before actually activating a server.

       -f config_file
              Location  of  the  configuration  file  (see  below  for  a full
              description of the format).  Default: /etc/pound/pound.cfg

       -p pid_file
              Location of the pid file.  Pound will write  its  own  pid  into
              this  file. Normally this is used for shell scripts that control
              starting    and    stopping    of    the    daemon.     Default:

       In  general,  any  number of back-end servers may be specified. Use the
       priority to affect  the  load  distribution  among  unequal-performance

       One  (or more) copies of Pound should be started at boot time. Use "big
       iron" if you expect heavy loads: while Pound is as  light-weight  as  I
       know  how  to  make it, with a lot of simultaneous requests it will use
       quite a bit of CPU and memory. Multiple CPUs are your friend.


       Each line in the file is considered a complete configuration directive.
       The  directives  are case-insensitive. Empty lines or lines starting in
       ’#’ are ignored. There are two types of directives:  global  directives
       (they  affect  the settings for the entire program instance), and group
       directives (they affect only a specific group of requests).


       Global directives may appear anywhere within  the  configuration  file,
       though  it is customary for them to be at the start. They may appear in
       any order.

       ListenHTTP host,port
              Specify the address and port number where Pound will listen  for
              HTTP  requests.  Multiple directives imply listening on multiple
              ports.  A host name of "*" implies listening  on  all  available
              interfaces  (but  be careful: no checks are made for conflicting

       ListenHTTPS host,port cert_file [ciphers]
              Specify the address and port number where Pound will listen  for
              HTTPS   requests.    cert_file   is   the  file  containing  the
              certificate, possibly a certificate chain and the signature  for
              this port; the same file may be specified for multiple ports (as
              above - multiple directives imply listening on multiple  ports).
              A   host   name  of  "*"  implies  listening  on  all  available
              interfaces.  If specified, ciphers is the list of  ciphers  that
              will  be  accepted  by the SSL connection; it is a string in the
              same     format     as     in     OpenSSL     ciphers(1)     and
              SSL_CTX_set_cipher_list(3).  Both ListenHTTP and ListenHTTPS may
              be specified as may times as required.

       HTTPSHeaders cert "header"
              Add HTTPS-specific headers. By default,  Pound  passes  requests
              unchanged  to the back-end server(s). If the header is not empty
              it represents the value of a header to be added to the  request.
              The  cert  tells Pound what to do about client certificates: 0 -
              don’t ask (default), 1 - ask, 2 - ask and fail if no certificate
              was presented, 3 - ask but do not verify.

       CAlist CAcert_file
              Set  the list of "trusted" CA’s for this server. The CAcert_file
              is a file containing a sequence of CA certificates (PEM format).
              The  names  of  the  defined CA certificates will be sent to the
              client on connection.

       VerifyList Verify_file verify_depth
              Set  the  CA  (Certificate  Authority)  and   CRL   (Certificate
              Revocation List). The Verify_file is a file that contains the CA
              root certificates and CRL (in PEM format).  Verify_depth is  the
              depth  of  verification  for  a  client certificate (up to 9). A
              value of 0 (the default) implies no verification at all.

              Please note: there is an important difference between the CAlist
              and  the VerifyList. The CAlist tells the client (browser) which
              client certificates it should send. The VerifyList defines which
              CAs  are  actually  used  for  the  verification of the returned

       User user_name
              Specify  the  user  Pound  will  run  as  (must  be  defined  in

       Group group_name
              Specify  the  group  Pound  will  run  as  (must  be  defined in

       RootJail directory_path_and_name
              Specify the directory that Pound  will  chroot  to  at  runtime.
              Please  note  that  OpenSSL  requires access to /dev/urandom, so
              make sure you create a device by that name, accessible from  the
              root jail directory.

       ExtendedHTTP value
              if  value  is 1, allow extended HTTP requests (PUT, DELETE).  By
              default, Pound only allows GET, POST and HEAD.

       WebDAV value
              if value is 1,  allow  WebDAV  requests  (LOCK,  UNLOCK  and  if
              compiled   with  MS  support:  SUBSCRIBE,  PROPFIND,  PROPPATCH,
              far as I can tell, is what Microsoft needs in its private WebDAV
              version.  Whether my understanding of their semantics is correct
              is debatable. Whether their understanding of their semantics  is
              correct  is  also  debatable  (they had to patch their own proxy
              several times in order to support WebDAV). MS  support  is  also
              required  for  Subversion  (see for
              details) access.

       LogFacility value
              Specify the log facility to use.  value (default:  daemon)  must
              be  one of the symbolic facility names defined in syslog.h. This
              facility shall be used for logging (if Pound was  compiled  with
              support for syslog).

       LogLevel value
              Specify  the  logging  level:  0 for no logging, 1 (default) for
              regular logging, 2 for extended  logging  (show  chosen  backend
              server  as  well),  3  for Apache-like format (Common Log Format
              with Virtual Host) and 4 (same as 3 but without the virtual host

       NoHTTPS11 value
              Behave  like an HTTP/1.0 server for HTTPS clients. If this value
              is 0 disable the check. If the value is 1 do not allow  multiple
              requests on SSL connections. If the value is 2 (default) disable
              multiple requests on SSL  connections  only  for  MSIE  clients.
              Required work-around for a bug in certain versions of IE.

              Have  Pound  run  in  the foreground. By default Pound runs as a
              daemon (detaches itself from the controlling terminal  and  puts
              itself  in  the  background).  By specifying this option you can
              force Pound to work like a regular process. Useful for debugging
              or if you want to use something like daemontools.

       Alive value
              Specify how often Pound will check for resurected back-end hosts
              (default: 30 seconds). In general, it is a good idea to set this
              as  low  as  possible  -  it  will find resurected hosts faster.
              However, if you set it too low it will consume  resources  -  so

       Server value
              Specify  for  how  long  Pound  will wait for a server response.
              After this long has passed without the server sending  any  data
              Pound   will  consider  the  response  finished  and  abort  the
              connection. A value of 0 (default) implies waiting forever.  Set
              it  higher  if  your  server(s)  occasionally time-out on a slow
              network or are over-loaded.

       Client value
              Specify for how long  Pound  will  wait  for  a  client  request
              (default:  10  seconds).  After this long has passed without the
              client sending any data Pound will close the connection. Set  it
              higher if your clients time-out on a slow network or over-loaded
              server, lower if you start  getting  DOS  attacks  or  run  into
              problems with IE clients.

       SSLEngine name
              Use   an  OpenSSL  hardware  acceleration  card  called  "name".
              Available only if OpenSSL-engine is installed on your system.

       Err500 "filename"
              A file with the text to be displayed if  an  Error  500  occurs.
              Default:  "An  internal  server error occurred. Please try again

       Err501 "filename"
              A file with the text to be displayed if  an  Error  501  occurs.
              Default: "This method may not be used.".

       Err503 "filename"
              A  file  with  the  text to be displayed if an Error 503 occurs.
              Default:  "The  service  is  not  available.  Please  try  again

       Err414 "filename"
              A  file  with  the  text to be displayed if an Error 414 occurs.
              Default: "Request URI is too long.".

       RewriteRedirect value
              If value is 1 (default) check the responses  from  the  back-end
              servers.   If  a response is a redirect to a back-end managed by
              Pound the response is modified to be a redirect to Pound itself.
              A  value  of  0  disables this behaviour. A value of 2 will also
              ignore the ports and check only on host name identity.

       CheckURL value
              If value is 1 check the requested URL  for  correct  syntax.  If
              value  is  0  (default) no checking is performed, and additional
              CSsegment or similar directives are quietly ignored.

       CSsegment chars
              The allowed character set for the segment part of  the  request.
              Same  for  CSparameter,  CSqid, CSqval and CSfragment. See below
              for details on URL matching.

       MaxRequest nnn
              Request maximal size. All requests will be limited to these many
              bytes.  If a request contains more data than allowed an error is
              returned. Default: unlimited.

       HeadRemove "header"
              Remove  certain  headers  from  the   incoming   requests.   All
              occurences  of  the  matching  specified header will be removed.
              Please note that this filtering is done prior  to  other  checks
              (such  as  HeadRequire  or  HeadDeny),  so you should not try to
              check for these headers in later  matches.  Multiple  directives
              may  be  specified  in order to remove more than one header, and
              the header itself may be a regular pattern (though  this  should
              be used with caution).


       Group  directives  apply  to a specific group of requests. The order of
       the group directives is important - incoming requests will  be  matched
       against  the  given  patterns in the order they appear in the file, and
       the first group that matches wins.

       If a request does not match any of the defined groups it  will  not  be
       sent  anywhere  (there is no default server). This can come in handy if
       you want to block a specific kind  of  requests,  though  it  would  be
       better style to do this with a catch-all group with no servers.

       UrlGroup "pattern"
              Specify  a  group of backend servers based on a URL pattern. All
              requests fitting the pattern  will  be  served  by  the  defined
              servers.   Pattern is a regular pattern as specified in regex(7)
              - extended  version.   The  patterns  are  tested  in  order  of
              definition, so the last pattern should usually be a catch-all .*
              The group ends with a EndGroup directive.

       BackEnd address,port,priority[,ha_port]
              Specify a backend server: address and port. Priority is 1  to  9
              and  defines a weighting - higher priority servers get used more
              often. May only be used in an UrlGroup directive. If no  servers
              are specified, then the specified URLs will be simply blocked.

       Session TYPE [id] seconds
              Specify  the time (in seconds) that a session will be kept.  May
              be used exactly once and only in an UrlGroup directive. TYPE  is
              one of:

              IP  -  the  session is kept based on client IP address. No id is
              allowed. The time may be negative, in which case Pound will  use
              sticky  sessions: instead of keeping a normal session the client
              IP address is always mapped (hashed) to the same back-end.

              BASIC - the session is kept based on Basic Authentication  data.
              No id is allowed.

              URL  -  the session is kept based on the value of a parameter in
              the request URL.  The  id  indicates  which  parameter  will  be

              COOKIE  -  the session is kept based on a cookie (in the request
              or the  response).   The  id  indicates  which  cookie  will  be

       HeadRequire header "pattern"
              Specifiy  header(s)  that  must  appear  in  the  request.  Only
              requests that include the specified HTTP header will match.  May
              only  be  used  in  an  UrlGroup  directive. The headers will be
              checked against the "^header:  *pattern$"  regular  pattern.  As
              many  HeadRequire directives as necessary may appear in a single

       HeadDeny header "pattern"
              Specifiy headers that  may  not  appear  in  the  request.  Only
              requests  that  do  not  include  the specified HTTP header will
              match.  May only be used in an UrlGroup directive.  The  headers
              will   be  checked  against  the  "^header:  *pattern$"  regular
              pattern. As many HeadDeny directives as necessary may appear  in
              a single group.

       See below for some examples.


       Pound  attempts  to  keep  track  of  active back-end servers, and will
       temporarily disable servers that do not respond (though not necessarily
       dead:  an overloaded server that Pound cannot establish a connection to
       will be considered dead). However, every Alive seconds, an  attempt  is
       made  to  connect  to  the dead servers in case they have become active
       again. If this attempt succeeds, connections will be innitiated to them

       In  general  it  is  a good idea to set this time interval as low as is
       consistent with your resources in  order  to  benefit  from  resurected
       servers  at the earliest possible time. The default value of 30 seconds
       is probably a good choice.

       Set the interval to 0 to disable this feature. The clients that  happen
       upon  a dead backend server will just receive a 503 Service Unavailable

       The ha_port parameter specifies an additional port that  is  used  only
       for viability checks: if this port is specified in a BackEnd directive,
       Pound will attempt periodically (every Alive  seconds)  to  connect  to
       this  port. If the port does not respond the server is considered dead.
       It never makes sense to have the ha_port identical to the main back-end
       port:  this  would  only  generate  extra,  unncecessary activity (CPU,
       network traffic) for no good reason whatsoever. The  ha_port  is  meant
       for applications that offer an additional health monitoring port or for
       installations that wish  to  take  servers  off-line  in  a  controlled


       Pound  attempts to filter out illegal request URLs. In general a URL is
       defined as

       { / segment [; parameter] } [? qid [ = [ qval ] ] { & qid [ = [ qval  ]
       ] } ] [ # fragment ]

       Each  of  the elements is matched against the allowed character set. By
       default, the parts are defined as:

       CSsegment                                                             -
       CSparameter                                                           -
       CSqid                                                                 -
       CSqval                                                                -
       CSfragment                                                            -

       If Pound was  compiled  with  support  for  MS  DAV  the  segment  part
       includes, in addition, the characters {}<>".

       This  mechanism  comes  in  handy  should you need to define some other
       "legal" URLs.  A common occurence is that PHP programmers use unencoded
       parameters  in  their  requests  such as /xxx?id[2]=abc. For such cases


       in your config file. Additionally  this  can  be  useful  for  accented
       characters and other non-RFC conformant requests.

       Please be aware that each of these additional definitions may introduce
       security problems - use them at your own risk.


       If a client browser connects to Pound via HTTPS and if  it  presents  a
       client certificate and if HTTPSHeaders is set (HTTPSHeaders 1 "value"),
       Pound adds the following headers  to  the  request  it  issues  to  the

       value  The value, if present, is added to the headers.

              Details about the certificate owner.

              Details about the certificate issuer (Certificate Authority).

              Starting date of certificate validity.

              Ending date of certificate validity.

              Certificate serial number (decimal).

              The cipher currently in use.

              The full client certificate (PEM-format multi-line)

       It  is the application’s responsibility to actually use these headers -
       Pound just passes this information  without  checking  it  in  any  way
       (except for signature and encryption correctness).


       In  general,  Pound  does  not  read  or  write  to  the hard-disk. The
       exceptions are reading the configuration file and (possibly) the server
       certificate file(s) and error message(s), which are opened read-only on
       startup, read, and closed, and the pid file which is opened  on  start-
       up, written to and immediately closed.  Following this there is no disk
       access whatsoever, so using a RootJail  directive  is  only  for  extra
       security bonus points.

       Pound  tries  to  sanitise all HTTP/HTTPS requests: the request itself,
       the headers and the contents are checked for conformance to  the  RFC’s
       and only valid requests are passed to the back-end servers. This is not
       absolutely fool-proof - as  the  recent  Apache  problem  with  chunked
       transfers  demonstrated.  However, given the current standards, this is
       the best that can be done - HTTP is an inherently weak protocol.


       Pound uses the system log for messages (default  facility  LOG_DAEMON).
       The format is very similar to other web servers, so that if you want to
       use a log tool:

           fgrep pound /var/log/messages | your_log_tool

       Translating HTTPS to HTTP is an iffy proposition: no client information
       is  passed  to  the  server  itself (certificates, etc) and the backend
       server may be misled if it uses absolute URLs.  A  patch  for  Zope  is
       included  in  the  distribution  to  address this issue - for other Web
       servers you are on your own. May the source be with you.

       Pound deals with (and sanitizes) HTTP/1.1 requests. Thus  even  if  you
       have  an  HTTP/1.0 server, a single connection to an HTTP/1.1 client is
       kept, while the connection to  the  back-end  server  is  re-opened  as

       Pound attempts to resolve the names of the hosts that appear in various
       requests and/or responses.  That means it need a  functioning  resolver
       of some kind (be it /etc/hosts, DNS or something else).


       To  translate  HTTPS  requests  to  a  local HTTP server (assuming your
       network address is

              ListenHTTPS,443 /etc/pound/server.pem

              UrlGroup ".*"

       To distribute the HTTP/HTTPS requests to three read-only  Web  servers,
       where the third one is a newer and faster machine:

              ListenHTTPS,443 /etc/pound/server.pem

              UrlGroup ".*"

       To  distribute  the  HTTP/HTTPS  requests  to two Web servers with long
       session times; also change the uid/gid of the running program and do  a

              ListenHTTPS,443 /etc/pound/server.pem
              User www
              Group www
              RootJail /var/pound

              UrlGroup ".*"
              Session IP 600

       To  separate between image requests and other Web content and block all
       requests for a specific URL:


              # Images server(s)
              UrlGroup ".*.(jpg|gif)"

              # Block all requests for /forbidden
              UrlGroup "/forbidden.*"

              # Catch-all server(s)
              UrlGroup ".*"
              Session BASIC 300

       Here is a more complex example: assume your  static  images  (GIF/JPEG)
       are  to  be  served  from  a single back-end In addition, is to do the hosting for  with  URL-based
       sessions,  and  (a  1GHz  PIII)  and (800Mhz
       Duron) are for all other requests (cookie-based sessions).  The logging
       will  be done by the back-end servers.  The configuration file may look
       like this:

              # Main listening ports
              ListenHTTPS,443 /etc/pound/pound.pem
              User nobody
              Group nogroup
              RootJail /var/pound/jail
              Client 15
              Alive 60
              HTTPSHeaders 1 ""
              LogLevel 0

              # Image server
              UrlGroup ".*.(jpg|gif)"

              # Virtual host
              UrlGroup ".*sessid=.*"
              HeadRequire Host ".**"
              Session URL sessid 120

              # Everybody else
              UrlGroup ".*"
              Session COOKIE userid 180


              this is where Pound will attempt to record its process id.

              the default configuration file (the location may be changed when
              compiling - see the F_CONF flag in the Makefile).

              the  certificate file(s) for HTTPS. The location must be defined
              in the configuration file - this is only a suggestion. The  file
              must contain a PEM-encoded certificate, optionally a certificate
              chain  from  a  known  Certificate  Authority  to  your   server
              certificate   and   a  PEM-encoded  private  key  (not  password
              protected). See OpenSSL(1) for details. This file should be well
              protected, lest someone gets your server private key.


       Written by Robert Segall, Apsis GmbH.


       Report bugs to <>.


       Copyright © 2002 Apsis GmbH.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR  A  PARTICULAR