Provided by: iproute_20041019-4ubuntu5_i386
HTB - Hierarchy Token Bucket
tc qdisc ... dev dev ( parent classid | root) [ handle major: ] htb [
default minor-id ]
tc class ... dev dev parent major:[minor] [ classid major:minor ] htb
rate rate [ ceil rate ] burst bytes [ cburst bytes ] [ prio priority ]
HTB is meant as a more understandable and intuitive replacement for the
CBQ qdisc in Linux. Both CBQ and HTB help you to control the use of the
outbound bandwidth on a given link. Both allow you to use one physical
link to simulate several slower links and to send different kinds of
traffic on different simulated links. In both cases, you have to
specify how to divide the physical link into simulated links and how to
decide which simulated link to use for a given packet to be sent.
Unlike CBQ, HTB shapes traffic based on the Token Bucket Filter
algorithm which does not depend on interface characteristics and so
does not need to know the underlying bandwidth of the outgoing
Shaping works as documented in tc-tbf (8).
Within the one HRB instance many classes may exist. Each of these
classes contains another qdisc, by default tc-pfifo(8).
When enqueueing a packet, HTB starts at the root and uses various
methods to determine which class should receive the data.
In the absence of uncommon configuration options, the process is rather
easy. At each node we look for an instruction, and then go to the
class the instruction refers us to. If the class found is a barren
leaf-node (without children), we enqueue the packet there. If it is not
yet a leaf node, we do the whole thing over again starting from that
The following actions are performed, in order at each node we visit,
until one sends us to another node, or terminates the process.
(i) Consult filters attached to the class. If sent to a leafnode, we
are done. Otherwise, restart.
(ii) If none of the above returned with an instruction, enqueue at
This algorithm makes sure that a packet always ends up somewhere, even
while you are busy building your configuration.
LINK SHARING ALGORITHM
The root of a HTB qdisc class tree has the following parameters:
parent major:minor | root
This mandatory parameter determines the place of the HTB
instance, either at the root of an interface or within an
Like all other qdiscs, the HTB can be assigned a handle. Should
consist only of a major number, followed by a colon. Optional,
but very useful if classes will be generated within this qdisc.
Unclassified traffic gets sent to the class with this minor-id.
Classes have a host of parameters to configure their operation.
Place of this class within the hierarchy. If attached directly
to a qdisc and not to another class, minor can be omitted.
Like qdiscs, classes can be named. The major number must be
equal to the major number of the qdisc to which it belongs.
Optional, but needed if this class is going to have children.
In the round-robin process, classes with the lowest priority
field are tried for packets first. Mandatory.
Maximum rate this class and all its children are guaranteed.
Maximum rate at which a class can send, if its parent has
bandwidth to spare. Defaults to the configured rate, which
implies no borrowing
Amount of bytes that can be burst at ceil speed, in excess of
the configured rate. Should be at least as high as the highest
burst of all children.
Amount of bytes that can be burst at ’infinite’ speed, in other
words, as fast as the interface can transmit them. For perfect
evening out, should be equal to at most one average packet.
Should be at least as high as the highest cburst of all
Due to Unix timing constraints, the maximum ceil rate is not infinite
and may in fact be quite low. On Intel, there are 100 timer events per
second, the maximum rate is that rate at which ’burst’ bytes are sent
each timer tick. From this, the mininum burst size for a specified
rate can be calculated. For i386, a 10mbit rate requires a 12 kilobyte
burst as 100*12kb*8 equals 10mbit.
HTB website: http://luxik.cdi.cz/~devik/qos/htb/
Martin Devera <email@example.com>. This manpage maintained by bert hubert