Provided by: traceproto_1.1.2beta1-2_i386
Traceproto - trace the route to a destination using a specified
protocol and port
traceproto [-cCTfAhvR] [-p protocol] [-d dst_port] [-D max_dst_port]
[-s src_port] [-S max_src_port] [-m min_ttl] [-M max_ttl] [-w
response_timeout] [-W send_delay] [-a account_level] [-P payload_size]
[-F interface] [-k skips] [-I consecutive_trace_count] [-H
packets_per_hop] [-i incr_pattern] [-o output_style] [-t tcp_flags]
traceproto is a replacement for the venerable traceroute. It serves
the same function, to determine the path that traffic takes between the
current host and a remote system. Like traceroute it uses the IP time-
to-live (TTL) field and watches for the return ICMP packets from each
successive gateway. In the current Internet environment with ubiquitous
firewalls and traffic filtering it is no longer enough to assume that
if some traffic is getting to the remote machine that all of it is.
traceproto is an improvement to traceroute in this regard as it lets
you select the protocol and destination port to trace to.
The protocol to use. The current options are tcp, udp, and icmp
with tcp as the default.
The destination port to trace to. If -i is set to ’d’ or ’D’
then this is the minimum destination port. The default value is
The maximum destination port. -i needs to be set to ’d’ or ’D’
for this to have an effect.
The port to use as the local source port. If -i is set to ’s’
or ’S’ then it is the minimum source port. The default is
The port to use as the maximum local source port.
Specifies the minimum time-to-live setting to use. This sets
how many hops away to start tracing. (For example, if the first
hop is a firewall that will not respond with an ICMP
TIME_EXCEEDED message but will allow packages through from hops
that are further away, you can set the min_ttl to 2 and thereby
avoid having to wait for the packets that timeout at the first
hop.) The default is 1.
Specifies the maximum time-to-live setting. This is the limit
for how many hops away to trace. The default is 30. (Very few
locations on the Internet will be further away than this.)
The timeout in seconds to wait for a return packet. The default
is 5 seconds.
The timeout before sending a new packet in milliseconds. The
default is 100 milliseconds.
If accounting is enabled (ie. account_level set to > 0)
traceproto will print statistics after the run is complete
detailing minimum return time in milliseconds, average return
time in milliseconds, maximum return time in milliseconds,
number of packets returned successfully, and the number of
packets that generated no response. Possible account_levels:
0 No accounting printed.
1 Only the totals for all of the hops combined are printed.
2 Stats are shown for each individual hop as well as the total
(this is the default).
Note that the -C flag will run traceproto in continuous mode,
restarting from scratch at the end of each run and will generate
stats after each run. Note also that CTRL-C will abort the run,
printing the stats at whatever level is specified with -a and
will abort traceproto. CTRL-Z will cause traceproto to print
the stats but does not abort the run.
-T Print timestamps with the output.
This option specifies the payload size in bytes. Currently the
payload is filled with ’ ’s, though this may change in the
future. A word of caution, traceproto seems to have problems
with certain combinations of payload size and protocol,
especially udp with payloads of under 12 bytes. Hence the
default payload is 12 bytes. The cause of this has yet to be
Allows the user to specify a comma separated list of hops to
skip by number (ie. -k 5 will cause traceproto to skip sending
packets with a ttl of 5, going from 4 to 6). This allows the
user to skip a hop that is know to not respond, responds slowly,
or that should be avoided for some reason. The skip list only
allows comma separated hops at this point, not ranges. Spaces in
the list will also cause problems. Note that -k 1 is
functionally analogous to -m 2.
-c Trace continuously. This causes traceproto to reset its
counters and begin the trace from scratch once run has been
completed. Useful for finding intermittent problems and for
noting hops that use packet based routing (ie. the route used
for the packet may change from one packet to the next even
during the same connection). See also -C.
-C If -c is set, this prints the accumulated stats at the end of
each run. Meaningless unless -c is set.
Like -c and -C, -I does a continuous trace but unlike -c and -C,
it only does consecutive_trace_count iterations.
This allows the user to specify the number of packets sent out
for each increment of the TTL. This must be a number between 1
and 10. The default is 3 packets per hop.
-f Set the don’t-fragment bit in the IP header. Can be used in
conjunction with the -P flag to determine at which hop the MTR
Specify the network interface to use. Note that it is quite
possible to specify the wrong interface needed to reach the
-A Do Autonomous System number lookups.
This flag governs the source and destination increment patterns.
The pattern is a combination of one or two letters from the set
[sSdDnN] where the meanings are:
s decrement the source port with each packet
S increment the source port with each packet (the default for
the source port)
d decrement the destination port with each packet
D increment the destination port with each packet
n use a static source port
N use a static destination port (the default for the destination
Note that if contradictory options are given, the last one seen
is used (ie. -i Ss is the same as -i s). Note also that -i nN
may cause traceproto problems in determining which response is
for which packet.
The default output style is designed to be reasonable legible
and space conscious. There are other output styles available:
s the standard output (default). Prints the hop number, the
response protocol and type, the response machine name if
available, and the response IP address on the first line. The
next line is a list of the response times as they arrive.
g graphical output. The first line is the same as the standard
output, but the response time is printed one line per response
with a variable length ascii bar indicating the relative
c classic output. An output style (almost) identical to the
n no individual hop output. Stats will still print at whatever
level is set. (Note that -o n -a 0 is possible, but silly.)
m minimal output. Prints the hop number and a single character
indicating the response type. Response times are not noted.
p scriptable output. Prints the hop number, ip, return packet
type, and time for each packet sent.
C (n)curses output.
Sets the tcp flags to use.
S SYN (default)
Use -t SEC to test connections with Explicit Congestion
-R Reverse trace. Starts at the max TTL and decrements the TTL for
-h A brief usage message summarizing the options.
-v Version info.
The easiest way to invoke traceproto is simply to give it a target
machine by name or IP address. The default behavior is to trace using
tcp and destination port 80. Given the current state of the Internet
this is the most likely to succeed though it certainly won’t be
appropriate for every situation.
traceproto assumes that the user has some understanding of the
protocols involved; users who are unfamiliar with them may find that
traceproto’s options or output are hard to decipher. Information on
how the protocols function is widely available on the Internet and is
recommended reading for the traceproto user.
There are a fair number of options for traceproto and there will
probably be even more in the future. Many are contradictory or
illogical in combination, but unless a combination is actually
problematic, traceproto will usually allow it to be specified.
Combinations that are illogical are generally ignored in a sensible
manner; contradictions are usually resolved using the option furthest
to the right on the command line.
There are a number of environmental variables that can be set to effect
traceproto’s behavior. These variables override the default behavior;
in turn they are themselves are overridden by their equivalent command
Sets the format for the time-stamp printed by the -T flag. Note
that there is no equivalent command line flag for this variable.
std The std day/alpha-month/year:hour:minute:second format.
us US Style date of numeric-month/day/year:hour:minute:second
descend Descending time format:
epoch Number of seconds since the unix epoch.
Sets the default interface. Is overridden by the -F flag.
Setting this variable causes traceproto to print a message about
which interface it is using, since traceproto will attempt to
send the traces out that interface whether or not it is the
correct interface needed to reach the specified destination.
Sets the default output style for traceproto. Is overridden
using the -o flag.
std The standard output style. The same as ’-o s’.
graphical The graphical output style. The same as ’-o g’.
classic The classic output style. The same as ’-o c’.
none No output. The same as ’-o n’.
minimal Minimal output. The same as ’-o m’.
scriptable Output suitable for use in scripting. The same as
curses (N)Curses output. The same as ’-o C’.
Sets the default server to to Autonomous System number lookups.
Mimics the NANOG traceroute behavior.
traceroute(8), hping2(8), tcptraceroute(1), mtr(8), lft(8).
None known at this time. Please report any bugs found.