Provided by: xfsprogs_2.7.7-1_i386
xfs_quota - manage use of quota on XFS filesystems
xfs_quota [ -x ] [ -p prog ] [ -c cmd ] ...
[ -d project ] ... [path...]
xfs_quota is a utility for reporting and editing various aspects of
The options to xfs_quota are:
-c cmd xfs_quota commands may be run interactively (the default) or
as arguments on the command line. Multiple -c arguments may
be given. The commands are run in the sequence given, then
the program exits.
-p prog Set the program name for prompts and some error messages, the
default value is xfs_quota.
-x Enable expert mode. All of the administrative commands (see
the ADMINISTRATOR COMMANDS section below) which allow
modifications to the quota system are available only in
Project names or numeric identifiers may be specified with
this option, which restricts the output of the individual
xfs_quota commands to the set of projects specified.
Multiple -d arguments may be given.
The optional path argument(s) can be used to specify mount points or
device files which identify XFS filesystems. The output of the
individual xfs_quota commands will then be restricted to the set of
This manual page is divided into two sections - firstly, information
for users of filesystems with quota enabled, and the xfs_quota commands
of interest to such users; and then information which is useful only to
administrators of XFS filesystems using quota and the quota commands
which allow modifications to the quota system.
Note that common to almost all of the individual commands described
below are the options for specifying which quota types are of interest
- user quota (-u), group quota (-g), and/or project quota (-p). Also,
several commands provide options to operate on "blocks used" (-b),
"inodes used" (-i), and/or "realtime blocks used" (-r).
Many commands also have extensive online help. Use the help command
for more details on any command.
In most computing environments, disk space is not infinite. The quota
subsystem provides a mechanism to control usage of disk space. Quotas
can be set for each individual user on any/all of the local
filesystems. The quota subsystem warns users when they exceed their
allotted limit, but allows some extra space for current work (hard
limit/soft limit). In addition, XFS filesystems with limit enforcement
turned off can be used as an effective disk usage accounting system.
Usersâ€â€™ View of Disk Quotas
To most users, disk quotas are either of no concern or a fact of life
that cannot be avoided. There are two possible quotas that can be
imposed - a limit can be set on the amount of space a user can occupy,
and there may be a limit on the number of files (inodes) he can own.
The quota command provides information on the quotas that have been set
by the system administrators and current usage.
There are four numbers for each limit: current usage, soft limit
(quota), hard limit, and time limit. The soft limit is the number of
1K-blocks (or files) that the user is expected to remain below. The
hard limit cannot be exceeded. If a userâ€™s usage reaches the hard
limit, further requests for space (or attempts to create a file) fail
with the "Quota exceeded" (EDQUOT) error.
When a user exceeds the soft limit, the timer is enabled. Any time the
quota drops below the soft limits, the timer is disabled. If the timer
pops, the particular limit that has been exceeded is treated as if the
hard limit has been reached, and no more resources are allocated to the
user. The only way to reset this condition, short of turning off limit
enforcement or increasing the limit, is to reduce usage below quota.
Only the superuser (i.e. a sufficiently capable process) can set the
time limits and this is done on a per filesystem basis.
Surviving When the Quota Limit Is Reached
In most cases, the only way for a user to recover from over-quota
conditions is to abort whatever activity is in progress on the
filesystem that has reached its limit, remove sufficient files to bring
the limit back below quota, and retry the failed program.
However, if a user is in the editor and a write fails because of an
over quota situation, that is not a suitable course of action. It is
most likely that initially attempting to write the file has truncated
its previous contents, so if the editor is aborted without correctly
writing the file, not only are the recent changes lost, but possibly
much, or even all, of the contents that previously existed.
There are several possible safe exits for a user caught in this
situation. He can use the editor shell escape command to examine his
file space and remove surplus files. Alternatively, using sh(1), he
can suspend the editor, remove some files, then resume it. A third
possibility is to write the file to some other filesystem (perhaps to a
file on /tmp) where the userâ€™s quota has not been exceeded. Then after
rectifying the quota situation, the file can be moved back to the
filesystem it belongs on.
path [ N ]
Lists all paths with devices/project identifiers or set the
current path to the Nth list entry (the current path is used by
many of the commands described here, it identifies the
filesystem toward which a command is directed). The path list
can come from several places - the command line, the mount
table, and the /etc/projects file.
df See the free command.
quota [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] [ -hnNv ] [ id|name ] ...
Show individual usage and limits, for a single user name or
numeric user ID. The -h option reports in a "human-readable"
format similar to the df(1) command.
free [ -bir ] [ -hN ]
Reports filesystem usage, much like the df(1) utility. It can
show usage for blocks, inode, and/or realtime block space, and
shows used, free, and total available. If directory quota are
in use (see the DIRECTORY QUOTA section below), it will also
report utilisation for those directory trees. The -h option
reports in a "human-readable" format,
help [ command]
Online help for all commands, or one specific command.
quit Exit xfs_quota.
q See the quit command.
The XFS quota system differs to that of other filesystems in a number
of ways. Most importantly, XFS considers quota information as
filesystem metadata and uses journaling to provide a higher level
guarantee of consistency. As such, it is administered differently, in
1. The quotacheck command has no effect on XFS filesystems. The
first time quota accounting is turned on (at mount time), XFS
does an automatic quotacheck internally; afterwards, the quota
system will always be completely consistent until quotas are
manually turned off.
2. There is no need for quota file(s) in the root of the XFS
3. XFS distinguishes between quota accounting and limit
enforcement. Quota accounting must be turned on at the time of
mounting the XFS filesystem. However, it is possible to turn
on/off limit enforcement any time quota accounting is turned on.
The "quota" option to the mount command turns on both (user)
quota accounting and enforcement. The "uqnoenforce" option must
be used to turn on user accounting with limit enforcement
4. Turning on quotas on the root filesystem is slightly different
from the above. For IRIX XFS, refer to quotaon(1M). For Linux
XFS, the quota mount flags must be passed in with the
"rootflags=" boot parameter.
5. It is useful to use the state to monitor the XFS quota subsystem
at various stages - it can be used to see if quotas are turned
on, and also to monitor the space occupied by the quota system
6. There is a mechanism built into xfsdump that allows quota limit
information to be backed up for later restoration, should the
7. Quota limits cannot be set before turning on quotas on.
8. XFS filesystems keep quota accounting on the superuser (user ID
zero), and the tool will display the superuserâ€™s usage
information. However, limits are never enforced on the
superuser (nor are they enforced for group and project ID zero).
9. XFS filesystems perform quota accounting whether the user has
quota limits or not.
10. XFS supports the notion of project quota, which can be used to
implement a form of directory tree quota (i.e. to restrict a
directory tree to only being able to use up a component of the
filesystems available space; or simply to keep track of the
amount of space used, or number of inodes, within the tree).
report [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] [ -ahnNt ]
Report filesystem quota information. This reports all quota
usage for a filesystem, for the specified quota type (u/g/p
and/or blocks/inodes/realtime). It reports blocks in 1KB units
by default. The -h option reports in a "human-readable" format
similar to the df(1) command.
state [ -gpu ]
Report overall quota state information. This reports on the
state of quota accounting, quota enforcement, and the number of
extents being used by quota metadata within the filesystem.
limit [ -gpu ] \
bsoft=N | bhard=N | isoft=N | ihard=N | rtbsoft=N | rtbhard=N...
Set quota block limits (bhard/bsoft), inode count limits
(ihard/isoft) and/or realtime block limits (rtbhard/rtbsoft).
The -d option (defaults) can be used to set the default value
that will be used, otherwise a specific user/group/project name
or numeric identifier must be specified.
timer [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] value
Allows the quota enforcement timeout (i.e. the amount of time
allowed to pass before the soft limits are enforced as the hard
limits) to be modified. The current timeout setting can be
displayed using the state command. The value argument is a
number of seconds, but units of â€™secondsâ€™, (as are their
abbreviations, â€™sâ€™, â€™mâ€™, â€™hâ€™, â€™dâ€™, and â€™wâ€™).
warn [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] value -d|id|name
Allows the quota warnings limit (i.e. the number of times a
warning will be send to someone over quota) to be viewed and
modified. The -d option (defaults) can be used to set the
default time that will be used, otherwise a specific
user/group/project name or numeric identifier must be specified.
NOTE: this feature is not currently implemented.
enable [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
Switches on quota enforcement for the filesystem identified by
the current path. This requires the filesystem to have been
mounted with quota enabled, and for accounting to be currently
active. The -v option (verbose) displays the state after the
operation has completed.
disable [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
Disables quota enforcement, while leaving quota accounting
active. The -v option (verbose) displays the state after the
operation has completed.
off [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
Permanently switches quota off for the filesystem identified by
the current path. Quota can only be switched back on
subsequently by unmounting and then mounting again.
remove [ -gpu ] [ -v ]
Remove any space allocated to quota metadata from the filesystem
identified by the current path. Quota must not be enabled on
the filesystem, else this operation will report an error.
dump [ -gpu ] [ -f file ]
Dump out quota limit information for backup utilities, either to
standard output (default) or to a file. This is only the
limits, not the usage information, of course.
restore [ -gpu ] [ -f file ]
Restore quota limits from a backup file. The file must be in
the format produced by the dump command.
quot [ -gpu ] [ -bir ] [ -av ] [ -c ]
Summarize filesystem ownership, by user, group or project. This
command uses a special XFS "bulkstat" interface to quickly scan
an entire filesystem and report usage information. This command
can be used even when filesystem quota are not enabled, as it is
a full-filesystem scan (it may also take a long time...).
project [ -cds id|name ]
Without arguments, this command lists known project names and
identifiers (based on entries in the /etc/projects and
/etc/projid files). The -c, -C, and -s options allow the
directory tree quota mechanism, discussed in detail below, to be
The project quota mechanism in XFS can be used to implement a form of
directory tree quota, where a specified directory and all of the files
and subdirectories below it (i.e. a tree) can be restricted to using a
subset of the available space in the filesystem.
A managed tree must be setup initially using the -c option to the
project command. The specified project name or identifier is matched
to one or more trees defined in /etc/projects, and these trees are then
recursively descended to mark the affected inodes as being part of that
tree. This process sets an inode flag and the project identifier on
every file in the affected tree. Once this has been done, new files
created in the tree will automatically be accounted to the tree based
on their project identifier. An attempt to create a hard link to a
file in the tree will only succeed if the project identifier matches
the project identifier for the tree. The xfs_io utility can be used to
set the project ID for an arbitrary file, but this can only be done by
a privileged user.
A previously setup tree can be cleared from project quota control
through use of the project -C option, which will recursively descend
the tree, clearing the affected inodes from project quota control.
Finally, the project -c option can be used to check whether a tree is
setup, it reports nothing if the tree is correct, otherwise it reports
the paths of inodes which do not have the project ID of the rest of the
tree, or if the inode flag is not set.
There are two files involved with the tree quota mechanism, namely
/etc/projects and /etc/projid. The latter is optional. The projects
file provides a mapping between numeric project identifiers and those
directories which are the roots of the quota tree. Its format is
# comments are hash-prefixed
The projid file provides a mapping between numeric project identifiers
and a simple human readable name (similar relationship to the one that
exists between usernames and uids). Its format is simply:
# comments are hash-prefixed
This file is optional, if a project identifier cannot be mapped to a
name, it will be displayed as a number only.
Enabling quota enforcement on an XFS filesystem (restrict a user to a
set amount of space).
# mount -o uquota /dev/xvm/home /home
# xfs_quota -x -c â€™limit bsoft=500m bhard=550m tanyaâ€™ /home
# xfs_quota -c report /home
Enabling directory quota on an XFS filesystem (restrict files in log
file directories to only using 1 gigabyte of space).
# mount -o pquota /dev/xvm/var /var
# echo 42:/var/log >> /etc/projects
# echo logfiles:42 >> /etc/projid
# xfs_quota -x -c â€™projects -c logfilesâ€™ /home
# xfs_quota -x -c â€™limit -p bhard=1g logfilesâ€™ /home
XFS implements delayed allocation (aka. allocate-on-flush) and this has
implications for the quota subsystem. Since quota accounting can only
be done when blocks are actually allocated, it is possible to issue
(buffered) writes into a file and not see the usage immediately
updated. Only when the data is actually written out, either via one of
the kernels flushing mechanisms, or via a manual sync(2), will the
usage reported reflect what has actually been written.
In addition, the XFS allocation mechanism will always reserve the
maximum amount of space required before proceeding with an allocation.
If insufficient space for this reservation is available, due to the
block quota limit being reached for example, this may result in the
allocation failing even though there is sufficient space. Quota
enforcement can thus sometimes happen in situations where the user is
under quota and the end result of some operation would still have left
the user under quota had the operation been allowed to run its course.
This additional overhead is typically in the range of tens of blocks.
Both of these properties are unavoidable side effects of the way XFS
operates, so should be kept in mind when assigning block limits.
Quota support for filesystems with realtime subvolumes is not yet
implemented, nor is the quota warning mechanism (the Linux warnquota(8)
tool can be used to provide similar functionality on that platform).
/etc/projects Mapping of numeric project identifiers to
/etc/projid Mapping of numeric project identifiers to project
IRIX SEE ALSO
LINUX SEE ALSO
df(1), mount(1), sync(2),