Provided by: xfsdump_2.2.30-1_i386 bug


       xfsdump - XFS filesystem incremental dump utility


       xfsdump -h
       xfsdump [ options ] -f dest [ -f dest ... ] filesystem
       xfsdump [ options ] - filesystem
       xfsdump -I [ subopt=value ... ]


       xfsdump backs up files and their attributes in a filesystem.  The files
       are dumped to storage  media,  a  regular  file,  or  standard  output.
       Options  allow  the  operator to have all files dumped, just files that
       have changed since a previous dump, or just files contained in  a  list
       of pathnames.

       The  xfsrestore(8)  utility re-populates a filesystem with the contents
       of the dump.

       Each invocation of xfsdump dumps just one filesystem.  That  invocation
       is  termed a dump session.  The dump session splits the filesystem into
       one or more dump streams, one per destination.  The split  is  done  in
       filesystem inode number (ino) order, at boundaries selected to equalize
       the size of each stream.  Furthermore, the breakpoints between  streams
       may  be  in  the  middle  of very large files (at extent boundaries) if
       necessary to achieve reasonable stream size  equalization.   Each  dump
       stream  can  span  several media objects, and a single media object can
       contain several dump streams.  The  typical  media  object  is  a  tape
       cartridge.   The  media  object  records the dump stream as one or more
       media files.  A media file  is  a  self-contained  partial  dump.   The
       portion  of a dump stream contained on a media object can be split into
       several media files.  This minimizes the impact of  media  dropouts  on
       the entire dump stream, and speeds subtree restores.

       However,   the  current  implementation  in  Linux  only  supports  one
       destination and running single threaded. Therefore, the above  comments
       regarding multiple streams describe the possible future capabilities.

       xfsdump      maintains      an     online     dump     inventory     in
       /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.   The  -I  option  displays  the  inventory
       contents  hierarchically.  The levels of the hierarchy are: filesystem,
       dump session, stream, and media file.

       The options to xfsdump are:

       -a   Specifies that files for which the Data Migration  Facility  (DMF)
            has  complete  offline  copies (dual-state files) be treated as if
            they were offline (OFL).  This means that the file data  will  not
            be  dumped  by  xfsdump, resulting in a smaller dump file.  If the
            file is later restored the file data is still  accessible  through

       -b blocksize
            Specifies  the  blocksize, in bytes, to be used for the dump.  The
            same blocksize must be specified to restore the tape.  If  the  -m
            option  is  not  used,  then  -b  does  not  need to be specified.
            Instead, a default blocksize of 1Mb will be used.

       -c progname
            Use the specified program to  alert  the  operator  when  a  media
            change  is  required.  The  alert program is typically a script to
            send a mail or flash a window to draw the operator’s attention.

       -d filesize
            Specifies the size, in megabytes, of dump  media  files.   xfsdump
            will  dump  data  to  tape  in  one  or more media files.  It will
            attempt to estimate the ideal media file size based  on  the  tape
            device  being  used,  and  the  amount of data to be written.  The
            media file size may need to be adjusted if, for  example,  xfsdump
            cannot fit a media file onto a single tape.

       -e   Allow files to be excluded from the dump.  This will cause xfsdump
            to skip files which are tagged with the  "SGI_XFLAG_NODUMP"  inode
            flag  (previously the "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE" extended attribute).
            Without the -e flag, xfsdump  will  ignore  the  inode  flags  and
            continue  to  dump affected files.  The preferred flag has changed
            from "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE" (an extended attribute set within  an
            inode)  to  "SGI_XFLAG_NODUMP"  (an  inode  flag)  for performance
            purposes.  The extended attribute "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE"  remains

       -f dest [ -f dest ... ]
            Specifies  a  dump  destination.   A  dump  destination can be the
            pathname of a device (such as a tape drive), a regular file  or  a
            remote  tape  drive  (see rmt(8)).  This option must be omitted if
            the  standard  output  option  (a  lone  -  preceding  the  source
            filesystem specification) is specified.

       -l level
            Specifies  a  dump level of 0 to 9.  The dump level determines the
            base dump to which this dump is relative.  The base  dump  is  the
            most  recent dump at a lesser level.  A level 0 dump is absolute -
            all files are dumped.  A dump level where  1  <=  level  <=  9  is
            referred  to  as  an  incremental dump.  Only files that have been
            changed since the base dump are dumped.  Subtree dumps (see the -s
            option below) cannot be used as the base for incremental dumps.

       -m   Use  the  minimal  tape protocol for non-scsi tape destinations or
            remote tape destinations which are not scsi Linux tape drives  nor
            IRIX tape drives.  This option cannot be used without specifying a
            blocksize to be used (see -b option above).

       -o   Overwrite the tape. With this option, xfsdump does  not  read  the
            tape  first  to  check  the  contents.  This option may be used if
            xfsdump is unable to determine the block size of a tape .

       -p interval
            Causes progress reports to be printed at the  specified  interval.
            interval  is  given in seconds.  The progress report indicates how
            many files have been dumped, the total number of  files  to  dump,
            the percentage of data dumped, and the elapsed time.

       -q   Destination  tape  drive  is a QIC tape.  QIC tapes only use a 512
            byte blocksize, for which xfsdump must make special allowances.

       -s pathname [ -s pathname ... ]
            Restricts the dump to files contained in the  specified  pathnames
            (subtrees).   Up  to  100  pathnames can be specified.  A pathname
            must be relative to  the  mount  point  of  the  filesystem.   For
            example,  if a filesystem is mounted at /d2, the pathname argument
            for the directory /d2/users is ‘‘users’’.  A  pathname  can  be  a
            file or a directory; if it is a directory, the entire hierarchy of
            files and subdirectories  rooted  at  that  directory  is  dumped.
            Subtree  dumps  cannot  be  used as the base for incremental dumps
            (see the -l option above).

       -v verbosity
       -v subsys=verbosity[,subsys=verbosity,...]
            Specifies the level of detail used for messages  displayed  during
            the  course  of  the dump. The verbosity argument can be passed as
            either a string or an integer. If passed as a string the following
            values  may  be used: silent, verbose, trace, debug, or nitty.  If
            passed as an integer, values from 0-5 may be used. The values  0-4
            correspond  to the strings already listed. The value 5 can be used
            to produce even more verbose debug output.

            The first form of this option activates message logging across all
            dump  subsystems. The second form allows the message logging level
            to be controlled on a per-subsystem basis. The two  forms  can  be
            combined (see the example below). The argument subsys can take one
            of the following values: general, proc, drive,  media,  inventory,
            inomap and excluded_files.

            For  example,  to  dump the root filesystem with tracing activated
            for all subsystems:

                 # xfsdump -v trace -f /dev/tape /

            To enable debug-level tracing for drive and media operations:

                 # xfsdump -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /

            To enable tracing for all subsystems, and debug level tracing  for
            drive operations only:

                 # xfsdump -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /

            To list files that will be excluded from the dump:

                 # xfsdump -e -v excluded_files=debug -f /dev/tape /

       -z size
            Specifies  the maximum size, in kilobytes, of files to be included
            in the dump.  Files over this size,  will  be  excluded  from  the
            dump.   The size is an estimate based on the number of disk blocks
            actually used by the file, and so  does  not  include  holes.   In
            other  words,  size  refers  to the amount of space the file would
            take in the  resulting  dump.   On  an  interactive  restore,  the
            skipped  file  is visible with xfsrestore’s ’ls’ and while you can
            use the ’add’ and ’extract’ commands, nothing will be restored.

       -A   Do not dump extended file attributes.  When dumping  a  filesystem
            managed  within  a DMF environment this option should not be used.
            DMF  stores  file  migration  status  within  extended  attributes
            associated  with  each file. If these attributes are not preserved
            when the filesystem is restored, files that had been  in  migrated
            state  will  not  be recallable by DMF. Note that dumps containing
            extended file attributes cannot be restored with older versions of

       -B session_id
            Specifies  the ID of the dump session upon which this dump session
            is to be based.  If this option is specified, the -l  (level)  and
            -R  (resume) options are not allowed.  Instead, xfsdump determines
            if the current dump session should be incremental and/or  resumed,
            by looking at the base session’s level and interrupted attributes.
            If the base session was interrupted, the current dump session is a
            resumption of that base at the same level.  Otherwise, the current
            dump session is an incremental dump with a level one greater  than
            that  of  the  base  session.   This option allows incremental and
            resumed dumps to be based on any previous dump, rather  than  just
            the most recent.

       -E   Pre-erase  media.   If  this  option is specified, media is erased
            prior to use.  The operator is prompted for  confirmation,  unless
            the -F option is also specified.

       -F   Don’t prompt the operator.  When xfsdump encounters a media object
            containing non-xfsdump data, xfsdump normally  asks  the  operator
            for  permission  to  overwrite.  With this option the overwrite is
            performed, no questions asked.  When  xfsdump  encounters  end-of-
            media during a dump, xfsdump normally asks the operator if another
            media object will be provided.   With  this  option  the  dump  is
            instead interrupted.

       -I   Displays  the  xfsdump  inventory (no dump is performed).  xfsdump
            records  each   dump   session   in   an   online   inventory   in
            /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.    xfsdump   uses  this  inventory  to
            determine the base for incremental dumps.  It is also  useful  for
            manually identifying a dump session to be restored.  Suboptions to
            filter the inventory display are described later.

       -J   Inhibits the normal update of the inventory.  This is useful  when
            the media being dumped to will be discarded or overwritten.

       -L session_label
            Specifies  a  label for the dump session.  It can be any arbitrary
            string up to 255 characters long.

       -M label [ -M label ... ]
            Specifies a label for the first media object  (for  example,  tape
            cartridge)  written  on  the  corresponding destination during the
            session.  It can be any arbitrary  string  up  to  255  characters
            long.  Multiple media object labels can be specified, one for each

       -O options_file
            Insert the options contained in options_file into the beginning of
            the  command  line.   The options are specified just as they would
            appear if typed into  the  command  line.   In  addition,  newline
            characters (\n) can be used as whitespace.  The options are placed
            before all options actually given on the command line, just  after
            the  command name.  Only one -O option can be used.  Recursive use
            is  ignored.   The  source  filesystem  cannot  be  specified   in

       -R   Resumes a previously interrupted dump session.  If the most recent
            dump at this dump’s level (-l option) was interrupted,  this  dump
            contains  only  files  not  in the interrupted dump and consistent
            with the incremental  level.   However,  files  contained  in  the
            interrupted  dump  that  have  been  subsequently modified are re-

       -T   Inhibits interactive dialogue timeouts.  When the -F option is not
            specified,  xfsdump  prompts  the  operator  for  labels and media
            changes.  Each dialogue normally  times  out  if  no  response  is
            supplied.  This option prevents the timeout.

       -Y length
            Specify  I/O  buffer  ring  length.  xfsdump uses a ring of output
            buffers to achieve maximum throughput when dumping to tape drives.
            The  default  ring  length  is 3.  However, this is only supported
            when running multi-threaded which has not been done for Linux  yet
            - making this option benign.

       -    A lone - causes the dump stream to be sent to the standard output,
            where it can be piped to another utility such as xfsrestore(8)  or
            redirected  to  a  file.   This  option cannot be used with the -f
            option.  The - must follow  all  other  options  and  precede  the
            filesystem specification.

       The filesystem, filesystem, can be specified either as a mount point or
       as  a  special  device  file  (for  example,  /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0).   The
       filesystem must be mounted to be dumped.


   Dump Interruption
       A dump can be interrupted at any time and later resumed.  To interrupt,
       type control-C (or the  current  terminal  interrupt  character).   The
       operator  is  prompted  to  select one of several operations, including
       dump interruption.  After the operator selects dump  interruption,  the
       dump continues until a convenient break point is encountered (typically
       the end of the current file).  Very large files are broken into smaller
       subfiles, so the wait for the end of the current file is brief.

   Dump Resumption
       A  previously  interrupted  dump  can  be  resumed by specifying the -R
       option.   If  the  most  recent  dump  at  the  specified   level   was
       interrupted, the new dump does not include files already dumped, unless
       they have changed since the interrupted dump.

   Media Management
       A single media object can contain many  dump  streams.   Conversely,  a
       single  dump  stream can span multiple media objects.  If a dump stream
       is sent to a media object already containing one or more dumps, xfsdump
       appends  the  new  dump stream after the last dump stream.  Media files
       are never overwritten.   If  end-of-media  is  encountered  during  the
       course of a dump, the operator is prompted to insert a new media object
       into the drive.  The dump stream continuation  is  appended  after  the
       last media file on the new media object.

       Each    dump    session    updates    an    inventory    database    in
       /var/lib/xfsdump/inventory.  xfsdump uses the  inventory  to  determine
       the base of incremental and resumed dumps.

       This  database can be displayed by invoking xfsdump with the -I option.
       The  display  uses  tabbed  indentation  to   present   the   inventory
       hierarchically.   The  first  level is filesystem.  The second level is
       session.  The third level is media stream (currently only one stream is
       supported).   The  fourth  level  lists  the  media  files sequentially
       composing the stream.

       The following suboptions are available to filter the display.

       -I depth=n
            (where n is 1, 2, or 3)  limits  the  hierarchical  depth  of  the
            display.  When  n  is  1, only the filesystem information from the
            inventory is displayed. When n is 2, only filesystem  and  session
            information  are  displayed. When n is 3, only filesystem, session
            and stream information are displayed.

       -I level=n
            (where n is the dump level) limits the display to  dumps  of  that
            particular dump level.

       The  display  may  be restricted to media files contained in a specific
       media object.

       -I mobjid=value
            (where value is a media ID) specifies  the  media  object  by  its
            media ID.

       -I mobjlabel=value
            (where  value  is a media label) specifies the media object by its
            media label.

       Similarly, the display can be restricted to a specific filesystem.

       -I mnt=mount_point
            (that  is,  [hostname:]pathname),  identifies  the  filesystem  by
            mountpoint.   Specifying  the  hostname  is  optional,  but may be
            useful in a clustered environment where more than one host can  be
            responsible for dumping a filesystem.

       -I fsid=filesystem_id
            identifies the filesystem by filesystem ID.

       -I dev=device_pathname
            (that is, [hostname:]device_pathname) identifies the filesystem by
            device. As  with  the  mnt  filter,  specifying  the  hostname  is

       More  than  one  of  these  suboptions,  separated  by  commas,  may be
       specified at the same time to limit the display  of  the  inventory  to
       those  dumps  of  interest.   However,  at  most four suboptions can be
       specified at once: one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one to
       constrain the dump level, one to constrain the media object, and one to
       constrain the filesystem.

       For example, -I  depth=1,mobjlabel="tape  1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt  would
       display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those filesystems
       that were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the dump, and  only
       those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled "tape 1".

       Dump  records  may  be  removed  (pruned)  from the inventory using the
       xfsinvutil program.

       An additional media file is placed at the  end  of  each  dump  stream.
       This media file contains the inventory information for the current dump
       session.  Its contents may be merged back  into  the  online  inventory
       database at a later time using xfsrestore(1M).

       The  inventory files stored in /var/lib/xfsdump are not included in the
       dump, even if that directory is contained within the  filesystem  being
       dumped.   Including  the  inventory  in  the  dump  may lead to loss or
       corruption of data, should an older version be restored overwriting the
       current  version.   To  backup  the  xfsdump inventory, the contents of
       /var/lib/xfsdump should be copied to another location which may then be
       safely  dumped.   Upon restoration, those files may be copied back into
       /var/lib/xfsdump,  overwriting  whatever  files  may   be   there,   or
       xfsinvutil(1M)  may  be used to selectively merge parts of the restored
       inventory back into the current inventory.   Prior  to  version  1.1.8,
       xfsdump would include the /var/lib/xfsdump directory in the dump.  Care
       should be taken not to overwrite the  /var/lib/xfsdump  directory  when
       restoring  an  old  dump, by either restoring the filesystem to another
       location or by copying the current contents of  /var/lib/xfsdump  to  a
       safe place prior to running xfsrestore(1M).

       The  operator  can  specify  a label to identify the dump session and a
       label to identify a media object.  The session label is placed in every
       media  file  produced in the course of the dump, and is recorded in the

       The media label is used to identify media objects, and  is  independent
       of  the  session label.  Each media file on the media object contains a
       copy of the  media  label.   An  error  is  returned  if  the  operator
       specifies  a media label that does not match the media label on a media
       object containing valid media files.  Media labels are recorded in  the

       UUIDs  (Universally  Unique  Identifiers)  are used in three places: to
       identify the filesystem being dumped (using the  filesystem  UUID,  see
       xfs(5) for more details), to identify the dump session, and to identify
       each media object.  The inventory display (-I) includes all of these.

   Dump Level Usage
       The dump level mechanism provides  a  structured  form  of  incremental
       dumps.   A  dump  of  level level includes only files that have changed
       since the most recent dump at a level less than  level.   For  example,
       the  operator  can  establish a dump schedule that involves a full dump
       every Friday and a daily incremental dump containing  only  files  that
       have changed since the previous dump.  In this case Friday’s dump would
       be at level 0, Saturday’s at level 1, Sunday’s at level 2, and  so  on,
       up to the Thursday dump at level 6.

       The above schedule results in a very tedious restore procedure to fully
       reconstruct the Thursday version of the  filesystem;  xfsrestore  would
       need  to  be  fed all 7 dumps in sequence.  A compromise schedule is to
       use level 1 on Saturday, Monday, and Wednesday, and level 2 on  Sunday,
       Tuesday,  and  Thursday.   The  Monday  and  Wednesday dumps would take
       longer, but the worst case restore requires the  accumulation  of  just
       three dumps, one each at level 0, level 1, and level 2.

       If  the  filesystem  being  dumped  contains  quotas,  xfsdump will use
       xfsdq(8) to store the quotas in a file  called  xfsdump_quotas  in  the
       root of the filesystem to be dumped. This file will then be included in
       the dump.  Upon restoration, xfsrq (8) can be used  to  reactivate  the
       quotas for the filesystem.  Note, however, that the xfsdump_quotas file
       will probably require modification to change the filesystem or UIDs  if
       the filesystem has been restored to a different partition or system.

   Excluding individual files
       Occasionally  it is desirable to be able to exclude particular files or
       directories from the dump.  The -s option can be used to limit the dump
       to  a  specified  directory,  and  the -z option can be used to exclude
       files over a particular size.  Additionally, when xfsdump is  run  with
       the -e option individual files can be "tagged" so that xfsdump will not
       include them in a dump.  Files are tagged in one of two ways:

       1) By setting an inode flag  called  "SGI_XFLAG_NODUMP"  on  the  file.
       This can be done with the chattr(1) command:

            $ chattr +d file

       To turn the flag off:

            $ chattr -d file

       This  is the preferred method and may result in a slightly faster dump,
       since xfsdump doesn’t need to parse an attribute stored in the inode.

       2)  By  assigning  the  file  an  extended  attribute  with  the   name
       "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE".  This can be done with the attr(1) command:

            $ attr -s "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE" -V "" file

       To remove the attribute:

            $ attr -r "SGI_XFSDUMP_SKIP_FILE" file

       It  should  be  noted  that xfsdump will not check directories for this
       attribute.   It  should  also  be  noted  that  this  use  of  extended
       attributes is not the same as that used by the chattr(1) command.

       Care  should  be  taken  to  note  which files have been tagged.  Under
       normal operation, xfsdump will only report the number of files it  will
       skip.   The -v excluded_files=debug option, however, will cause xfsdump
       to list the inode numbers of the individual files affected.

       If a file was tagged and skipped for a level 0 dump,  and  subsequently
       that tag was removed, the file would not automatically be included in a
       higher level dump.  The file would only be included if it was  modified
       since  the  last dump.  The touch(1) command can be used on the file to
       update its modification time to ensure it will  be  included  in  later


       To  perform  a  level 0, single stream dump of the root filesystem to a
       locally mounted tape drive, prompting for session and media labels when

            # xfsdump -f /dev/tape /

       To specify session and media labels explicitly:

            # xfsdump -L session_1 -M tape_0 -f /dev/tape /

       To perform a dump to a remote tape using the minimal rmt protocol and a
       set blocksize of 64k:

            # xfsdump -m -b 65536 -f otherhost:/dev/tape /

       To perform a level 0, multi-stream dump to  two  locally  mounted  tape

            # xfsdump -L session_2 -f /dev/rmt/tps4d6v -M tape_1 \
                      -f /dev/rmt/tps5d6v -M tape_2 /

       To perform a level 1 dump relative to the last level 0 dump recorded in
       the inventory:

            # xfsdump -l 1 -f /dev/tape /

       To copy  the  contents  of  a  filesystem  to  another  directory  (see

            # xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore -J - /new


                                dump inventory database


       attr(1),  rmt(8),  xfsdq(8),  xfsrestore(8),  xfsinvutil(8),  xfsdq(8),
       xfsrq(8), attr_get(2).


       The exit code is 0 on normal completion, non-zero if an error occurs or
       the dump is terminated by the operator.

       For  all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final line of the
       output shows the exit status of the dump. It is of the form:

            xfsdump: Dump Status: code

       Where  code  takes  one  of  the  following  values:  SUCCESS   (normal
       completion),  INTERRUPT  (interrupted),  QUIT (media no longer usable),
       INCOMPLETE  (dump  incomplete),  FAULT  (software  error),  and   ERROR
       (resource  error).   Every attempt will be made to keep both the syntax
       and the semantics of this log message unchanged in future  versions  of
       xfsdump.   However,  it may be necessary to refine or expand the set of
       exit codes, or their interpretation at some point in the future.

       The message ‘‘xfsdump:  WARNING:  unable  to  open  directory:  ino  N:
       Invalid  argument’’ can occur with filesystems which are actively being
       modified while xfsdump is running.  This can happen to either directory
       or  regular  file  inodes - affected files will not end up in the dump,
       files below affected  directories  will  be  placed  in  the  orphanage
       directory by xfsrestore.


       xfsdump does not dump unmounted filesystems.

       The dump frequency field of /etc/fstab is not supported.

       xfsdump uses the alert program only when a media change is required.

       xfsdump requires root privilege (except for inventory display).

       xfsdump can only dump XFS filesystems.

       The  media format used by xfsdump can only be understood by xfsrestore.

       xfsdump does not know how to manage  CD-ROM  or  other  removable  disk

       xfsdump  can become confused when doing incremental or resumed dumps if
       on the same machine you dump two XFS filesystems and  both  filesystems
       have  the  same  filesystem  identifier (UUID).  Since xfsdump uses the
       filesystem identifier to identify filesystems,  xfsdump  maintains  one
       combined  set  of  dump inventories for both filesystems instead of two
       sets of dump inventories.  This scenario can happen only if dd or  some
       other  block-by-block  copy  program  was used to make a copy of an XFS
       filesystem.  See xfs_copy(8) and xfs(5) for more details.