Provided by: yaird_0.0.12-3_i386 bug


       yaird - generate initial boot image as initramfs or initrd


       yaird --output=dest [options...]  [version]
       yaird --test [options...]  [version]


       Yaird (Yet Another MkInitRD) generates initial boot images in initrd or
       initramfs format.  This is an intermediate step between the boot loader
       and  the  init  scripts  on  the root file system; it loads modules and
       enables devices to a level where the kernel can access  the  real  root
       file system, and then hands over control to the init scripts.  You need
       a new boot image every time you install a  new  kernel,  and  when  you
       switch  to  a  different  root  device.   If you are using distribution
       provided kernels,  building  the  boot  image  is  likely  to  be  done
       automatically by the installation software.

       Most   distributions   include   a  distribution-specific  tool  called
       mkinitrd(8) for the same task.  The yaird alternative differs  in  that
       it  only  supports  2.6  kernels: that means it can use the information
       provided by newer kernels to build  smaller  images  and  if  necessary
       produce better error messages.

       Another difference is that there is a clear separation between the code
       that analyses the system and the templates  that  determine  how  these
       actions  are  handled  by  the  boot  image;  this  separation makes it
       relatively simple to customise the generated images.

       The following  configurations  are  supported:  SATA,  SCSI,  IDE,  USB
       storage, DASD, LVM2, mdadm, cryptsetup, cryptsetup-luks, USB keyboards,
       NFS root, EVMS.

       Not yet supported: swsusp, firewire, loopback, loopaes, dmraid.


       -f, --format=format
              Produce the image in this format.  Valid formats are: directory,
              cramfs,  cpio.  Use the cpio format to get an image for use with
              the ’initramfs’ model of booting; this is  the  preferred  model
              for  2.6  kernels.   Use  ’directory’  to  leave  the image as a
              directory instead of packing it, either for  debugging  purposes
              or  to  pack it in a file system format of your preference.  Use
              ’cramfs’ to get an image in the cramfs file  system  format  for
              use  with  the  older ’initrd’ model of booting.  The default is
              determined by the main configuration file.

       -o, --output=destination
              Place result here.  The destination must not exist  yet.   There
              is no default for this option.

       -c, --config=config-file
              The  configuration  file  that  specifies  what the initial boot
              image should do.  The default is .../etc/yaird/Default.conf

       -h, -?, --help
              Print help text and exit.

       -V, --version
              Print version and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              Print progress messages.

       -d, --debug
              Print debugging information.

       -q, --quiet
              Suppress warning messages.

       -t, --test
              Print overview of system  data  and  exit;  used  as  basis  for


       Root privileges are required to use yaird.

       When  booting a yaird generated image, the presence of a kernel command
       line parameter ’ydebug’ will trigger debugging options  in  the  image:
       showing  commands  as  they  are  executed, an interactive shell before
       control is handed over to the init scripts.

       If you’re using mdadm(8), you may find that  not  all  md  devices  are
       created  when  booting with yaird.  The solution is to add an "auto=md"
       option to all devices in /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf.

       If you’re  using  cryptsetup(8)  for  your  root  device,  you  need  a
       configuration  file  /etc/crypttab  in  order  to  determine which hash
       function is used and to verify that the passphrase will be supplied  by
       the  controlling  terminal.   This  file is a Debian invention; if your
       distribution does  not  document  it,  consult  your  favourite  search
       engine.  For an encrypted device /dev/mapper/crypted, the configuration
       file should look more or less as follows:

              # <target device> <source device> <key file> <options>
              crypted /dev/sda3 none cipher=aes-cbc-plain

       For cryptsetup-luks, the same configuration file is used.

       If you want the generated initial image to  boot  into  a  file  system
       other  than  the  root in the current /etc/fstab, or to do booting over
       NFS, modify the main configuration file.

       If you’re using an NFS root, note that your systems  init  scripts  may
       need  changes  to  work  properly.   As an example, resetting a network
       interface card to get it in a  known  state  may  be  a  good  idea  in
       general,  but  not  if  your  root  file  system  is  accessed via that

       Although it is possible to  generate  initial  boot  images  in  initrd
       format,  there’s  not much point in doing so: all kernels new enough to
       work  with  yaird  support  initramfs,  which  allows  simpler  images.
       Initramfs  templates  have  undergone  more  testing  than  the  initrd

       Note that under certain conditions initramfs images can be appended  to
       the  kernel,  but  often  it  is more convenient to keep the image as a
       separate file that is loaded by the boot loader in the same  manner  as
       the older initrd images; see your boot loader documentation.


       Assuming the main configuration file holds something like:

                   FORMAT    cpio
                   TEMPLATE FILE "/usr/local/etc/yaird/Templates.cfg"
                        TEMPLATE  prologue
                        MODULE         mousedev
                        MODULE         evdev
                        MOUNTDIR  "/" "/mnt"
                        TEMPLATE  postlude
                   END GOALS
              END CONFIG

       To  generate  an  image  in initramfs format for the current kernel and
       current root disk:

              yaird --output=/boot/initrd.img

       To generate, with progress report, an image for kernel version 2.6.11:

              yaird --verbose --output=/boot/initrd.img-2.6.11 2.6.11

       To generate an image that will boot into /dev/vg0/root rather than  the
       default  root,  edit  the  configuration  file to replace MOUNTDIR with

              MOUNTDEV "/dev/vg0/root" "/mnt"

       To generate an image that will boot  over  NFS  using  an  ethernetcard
       found  on  the  current machine, edit the configuration file to replace
       MOUNTDIR with the following:

              MODULE nfs
              MODULE af_packet
              TEMPLATE nfsstart

       To let grub load an initial boot image from local disk  in  combination
       with  an NFS root file system on a server that can only handle NFS over

              title     Linux 2.6.11 network boot
              root (hd0,1)
              kernel    /vmlinuz-2.6.11 ip=eth0 nfsroot=,udp
              initrd    /initrd.img-2.6.11


       There  is  a  main  configuration  file .../etc/yaird/Default.cfg, that

       —      The default format of the generated image;

       —      A list of goals the image should  achieve,  such  as  loading  a
              module or mounting a device;

       —      The  location  of  a  secondary  configuration  file  containing

       This        secondary        configuration        file,        normally
       .../etc/yaird/Templates.cfg, that determines what needs to be placed on
       the boot image in order to achieve results such as mounting  a  device.
       These  templates  are  at a lower level than the goals specified in the
       main configuration file: as an example the main configuration file  can
       specify  that  a  module  must  be loaded, without specifying pathname,
       extensions, dependencies or options, but the template file need only be
       able  to do a single insmod with all details spelled out.  See the HTML
       documentation for the format of these configuration files.

       Additionally, a number of other files are used to determine what should
       go on the boot image.

       /sys   Kernel-provided overview of hardware that needs to be supported.

       /etc/hotplug/blacklist, /etc/hotplug/blacklist.d
              Modules listed here will not be considered as  possible  drivers
              for detected hardware.

              Determines   source   of   passphrase  and  which  cryptographic
              algorithms to use for cryptsetup or cryptsetup-luks.

              Which device to use as root, file system modules, mount options.

              Whether support for USB keyboards is needed.

              Which   drivers  are  compiled  into  the  kernel,  so  that  no
              additional modules need to be loaded.

       /etc/modprobe.conf, /etc/modprobe.d
              used indirectly via modprobe(8); determines which options to use
              when loading a module into the kernel.


       With VMware, you may need to add ’MODULE buslogic’ to the configuration
       file to get the system to boot; a kernel patch to make the detection go
       automatically is in the works; in 2.6.14 this still is not in mainline.

       With the s390 architecture, you’ll need an option like  dasd=autodetect
       for  the  dasd_mod  module  in  order to activate the devices and get a
       bootable system.  This is incompletely tested.

       With SunBlade 1000, you may  need  to  add  ’MODULE  qlogicfc’  to  the
       configuration file to get the system to boot.

       Report bugs to <>; adding the output
       of yaird with the --test and --verbose options helps.


       boot(7),  cryptsetup(8),  grub(8),  lilo(8),   mdadm(8),   mkinitrd(8),