Provided by: rsync_3.1.3-6_amd64

#### NAME

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool



#### SYNOPSIS

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

Usages  with  just  one  SRC  arg  and  no  DEST arg will list the source files instead of
copying.



#### DESCRIPTION

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.   It  can  copy  locally,
to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a
large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
specification  of  the  set  of  files  to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer
algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the  network  by  sending  only  the
differences  between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is
widely used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default)
that  looks  for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in
the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination  file
directly when the quick check indicates that the file’s data does not need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)



#### GENERAL

       Rsync  copies  files  either  to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it
does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:  using  a  remote-shell
program  as  the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via
TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path  contains
a  single  colon  (:)  separator  after  a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
directly happens when the  source  or  destination  path  contains  a  double  colon  (::)
separator  after  a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for  an  exception  to
this latter rule).

As  a  special  case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files
are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a  remote  host,  the  copy

Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server".  Don’t
confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a server, but a server can  be
either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.



#### SETUP

       See the file README for installation instructions.

Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell
(as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode  protocol).   For  remote
transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like,  either  by  using  the  -e  command  line
option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.



#### USAGE

       You  use  rsync  in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination,
one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory  to  the
directory  src  on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system
then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update  the  file  by  sending  only  the
differences  in  the  data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by rsync  itself
(exactly the same as all other posix-style programs).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This  would  recursively  transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo
into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the  local  machine.  The  files  are  transferred  in
"archive"  mode,  which  ensures  that  symbolic  links, devices, attributes, permissions,
ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A  trailing  slash  on  the  source  changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional
directory level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as  meaning
"copy  the  contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred  to  the  containing
directory  on  the destination.  In other words, each of the following commands copies the
files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module references don’t require  a  trailing  slash  to  copy  the
contents of the default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory’s
contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the  source  and  destination  don’t
have a ’:’ in the name. In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon
by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.



       The syntax for requesting multiple  files  from  a  remote  host  is  done  by  specifying
additional  remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.
For instance, all these work:

rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

rsync -av host:’dir1/file1 dir2/file2’ /dest
rsync host::’modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2’ /dest

This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not  as  easy  to
use as the first method.

If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify the
--protect-args (-s) option, or you’ll need to escape the whitespace  in  a  way  that  the
remote shell will understand.  For instance:

rsync -av host:’file\ name\ with\ spaces’ /dest



#### CONNECTINGTOANRSYNCDAEMON

       It  is  also  possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case
you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port  873.   (This
obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

o      if  you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths
on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified  files  on  the
remote daemon is provided.

o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so, you will receive a
password prompt when you connect. You  can  avoid  the  password  prompt  by  setting  the
environment  variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you  want  to  use  or using the
--password-file option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users. On those  systems

You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a web proxy by setting the environment variable
RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to  your  web  proxy.   Note  that  your  web
proxy’s configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

You  may  also  establish  a  daemon  connection using a program as a proxy by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you wish to run in place of making
a  direct  socket  connection.   The  string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the
hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a  single  "%"  in  your
string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all
data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).



#### USINGRSYNC-DAEMONFEATURESVIAAREMOTE-SHELLCONNECTION

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named  modules)
without  actually  allowing  any  new socket connections into a system (other than what is
already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using
a  remote  shell  and  then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt
a  daemon-style  transfer’s  data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote
user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used  by  the
daemon.   (For  another  way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host  to
only allow connections from "localhost".)

From  the  user’s perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly
the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with  the  only  exception
being  that  you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
--rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will  not  turn  on  this
functionality.)  For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If  you  need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix
in front of the host is specifying the  rsync-user  value  (for  a  module  that  requires
user-based  authentication).   This  means  that you must give the ’-l user’ option to ssh
when specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short  version  of  the
--rsh option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The  "ssh-user"  will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to
the "module".



#### STARTINGANRSYNCDAEMONTOACCEPTCONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a  daemon  already
running  (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for
incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
(including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

If  you’re  using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to
manually start an rsync daemon.



#### SORTEDTRANSFERORDER

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This  handles
the  merging  together  of the contents of identically named directories, makes it easy to
remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are  transferred  in  a
different order than what was given on the command-line.

If  you  need  a  particular  file to be transferred prior to another, either separate the
files into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn’t  affect
the  sorted  transfer  order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more
rapidly).



#### EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

To backup my wife’s home directory, which  consists  of  large  MS  Word  files  and  mail
folders, I use a cron job that runs

rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

get:
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
sync: get put

this  allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then do
CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol
isn’t very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

This is launched from cron every few hours.



#### OPTIONSSUMMARY

       Here  is  a  short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer to the detailed
description below for a complete description.

-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
--msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
-q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
--no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
-c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
-a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
--no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
-r, --recursive             recurse into directories
-R, --relative              use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
-b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace               update destination files in-place
--append                append data onto shorter files
--append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
-d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
-p, --perms                 preserve permissions
-E, --executability         preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
-A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
-X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
-o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
-g, --group                 preserve group
--devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
--specials              preserve special files
-D                          same as --devices --specials
-t, --times                 preserve modification times
-O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
--fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
-S, --sparse                turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
--preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
-n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
-W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
--checksum-choice=STR   choose the checksum algorithms
-x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
-B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
-e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing              skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                   an alias for --delete-during
--delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--partial               keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
-m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
-I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only             skip files that match in size
-@, --modify-window=NUM     set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
-T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
-y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
-z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
--compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
--skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
-C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
-f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
-F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
-0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
-s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                 give some file-transfer stats
-8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress              show progress during transfer
-P                          same as --partial --progress
-i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
-M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
--list-only             list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m     Stop rsync at year-month-dayThour:minute
--time-limit=MINS       Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
--noatime               do not alter atime when opening source files
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
--version               print version number
(-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

--daemon                run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach             do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
-h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)



#### OPTIONS

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +  letter)  options.
The full list of the available options are described below.  If an option can be specified
in more than one way, the choices are comma-separated.  Some  options  only  have  a  long
variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after
the long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.  When specifying  a
parameter,  you can either use the form --option=param or replace the ’=’ with whitespace.
The parameter may need to be  quoted  in  some  manner  for  it  to  survive  the  shell’s
command-line  parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted
by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not  change  the  tilde  into  your  home  directory
(remove the ’=’ for that).

--help Print  a  short  help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  For
backward-compatibility with older versions of rsync, the help will also  be  output
if you use the -h option without any other args.

--version
print the rsync version number and exit.

-v, --verbose
This  option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.
By default, rsync works silently. A single -v will give you information about  what
files  are  being  transferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will
give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more  information
at  the  end.  More  than  two  -v options should only be used if you are debugging
rsync.

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups  of  --info
and  --debug options.  You can choose to use these newer options in addition to, or
in place of using --verbose, as any  fine-grained  settings  override  the  implied
settings  of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells you
exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon’s "max verbosity"  setting  will  limit  how
high  of  a  level the various individual flags can be set on the daemon side.  For
instance, if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug flag that is set to a  higher
value  than  what  would  be  set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the
daemon’s logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want
to  see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning
to silence that output, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
--info=help to see all the available flag names, what they output,  and  what  flag
names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note   that   --info=name’s   output   is   affected   by   the   --out-format  and
--itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more information on what  is
output and when.

This  option  was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject
your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to  be  send  to
the  server  and  the  server  was  too old to understand them).  See also the "max
verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug output  you  want  to
see.   An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to
silence that  output,  1  being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
--debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they output, and  what  flag
names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note  that some debug messages will only be output when --msgs2stderr is specified,
especially those pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side  might  reject
your  attempts  at  fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to be send to
the server and the server was too old to  understand  them).   See  also  the  "max
verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--msgs2stderr
This  option changes rsync to send all its output directly to stderr rather than to
send messages to the client side via the  protocol  (which  normally  outputs  info
messages  via  stdout).   This  is  mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid
changing the data sent via the protocol, since the extra protocol data  can  change
what  is  being  tested.   The option does not affect the remote side of a transfer
without using --remote-option -- e.g. -M--msgs2stderr.  Also keep in  mind  that  a
daemon  connection  does  not  have  a  stderr channel to send messages back to the
client side, so if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging using  this  option,
you  should  start  up  a  daemon  using --no-detach so that you can see the stderr
output on the daemon side.

This option has the side-effect of making stderr output get line-buffered  so  that
the merging of the output of 3 programs happens in a more readable manner.

-q, --quiet
This  option decreases the amount of information you are given during the transfer,
notably suppressing information messages from the remote  server.  This  option  is
useful when invoking rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This  option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of a
daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but  it  also
affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit  this  option  if  you
want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

-I, --ignore-times
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing
all files to be updated.

--size-only
This  modifies  rsync’s  "quick  check" algorithm for finding files that need to be
transferred, changing it from the default  of  transferring  files  with  either  a
changed  size  or  a changed last-modified time to just looking for files that have
changed in size.  This is useful when starting to use  rsync  after  using  another
mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

-@, --modify-window
When  comparing  two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal if they
differ by no more than the modify-window value.  The default is  0,  which  matches
just  integer  seconds.   If  you  specify a negative value (and the receiver is at
least version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.   Specifying
1  is  useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT filesystems, because FAT represents
times with a 2-second resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by  up
to 1 second).

If  you want all your transfers to default to comparing nanoseconds, you can create
a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

rsync alias -a -a@-1
rsync alias -t -t@-1

With that as the default, you’d need to  specify  --modify-window=0  (aka  -@0)  to
override  it  and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you’re copying between ext3 and ext4,
or if the receiving rsync is older than 3.1.3.

-c, --checksum
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of
a  transfer.   Without  this  option,  rsync uses a "quick check" that (by default)
checks if each file’s size and time of last modification match between  the  sender
and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums  means  that  both  sides  will
expend  a  lot  of  disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer (and
this is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so  this
can slow things down significantly.

The  sending  side  generates  its checksums while it is doing the file-system scan
that builds the list of the available files.  The receiver generates its  checksums
when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
size as the corresponding sender’s file:  files with either a  changed  size  or  a
changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note   that  rsync  always  verifies  that  each  transferred  file  was  correctly
reconstructed on the receiving side by  checking  a  whole-file  checksum  that  is
generated  as  the  file  is  transferred,  but  that  automatic after-the-transfer
verification has nothing to do with this option’s  before-the-transfer  "Does  this
file need to be updated?" check.

For  protocol  30  and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is MD5.
For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.

-a, --archive
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion  and
want  to  preserve  almost everything (with -H being a notable omission).  The only
exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case
-r is not implied.

Note  that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files is
expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options by  prefixing  the  option  name  with
"no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied
by other options (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different  defaults  in  various
circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify
either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the
same as --no-relative).

For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don’t want -o (--owner), instead
of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

The order of the options is important:  if you specify --no-r  -a,  the  -r  option
would  end  up  being  turned  on,  the  opposite of -a --no-r.  Note also that the
side-effects of the --files-from option are  NOT  positional,  as  it  affects  the
default  state  of  several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
--files-from option for more details).

-r, --recursive

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan
that  uses  much less memory than before and begins the transfer after the scanning
of the first few directories have  been  completed.   This  incremental  scan  only
affects  our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.  It
is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the
incremental   recursion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before,  --delete-after,
--prune-empty-dirs, and --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete  mode
when  you  specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of the connection
are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to request this improved  deletion
mode  explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a better choice than
using --delete-after.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive  option  or  its
shorter --no-i-r alias.

-R, --relative
Use  relative  paths.  This means that the full path names specified on the command
line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.  This
is  particularly  useful when you want to send several different directories at the
same time. For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead
you used

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c  would  be  created on the remote machine,
preserving  its  full  path.   These  extra  path  elements  are  called   "implied
directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as real
directories in the file list, even if a path element is really  a  symlink  on  the
sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full
path of a file that you didn’t realize had a symlink in its path.  If you  want  to
duplicate  a  server-side  symlink,  include  both  the  symlink  via its path, and
referent directory via its real path.  If you’re dealing with an older rsync on the
sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied
directories for each path you specify.  With a modern rsync  on  the  sending  side
(beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like
this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be
followed  by  a  slash,  so  "/foo/."  would  not be abbreviated.)  For older rsync
versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,
when pushing files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note  that  the  parens  put  the  two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd"
command doesn’t remain in effect for future commands.)   If  you’re  pulling  files
from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This  option  affects  the  default  behavior of the --relative option.  When it is
specified, the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are  not
included  in  the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on the
destination system are left unchanged  if  they  exist,  and  any  missing  implied
directories  are  created  with default attributes.  This even allows these implied
path elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to  a  directory  on
the receiving side.

For  instance,  if  a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to transfer
the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"  are  implied  when
--relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements,  which  means  that
the  file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this link
preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect  symlinks
to directories in the rest of the transfer).

When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this option
if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the  implied
directories to be transferred as normal directories.

-b, --backup
With  this  option,  preexisting  destination  files  are  renamed  as each file is
transferred or deleted.  You can control where the backup file goes  and  what  (if
any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

Note  that  if you don’t specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will
be forced on, and (2) if --delete is also in  effect  (without  --delete-excluded),
rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously  backed-up  files
from  being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher  up  in  the
list  so  that  it  has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules
specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of ’*’, the auto-added rule would  never  be
reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
This  implies  the  --backup  option,  and  tells rsync to store all backups in the
specified directory on the receiving  side.   This  can  be  used  for  incremental
backups.   You  can  additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
(otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their  original
filenames).

Note  that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative to
the destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute  path
or  a  path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup
dir cannot go outside the module’s path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete
it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
(-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified,  otherwise
it is an empty string.

-u, --update
This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any  files which exist on the destination and have a
modified time that is newer than the source file.  (If an existing destination file
has a modification time equal to the source file’s, it will be updated if the sizes
are different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of  dirs,  symlinks,  or  other  special
files.  Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always
considered to be important enough for an update, no matter  what  date  is  on  the
objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data  that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

--inplace
This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to  be  updated:
instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into
place when it is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data  directly  to  the
destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible through
other hard links to  the  destination  file.   Moreover,  attempts  to  copy
differing  source  files onto a multiply-linked destination file will result
in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the  OS  will  prevent  this  from
happening,  or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or
crash).

o      The file’s data will be in an inconsistent state  during  the  transfer  and
will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A  file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user can
update any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for  the
open of the file for writing to be successful.

o      The  efficiency  of  rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if some
data in the destination file is overwritten before it can  be  copied  to  a
position  later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup, since
rsync is smart enough to use the backup file  as  the  basis  file  for  the
transfer.

WARNING:  you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed by
others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

This option is useful for transferring large  files  with  block-based  changes  or
appended  data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It can
also help keep a  copy-on-write  filesystem  snapshot  from  diverging  the  entire
contents of a file that only has minor changes.

The  option  implies  --partial  (since an interrupted transfer does not delete the
file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync  2.6.4
--inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

--append
This  causes  rsync  to  update  a file by appending data onto the end of the file,
which presumes that the data that already exists on the receiving side is identical
with  the start of the file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred
and its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on the sender, the
file is skipped.  This does not interfere with the updating of a file’s non-content
attributes (e.g. permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not  need  to  be
transferred,  nor  does  it  affect the updating of any non-regular files.  Implies
--inplace.

The use of --append can be dangerous if you aren’t 100% sure that  the  files  that
are  longer have only grown by the appending of data onto the end.  You should thus
use include/exclude/filter rules to ensure that such a transfer is  only  affecting
files that you know to be growing via appended data.

--append-verify
This  works  just  like the --append option, but the existing data on the receiving
side is included in the full-file checksum verification step, which  will  cause  a
file  to  be  resent  if  the  final  verification step fails (rsync uses a normal,
non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so  if
you  are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol prior
to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

-d, --dirs
Tell the sending side to include any  directories  that  are  encountered.   Unlike
--recursive,  a  directory’s  contents  are  not  copied  unless the directory name
specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.",  "dir/",  etc.).
Without  this  option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directories it
encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
--dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

The  --dirs  option is implied by the --files-from option or the --list-only option
(including an implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn’t specified  (so  that
directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
turn this off.

There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d)  that
tells  rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude=’/*/*’" to get an older rsync to list a
single directory without recursing.

When symlinks are encountered, the item  that  they  point  to  (the  referent)  is
copied,  rather than the symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option also had
to  directories.   In  a  modern  rsync  such  as  this one, you’ll need to specify
--keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this  extra  behavior.   The  only  exception  is  when
sending  files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K -- in that case, the -L
option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic  links  that  point  outside  the
copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are
any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no

This  tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied tree.
All absolute symlinks are also ignored.  Using  this  option  in  conjunction  with
--relative may give unexpected results.

This  option  tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side in a way
that makes them unusable but recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on
the  sending  side  that  had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you
don’t quite trust the source of the data to not try to  slip  in  a  symlink  to  a
unexpected place.

The  way  rsync  disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the string
"/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the  links  from  being  used  as  long  as  that
directory does not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if
that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

The option only affects the client side of the transfer,  so  if  you  need  it  to
affect the server, specify it via --remote-option.  (Note that in a local transfer,
the client side is the sender.)

This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it wants
perl script in the support directory of the source code.

This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though  it
were   a   real   directory.   This  is  useful  if  you  don’t  want  symlinks  to
non-directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
a  directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new
symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in
effect).

--copy-dirlinks  applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you want
to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is  to  pass  them  as
additional  source  args  with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths
match up right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This works because rsync calls lstat(2)  on  the  source  arg  as  given,  and  the
trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the
file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory  as  though
it  were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender.
Without this option, the receiver’s symlink would be deleted and  replaced  with  a
real directory.

For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file",
but  "foo"  is  a  symlink  to  directory   "bar"   on   the   receiver.    Without
keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

One  note  of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks
in the copy!  If it is possible for an untrusted user to create their  own  symlink
to  any  directory,  the user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink
with a real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory  the  symlink
references.   For  backup  copies,  you  are better off using something like a bind

This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together  the
corresponding  files on the destination.  Without this option, hard-linked files in
the source are treated as though they were separate files.

This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the  pattern  of  hard  links  on  the
destination exactly matches that on the source.  Cases in which the destination may
end up with extra hard links include the following:

o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is
present  in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break them
explicitly.  However, if one or more of the paths have content  differences,
the  normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you are
using the --inplace option).

of  the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some paths
associations.

Note  that  rsync  can  only  detect  hard  links between files that are inside the
transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that  has  extra  hard-link  connections  to
files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use
the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your
files  are  being updated so that you are certain that no unintended changes happen
due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a  missing
hard-linked  file  before  it  finds  that  another  link  for that contents exists
elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This does not affect  the  accuracy  of  the  transfer
(i.e.  which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been  found  later
in  the  transfer  in  another member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to
avoid  this  inefficiency  is  to   disable   incremental   recursion   using   the
--no-inc-recursive option.

-p, --perms
This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
same as the source permissions.  (See also the --chmod option for a way  to  modify
what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing  files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions,
though the --executability option might change just the  execute  permission
for the file.

o      New  files  get  their  "normal"  permission  bits  set to the source file’s
permissions  masked  with  the  receiving  directory’s  default  permissions
(either  the receiving process’s umask, or the permissions specified via the
destination directory’s default ACL),  and  their  special  permission  bits
disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from
its parent directory.

Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync’s behavior  is  the
same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In  summary:  to  give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions,
use --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while  leaving
existing  files  unchanged),  make  sure  that  the  --perms  option is off and use
--chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits  get  enabled).   If  you’d
care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the  following  defines  the  -Z
option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat:  make  sure  that  -a  does  not  follow  -Z, or it will re-enable the two
"--no-*" options mentioned above.)

The preservation of the destination’s setgid bit on newly-created directories  when
--perms  is  off  was  added  in  rsync  2.6.7.   Older  rsync versions erroneously
preserved the three special permission bits for newly-created  files  when  --perms
was  off,  while overriding the destination’s setgid bit setting on a newly-created
directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync  2.6.7,  so
older  (or  non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
(Keep in mind that it is the version of the  receiving  rsync  that  affects  these
behaviors.)

-E, --executability
This  option  causes  rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of
regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A regular  file  is  considered  to  be
executable  if  at least one ’x’ is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing
destination file’s executability differs from  that  of  the  corresponding  source
file, rsync modifies the destination file’s permissions as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its ’x’ permissions.

o      To  make  a  file  executable, rsync turns on each ’x’ permission that has a
corresponding ’r’ permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

-A, --acls
This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs  to  be  the  same  as  the
source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option
to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs
that are not compatible.

-X, --xattrs
This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be the
same as the source ones.

For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a  copy  being  done  by  a
super-user  copies  all  namespaces except system.*.  A normal user only copies the
user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
user, see the --fake-super option.

The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more filter options with
the x modifier. When you specify an xattr-affecting  filter  rule,  rsync  requires
that you do your own system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.  For example,
to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

--filter=’-x system.*’

To  skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could specify a negated-user
match:

--filter=’-x! user.*’

To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you  could  specify  a  receiver-only
rule that excludes all names:

--filter=’-xr *’

Note  that  the  -X  option does not copy rsync’s special xattr values (e.g.  those
used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option  (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all
xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

--chmod
This  option  tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes to the
permission of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as  though
it  were  the  permissions that the sending side supplied for the file, which means
that this option can seem to have no effect on existing files  if  --perms  is  not
enabled.

In  addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can
specify an item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with  a  ’D’,
or  specify  an  item  that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a ’F’.
For example, the following will ensure that all  directories  get  marked  set-gid,
that  no  files are other-writable, that both are user-writable and group-writable,
and that both have consistent executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option  is
just appended to the list of changes to make.

See  the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value
can be applied to the files in the transfer.

-o, --owner
This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
the  source  file,  but  only if the receiving rsync is being run as the super-user
(see also the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the owner of
new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

The  preservation  of  ownership  will associate matching names by default, but may
fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the  --numeric-ids
option for a full discussion).

-g, --group
This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
the source file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or  if
--no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group  is  set  to  the
default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
may fall back  to  using  the  ID  number  in  some  circumstances  (see  also  the
--numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

--devices
This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
system to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync
is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

--specials
This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

-t, --times
This  tells  rsync  to  transfer modification times along with the files and update
them on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the  optimization
that  excludes  files  that  have  not  been modified cannot be effective; in other
words, a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used  -I,
causing  all files to be updated (though rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm will make
the update fairly efficient if the files  haven’t  actually  changed,  you’re  much
better off using -t).

-O, --omit-dir-times
This  tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times (see
--times).  If NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it  is  a  good
idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

This  option  also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of directories in
incremental recursion copies.  The default --inc-recursive copying normally does an
early-create  pass of all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it
to be able to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away  (without
having  to  delay  that  until  a  bunch  of recursive copying has finished).  This
early-create idiom is not  necessary  if  directory  modify  times  are  not  being
preserved,  so  it  is skipped.  Since early-create directories don’t have accurate
mode, mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when  someone  wants  to
avoid these partially-finished directories.

This  tells  rsync  to  omit symlinks when it is preserving modification times (see
--times).

--super
This tells the  receiving  side  to  attempt  super-user  activities  even  if  the
receiving rsync wasn’t run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving
users via the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just  the  current  user’s
groups)  via  the  --groups  option,  and copying devices via the --devices option.
This is useful for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user,
and  also  for  ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn’t being
run as the super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user  can  use
--no-super.

--fake-super
When   this   option   is   enabled,   rsync  simulates  super-user  activities  by
saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended attributes that are
attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file’s owner and group (if it
is not the default), the file’s device info (device & special files are created  as
empty  text  files),  and  any permission bits that we won’t allow to be set on the
real file (e.g.  the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the
owner’s  access  (since  the  real  super-user can always access/change a file, the
files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This  option
also  handles  ACLs  (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended attributes (if
--xattrs was specified).

This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user,  and  to  store  ACLs
from incompatible systems.

The  --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To affect
the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If  you
wish  a  local  copy  to enable this option just for the destination files, specify
-M--fake-super.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

-S, --sparse
Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently  so  they  take  up  less  space on the
destination.  If combined with --inplace the file created might  not  end  up  with
sparse  blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If
--whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work  because
rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version.

Note  that  versions  of  rsync  older  than  3.1.3  will reject the combination of
--sparse and --inplace.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination  file  to  its  eventual  size
before  writing  data  to  the file.  Rsync will only use the real filesystem-level
preallocation support provided by Linux’s  fallocate(2)  system  call  or  Cygwin’s
posix_fallocate(3),  not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem,
but  with  this option rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If the destination is
not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS,  etc.),  this  option
may have no positive effect at all.

If  combined  with  --sparse,  the file will only have sparse blocks (as opposed to
allocated sequences of null bytes)  if  the  kernel  version  and  filesystem  type
support creating holes in the allocated data.

-n, --dry-run
This  makes  rsync  perform a trial run that doesn’t make any changes (and produces
mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most  commonly  used  in  combination
with  the  -v,  --verbose and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync
command is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and
a  subsequent  real run (barring intentional trickery and system call failures); if
it isn’t, that’s a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in
some  areas.   Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file transfers,
so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes  received",  "literal  data",
and  "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent
to a run where no file transfers were needed.

-W, --whole-file
This option disables rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm, which causes all transferred
files to be sent whole.  The transfer may be faster if this option is used when the
bandwidth between the source and destination machines is higher than the  bandwidth
to  disk  (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).  This is
the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths,  but
only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

--checksum-choice=STR
This  option overrides the checksum algoriths.  If one algorithm name is specified,
it is used for both the transfer checksums and (assuming --checksum  is  specified)
the pre-transfer checksumming. If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first
name affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects  the  pre-transfer
checksumming.

The algorithm choices are "auto", "md4", "md5", and "none".  If "none" is specified
for the  first  name,  the  --whole-file  option  is  forced  on  and  no  checksum
verification  is performed on the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for the
second name, the --checksum option  cannot  be  used.  The  "auto"  option  is  the
default,  where  rsync  bases  its  algorithm  choice  on the protocol version (for
backward compatibility with older rsync versions).

-x, --one-file-system
This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does
not  limit  the  user’s ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems,
just rsync’s recursion through the  hierarchy  of  each  directory  that  the  user
specified,  and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.
Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as  being  on
the same filesystem.

If  this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy.
Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters  (using
the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
directory are inaccessible).

--copy-unsafe-links),  a symlink to a directory on another device is treated like a
mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do  not  exist
yet  on  the  destination.   If  this option is combined with the --ignore-existing
option, no files will be updated (which can be useful if all  you  want  to  do  is
delete extraneous files).

This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

--ignore-existing
This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
does not ignore existing  directories,  or  nothing  would  get  done).   See  also
--existing.

This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when
they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted.  Since a  --link-dest  run
is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore
existing will ensure that the already-handled files don’t get tweaked (which avoids
a change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean that this option
is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

--remove-source-files
This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the   sending   side   the   files   (meaning
non-directories)  that  are  a  part  of  the  transfer  and have been successfully
duplicated on the receiving side.

Note that you should only use this option on source files that are  quiescent.   If
you  are  using  this  to move files that show up in a particular directory over to
another host, make sure that  the  finished  files  get  renamed  into  the  source
directory,  not  directly  written into it, so that rsync can’t possibly transfer a
file that is not yet fully written.  If you can’t first  write  the  files  into  a
different  directory,  you  should  use  a  naming  idiom  that  lets  rsync  avoid
transferring files that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "foo.new" when  it
is  written,  rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it  is  done,  and  then  use the option
--exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an  error)
if the file’s size or modify time has not stayed unchanged.

--delete
This  tells  rsync  to  delete  extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that
aren’t on  the  sending  side),  but  only  for  the  directories  that  are  being
synchronized.  You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or
"dir/") without using a wildcard for the directory’s contents (e.g. "dir/*")  since
the  wildcard  is  expanded  by the shell and rsync thus gets a request to transfer
individual files, not the files’ parent directory.  Files that  are  excluded  from
the   transfer   are   also   excluded  from  being  deleted  unless  you  use  the
--delete-excluded option or mark the rules as only matching  on  the  sending  side
(see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7,  this  option  would have no effect unless --recursive was
enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will  also  occur  when  --dirs  (-d)  is
enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to first
try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to  see  what  files  are  going  to  be
deleted.

If  the  sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files at the
destination will be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem
failures  (such  as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a massive deletion
of files on the destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the  --ignore-errors
option.

The  --delete  option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options without
conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.  However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older

--delete-before
Request  that  the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before the transfer
starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight  for  space  and
removing  extraneous  files  would help to make the transfer possible.  However, it
does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
the  transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to use
the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to  scan  all  the
files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request  that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as the
transfer happens.   The  per-directory  delete  scan  is  done  right  before  each
directory   is   checked   for  updates,  so  it  behaves  like  a  more  efficient
--delete-before, including doing the deletions prior to  any  per-directory  filter
files  being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See
--delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request that the file-deletions on  the  receiving  side  be  computed  during  the
transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then removed after the transfer completes.
This is useful when combined with  --delay-updates  and/or  --fuzzy,  and  is  more
efficient   than   using   --delete-after   (but   can  behave  differently,  since
--delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after  all  updates  are
done).   If  the  number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary
file will be created on the receiving side to hold the names (it is  removed  while
open,  so  you  shouldn’t  see  it  during  the  transfer).  If the creation of the
temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it
cannot  do  if  --recursive  is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete (which is
implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done  after  the  transfer
has  completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files as
a part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the  delete
phase   of   the   current  transfer.   It  also  forces  rsync  to  use  the  old,
non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all  the  files  in
the  transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see  --recursive).   See --delete (which is
implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-excluded
In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending
side,  this  tells  rsync  to  also delete any files on the receiving side that are
excluded (see --exclude).   See  the  FILTER  RULES  section  for  a  way  to  make
individual  exclusions  behave  this  way on the receiver, and for a way to protect
files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details  on
file-deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When  rsync  is  first  processing  the  explicitly  requested  source  files (e.g.
command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it is normally  an  error  if  the
file  cannot  be  found.   This  option  suppresses that error, and does not try to
transfer the file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a  file
was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step
farther:  each missing arg will become a  deletion  request  of  the  corresponding
destination  file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file
is a non-empty directory, it will  only  be  successfully  deleted  if  --force  or
--delete  are  in effect.  Other than that, this option is independent of any other
type of delete processing.

The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which display
as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output.

--ignore-errors
Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

--force
This  option  tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to be replaced
by a non-directory.  This is  only  relevant  if  deletions  are  not  active  (see
--delete for details).

Note  for  older  rsync  versions:  --force  used  to  still be required when using
--delete-after, and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option  was
also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If that limit
is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At
the  end,  rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and
exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more  important  error  condition  also
occurred).

Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any
extraneous files in the destination without removing any of  them.   Older  clients
interpreted  this  as "unlimited", so if you don’t know what version the client is,
you can use the less  obvious  --max-delete=-1  as  a  backward-compatible  way  to
specify  that  no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn’t warn when
the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than  the  specified
SIZE.  The  SIZE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier,
and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn’t affect the data  that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn’t affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is
a  mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you
want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB",  or  "GB".   (Note:
lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if the suffix ends in either
"+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and  --max-size=2g+1  is  2147483649
bytes.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified
SIZE, which can help in not transferring small, junk  files.   See  the  --max-size
option for a description of SIZE and other information.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
This  forces  the  block  size  used in rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm to a fixed
value.  It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.   See
the technical report for details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND
This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for
communication between the local and remote copies of  rsync.  Typically,  rsync  is
configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
will be used to run an rsync daemon on the  remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be
transmitted  through  that  remote  shell  connection, rather than through a direct
socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.   See  the  section
"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.

Command-line  arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented
to rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other  whitespace)
to  separate  the  command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).   Note  that
doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote;
likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes  your
shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

-e ’ssh -p 2234’
-e ’ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"’

(Note  that  ssh  users  can alternately customize site-specific connect options in
their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the  remote  shell  program  using  the  RSYNC_RSH  environment
variable, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use  this  to  specify  what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up
rsync.  Often used when rsync is not  in  the  default  remote-shell’s  path  (e.g.
--rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run with the help of a
shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you’d care to run,  so
long  as  it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
communicate.

One tricky example is to set a different default directory on  the  remote  machine
for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

-M, --remote-option=OPTION
This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects to
be limited to one side of the transfer only.  For instance, if  you  want  to  pass
--log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If  you  want  to  have  an option affect only the local side of a transfer when it
normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync
to  have  a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket, and that
will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each option you want  to
pass.   This  makes your useage compatible with the --protect-args option.  If that
option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split by the remote  shell
unless you take steps to protect them.

When  performing  a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the "remote"

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library  have  a  bug  in  them  that
prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short option
letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

-C, --cvs-exclude
This  is  a  useful  shorthand  for excluding a broad range of files that you often
don’t want to transfer between systems. It uses  a  similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to
determine if a file should be ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items
are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state  .nse_depinfo  *~
#*  .#*  ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj
*.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync’s filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you’re combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. -f, --filter=RULE This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter=’dir-merge /.rsync-filter’ This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter=’exclude .rsync-filter’ This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ’;’ or ’#’ are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ’;’ or ’#’ are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option’s behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir’s entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host’s charset to the receiving host’s charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements. -0, --from0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null (’\0’) character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). -s, --protect-args This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~,$,
;,  &,  etc.).   Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the
shell doing it).

If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will  also
be  translated from the local to the remote character-set.  The translation happens

You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS  environment  variable.
If  this  variable  has  a  non-zero value, this option will be enabled by default,
otherwise it will be disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
specified  positive  or  negative  version  of  this  option  (note that --no-s and
--no-protect-args  are  the  negative  versions).   Since  this  option  was  first
introduced  in  3.0.0,  you’ll  need to make sure it’s disabled if you ever need to
interact with a remote rsync that is older than that.

Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by default
(with  is  overridden  by  both the environment and the command-line).  This option
will eventually become a new default setting at some as-yet-undetermined  point  in
the future.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR
This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  as  a scratch directory when creating
temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the  receiving  side.   The  default
behavior  is  to create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated
destination file.  Beginning with rsync  3.1.1,  the  temp-file  names  inside  the
specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a

This option is most often used when the receiving  disk  partition  does  not  have
enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case
(i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not
be  able  to  rename  each  received  temporary file over the top of the associated
destination file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by  copying
the  file  over  the  top of the destination file, which means that the destination
file will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this  way
(even  if  the  destination  file  were first removed, the data locally copied to a
temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it  would
be  possible  for  the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on  the  disk
at the same time.

If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you
may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that  all
copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
end of the transfer.  If you don’t have enough room to duplicate all  the  arriving
files  on  the  destination  partition,  another  way to tell rsync that you aren’t
overly concerned about disk space  is  to  use  the  --partial-dir  option  with  a
relative  path;  because  this  tells  rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a
single file  in  a  subdir  in  the  destination  hierarchy,  rsync  will  use  the
partial-dir  as  a  staging  area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it
into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path  does  not
have this side-effect.)

-y, --fuzzy
This  option  tells  rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination
file that is missing.  The current algorithm looks in the  same  directory  as  the
destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or
a similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to  speed
up the transfer.

If  the  option  is  repeated,  the  fuzzy  scan  will also be done in any matching
alternate  destination  directories  that   are   specified   via   --compare-dest,

Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match
files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need
to prevent this.

--compare-dest=DIR
This  option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional
hierarchy to compare destination files against doing transfers (if  the  files  are
missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
to the sender’s  file,  the  file  will  NOT  be  transferred  to  the  destination
directory.   This  is  useful  for creating a sparse backup of just files that have
changed from an earlier backup.  This option is typically  used  to  copy  into  an
empty (or newly created) directory.

Beginning  in  version  2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided,
which will cause rsync to search the list in  the  order  specified  for  an  exact
match.   If  a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
and the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of  the
DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also

NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will  remove  a  file  from  a  non-empty
destination  hierarchy  if  an  exact  match  is  found  in one of the compare-dest
hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy).

--copy-dest=DIR
This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy  unchanged  files
found  in  DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is useful for
doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and  then
doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

Multiple  --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search
the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found,  a
basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also

This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from  DIR
to  the  destination  directory.   The  files  must  be  identical in all preserved
attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order  for  the  files  to  be

rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/ If file’s aren’t linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync’s control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X’s "Ignore ownership on this volume" option). Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such directories). If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links. Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled. Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file already exists. Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because it only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest. Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by -a). You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync. -z, --compress With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection. Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection. This matching-data compression comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled by repeating the -z option, but only if both sides are at least version 3.1.1. Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external zlib (instead of the zlib that comes packaged with rsync) then it will not support the old-style compression, only the new-style (repeated-option) compression. In the future this new-style compression will likely become the default. The client rsync requests new-style compression on the server via the --new-compress option, so if you see that option rejected it means that the server is not new enough to support -zz. Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for a future time when new-style compression becomes the default. See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not be compressed. --compress-level=NUM Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting it default. Allowed values for NUM are between 0 and 9; default when --compress option is specified is 6. If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied. --skip-compress=LIST Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed. The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/). You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped. Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and ’-’ has no special meaning). The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning. Here’s an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes): --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2 The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version of rsync): 7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4 ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default). --numeric-ids With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends. By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified. If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how the chroot setting affects rsync’s ability to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about it. --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the receiving side. The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas. Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the receiver. You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender’s names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a ’*’ matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example: --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option. Note that the sender’s name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other FROM names match those in use on the sending side. All TO names match those in use on the receiving side. Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name. For instance: --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless IDs to different values. For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option). For the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that group. --chown=USER:GROUP This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options internally, so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied. If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier. --timeout=TIMEOUT This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout. --contimeout This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed. If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error. --address By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync daemon. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also this option in the --daemon mode section. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also this option in the --daemon mode section. --sockopts This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon. This option also exists in the --daemon mode section. --blocking-io This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.) --outbuf=MODE This sets the output buffering mode. The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full). You may specify as little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case. The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when rsync’s output is going to a file or pipe. -i, --itemize-changes Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes. This is exactly the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'. If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages). The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being modified. The update types that replace the Y are as follows: o A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent). o A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received). o A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.). o A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links). o A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being modified). o A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g. "deleting"). The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos). The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being updated or a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older rsync). The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows: o A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value. Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files. o A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer. o A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender’s value (requires --times). An alternate value of T means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can’t set its time. (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.) o A p means the permissions are different and are being updated to the sender’s value (requires --perms). o An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender’s value (requires --owner and super-user privileges). o A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender’s value (requires --group and the authority to set the group). o The u slot is reserved for future use. o The a means that the ACL information changed. o The x means that the extended attribute information changed. One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message). --out-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i". Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file’s transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the file’s transfer. When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output). --log-file=FILE This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this. Here’s a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening: rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/ This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly. --log-file-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file. For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is ’%i %n%L’. --stats This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options. The current statistics are as follows: o Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list. o Number of created files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). o Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x). o Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal files that were updated via rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this heading. o Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer. This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks. o Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files. o Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files. o Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the updated files. o File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list. o File list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present. o File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver. o Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server side. o Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don’t count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent. -8, --8-bit-output This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they’re valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option’s setting. The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9). -h, --human-readable Output numbers in a more human-readable format. There are 3 possible levels: (1) output numbers with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024. The default is human-readable level 1. Each -h option increases the level by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifying the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option. The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), or T (tera). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point). Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you didn’t specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options. See the --list-only option for one difference. --partial By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster. --partial-dir=DIR A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file). On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose. Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm). Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole path). This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the partial-directory in the destination file’s directory when needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted. If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side. An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules. If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync’s exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g. -f 'R .rsync-partial/'. (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless you don’t need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run.) IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp". You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable. Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when --partial is specified. For instance, instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the --partial option does not look for this environment value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see below). For the purposes of the daemon-config’s "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial. This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir. --delay-updates This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each file’s destination directory, but if you’ve specified the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead. See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around. Conflicts with --inplace and --append. This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed updates will fail if they can’t be renamed into place). See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files). -m, --prune-empty-dirs This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules. Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule. Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this. You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list: --filter ’protect emptydir/’ Here’s an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude): rsync -avm --del --include=’*.pdf’ -f ’hide,! */’ src/ dest If you didn’t want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'" would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you). --progress This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to watch. With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress"). While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this: 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04 In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender’s file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end. These statistics can be misleading if rsync’s delta-transfer algorithm is in use. For example, if the sender’s file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file. When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that looks like this: 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396) In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list. In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won’t know the total number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the list). -P The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress. Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted. There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don’t need to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.) --password-file=FILE This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -. The file should contain just the password on the first line (all other lines are ignored). Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file. This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell’s documentation. When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon’s config file). --list-only This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination). Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg without using this option. For example: rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/ Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are affected by the --human-readable option. By default they will contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters. Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older rsyncs don’t have that option. To avoid this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don’t need to expand a directory’s content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--bwlimit=1.5m"). If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended). See the --max-size option for a description of all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit. For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible. Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance. Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs. This may be fixed in a future version. --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m This option allows you to specify at what time to stop rsync, in year-month-dayThour:minute numeric format (e.g. 2004-12-31T23:59). You can specify a 2 or 4-digit year. You can also leave off various items and the result will be the next possible time that matches the specified data. For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight), "04:00" specifies the next 4am, "1" specifies the next 1st of the month at midnight, and ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the hour. If you prefer, you may separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes. --time-limit=MINS This option allows you to specify the maximum number of minutes rsync will run for. --write-batch=FILE Record a file that can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch option. --only-write-batch=FILE Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch. This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch. Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don’t mind a partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening). Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can’t write the batch). --read-batch=FILE Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write-batch. If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details. --protocol=NUM Force an older protocol version to be used. This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file (assuming you can’t upgrade the rsync on the reading system). --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591. This order ensures that the option will stay the same whether you’re pushing or pulling files. Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion. The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable. For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run "iconv --list". If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host. See also the --files-from option. Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files (including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you’re specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer. For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for. When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8). --noatime Use the O_NOATIME open flag on systems that support it. The effect of this flag is to avoid altering the access time (atime) of the opened files. If the system does not support the O_NOATIME flag, this option does nothing. Currently, systems known to support O_NOATIME are Linux >= 2.6.8 with glibc >= 2.3.4. -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon. See also these options in the --daemon mode section. If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The --version output will tell you if this is the case. --checksum-seed=NUM Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don’t use a seed). By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the current time() . This option is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed. Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.  #### DAEMONOPTIONS  The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows: --daemon This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax. If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to requests accordingly. See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details. --address By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option. See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be allowed. See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details. --config=FILE This specifies an alternate config file than the default. This is only relevant when --daemon is specified. The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically$HOME).

-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync  in
daemon  mode.   It  is  equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of the global
settings prior to the first  module’s  definition.   The  parameter  names  can  be
specified without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

--no-detach
When  running  as  a  daemon,  this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and
become a background process.  This option is required when running as a service  on
Cygwin,  and  may  also  be  useful  when  rsync is supervised by a program such as
daemontools or AIX’s System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is  also  recommended
when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no effect if rsync is run from
inetd or sshd.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than
the default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

--log-file=FILE
This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using
the "log file" setting in the config file.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of  using
the  "log  format"  setting in the config file.  It also enables "transfer logging"
unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

--sockopts
This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the  same
syntax.

-v, --verbose
This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup
phase.  After the client connects, the daemon’s verbosity level will be  controlled
by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module’s
config section.

-4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that  the  rsync
daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in
older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel  (if  you  see  an
"address  already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying
--ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

-h, --help
When  specified  after  --daemon,  print  a  short help page describing the options
available for starting an rsync daemon.



#### FILTERRULES

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files  to  transfer  (include)  and
which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns
or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them  from  a
file).

As  the  list  of  files/directories  to  transfer  is built, rsync checks each name to be
transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the  first  matching
pattern  is acted on:  if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an
include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is  found,  then
the filename is not skipped.

Rsync  builds  an  ordered  list of filter rules as specified on the command-line.  Filter
rules have the following syntax:

RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you
use  a  short-named rule, the ’,’ separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The
PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single  space  or
an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
include, + specifies an include pattern.
merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that

Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule
parsing  as  described  above  --  they  only  allow  the specification of include/exclude
patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are
read  from  a  file).   If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- "  (for
an  exclude  option)  were  prefixed to the string.  A --filter option, on the other hand,
must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern  each.
To  add  multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file
syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.



#### INCLUDE/EXCLUDEPATTERNRULES

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-",  etc.  filter
rules  (as  introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude rules each
specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files  that  are  going  to  be
transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

o      if  the  pattern  starts  with  a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the
hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.   This
is  similar  to a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name
of "foo" at either the "root of the  transfer"  (for  a  global  rule)  or  in  the
merge-file’s  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).  An unqualified "foo" would
match a name of "foo" anywhere  in  the  tree  because  the  algorithm  is  applied
recursively  from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at
being the end of the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would  match  at  any
point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See
the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of  how  to
specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

o      if  the  pattern  ends  with a / then it will only match a directory, not a regular

o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking
if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: ’*’, ’?’, and ’[’ .

o      a ’*’ matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

o      use ’**’ to match anything, including slashes.

o      a ’?’ matches any character except a slash (/).

o      a ’[’ introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

o      in  a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but
it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.  This means that there is an
extra  level  of  backslash  removal  when  a  pattern contains wildcard characters
compared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if  you  add  a  wildcard  to  "foo\bar"
(which  matches  the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b"
becoming just "b".

o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /)  or  a  "**",  then  it  is
matched  against  the  full  pathname,  including  any  leading directories. If the
pattern doesn’t contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only  against  the  final
component  of the filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so
"full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the  starting  directory
on down.)

o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been
specified)  and  everything  in  the  directory  (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had   been
specified).  This behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

Note  that,  when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subdir
component of every path is visited left to right, with each directory having a chance  for
exclusion   before  its  content.   In  this  way  include/exclude  patterns  are  applied
recursively to the pathname of each node  in  the  filesystem’s  tree  (those  inside  the
transfer).   The  exclude  patterns  short-circuit  the directory traversal stage as rsync
finds the files to send.

For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be
excluded.   Excluding  one  of  those  parent  directories prevents the examination of its
content, cutting off rsync’s recursion into those paths  and  rendering  the  include  for
"/foo/bar/baz" ineffectual (since rsync can’t match something it never sees in the cut-off
section of the directory hierarchy).

The concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a trailing ’*’ rule.   For
instance, this won’t work:

+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
+ /file-is-included
- *

This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the ’*’ rule, so rsync never
visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to  ask
for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.   Another
solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.
For instance, this set of rules works fine:

+ /some/
+ /some/path/
+ /some/path/this-file-is-found
+ /file-also-included
- *

Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

o      "- /foo" would exclude a  file  (or  directory)  named  foo  in  the  transfer-root
directory

o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

o      "-  /foo/*/bar"  would  exclude  any  file named bar which is at two levels below a
directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file  named  bar  two  or  more  levels  below  a
directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

o      The  combination  of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C

o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include  only  the  foo
directory  and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would
be excluded by the "*")

The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the  absolute
pathname  of  the  current  item.   For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the
passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory,  and
"-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern  fails  to
match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as
excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.   When  a  rule
affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is
for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was  specified,  in  which
case  default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H) and show (S)
rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a  rule
affects  the  receiving  side,  it  prevents  files  from being deleted.  See the s
alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

o      A  p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories
that are being deleted.  For instance, the -C option’s default rules  that  exclude
things  like  "CVS"  and  "*.o"  are  marked  as perishable, and will not prevent a
directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.

o      An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and
is  thus  ignored  when  matching  file/dir  names). If no xattr-matching rules are
specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).



#### MERGE-FILEFILTERRULES

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a  merge  (.)  or  a
dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

There  are  two kinds of merged files -- single-instance (’.’) and per-directory (’:’).  A
single-instance merge file is read one time, and  its  rules  are  incorporated  into  the
filter  list in the place of the "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan
every directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when  the  file
exists  into  the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files must be
created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned  for  the
available  files  to  transfer.   These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the
receiving side if you want them to affect what files don’t get deleted (see  PER-DIRECTORY
RULES AND DELETE below).

Some examples:

merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
. /etc/rsync/default.rules
dir-merge .per-dir-filter
dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other

o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no  other

o      A  C  is  a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner.
This turns on ’n’, ’w’, and ’-’, but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to  be
specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

o      A  e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e .rules"
is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace  instead  of  the  normal
line-splitting.   This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates the
prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two  rules
(assuming that prefix-parsing wasn’t also disabled).

o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order
to have the rules that are read in from the file default to  having  that  modifier
set  (except  for  the  !  modifier,  which  would  not  be useful).  For instance,
"merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while
"dir-merge,s  .filt"  and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply
only on the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via  the  s
or  r  modifier  or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a
modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

Per-directory rules are inherited  in  all  subdirectories  of  the  directory  where  the
merge-file  was  found  unless  the  ’n’ modifier was used.  Each subdirectory’s rules are
prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents,  which  gives  the  newest
rules  a  higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules are
grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified,  so  it  is  possible  to
override  dir-merge  rules  via  a  rule  that got specified earlier in the list of global
rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read  from  a  per-directory  file,  it  only
clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

Another  way  to  prevent  a  single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to
anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative
to  the merge-file’s directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the
directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

Here’s an example filter file which you’d specify via --filter=". file":

merge /home/user/.global-filter
- *.gz
dir-merge .rules
+ *.[ch]
- *.o

This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at  the  start  of  the
list  and  also  turns  the ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file.  All rules
read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a
leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

If  a  per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the
first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point  to
the  transfer  directory  for  the  indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a
common filter (see -F):

--filter=’: /.rsync-filter’

That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the  root
down  through  the  parent  directory  of  the  transfer  prior to the start of the normal
directory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a  part  of  the  transfer.
(Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module’s "path".)

Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=’: ../../.rsync-filter’ /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=’: .rsync-filter’ /src/path/ /dest/dir

The  first  two  commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the
normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.   The  last
command  avoids  the  parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each
directory that is a part of the transfer.

If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the
rule   ":C",  which  creates  a  dir-merge  of  the  .cvsignore  file,  but  parsed  in  a
CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option’s
inclusion  of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the
":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the  dir-merge
rule  for  the  .cvsignore  file  at  the  end  of all your other rules (giving it a lower
priority than your command-line rules).  For example:

cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter=’. -’ a/ b
+ foo.o
:C
- *.old
EOT
rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude=’*.old’ a/ b

Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory
.cvsignore  rules  in  the  middle  of the list rather than at the end.  This allows their
dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being  subservient
to  all  your  rules.   To  affect  the  other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of$CVSIGNORE) you should omit
the  -C  command-line  option  and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.
"--filter=-C".



#### LIST-CLEARINGFILTERRULE

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced
in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules
(if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a  set  of  per-directory
rules  (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear
out the parent’s rules).



#### ANCHORINGINCLUDE/EXCLUDEPATTERNS

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at  the  "root  of  the
transfer"  (as  opposed  to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file’s
directory).  If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being  sent  from
sender  to  receiver,  the  transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the
destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing  slash  on  a
source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use
in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated  on  the
destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

Let’s  say  that  we  want  to  match  two  source  files,  one  with  an absolute path of
"/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how  the  various
command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
+/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
Target file: /dest/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
+/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

The  easiest  way  to  see  what name you should filter is to just look at the output when
using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if  you’re  not
yet ready to copy any files).



#### PER-DIRECTORYRULESANDDELETE

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you
can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting  the  transfer.   To
make  this  easy,  the  ’e’  modifier  adds  this  exclude  for  you, as seen in these two
equivalent commands:

rsync -av --filter=’: .excl’ --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
rsync -av --filter=’:e .excl’ host:src/dir /dest

However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some  files  to  be
excluded  from  being  deleted,  you’ll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what
files to exclude.  The easiest way is to include the  per-directory  merge  files  in  the
transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the
same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you’ll need to either  specify
some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you’ll need to maintain
your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
(assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

rsync -av --filter=’: .rules’ --filter=’. /my/extra.rules’
--delete host:src/dir /dest

In  the  above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on
the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules  merged  from  the  .rules  files
because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

In  one  final  example,  the  remote  side  is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the
transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets  deleted  on
the receiving side.  To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files
(so that they don’t get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to  control  what
else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
host:src/dir /dest
rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest



#### BATCHMODE

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose
one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose  some  changes  have
been  made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch  option  to  apply
the  changes  made  to  the  source tree to one of the destination trees.  The write-batch
option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the  information  needed  to
repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data
block generation more than  once  when  updating  multiple  destination  trees.  Multicast
transport  protocols  can  be  used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many
hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with  the  read-batch
option,  specifying  the  name  of  the  same batch file, and the destination tree.  Rsync
updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option  is  used:
it  will  be  named  the  same  as  the  batch file with ".sh" appended.  This script file
contains a command-line suitable for updating a  destination  tree  using  the  associated
batch  file.  It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing
in an alternate destination tree pathname which is  then  used  instead  of  the  original
destination  path.   This  is  useful  when  the destination tree path on the current host
differs from the one used to create the batch file.

Examples:

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ scp foo* remote:
$ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
\$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In these examples,  rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from  /source/dir/  and  the
information  to  repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote"
is then  updated  with  the  batched  data  going  into  the  directory  /bdest/dir.   The
differences  between  the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you
deal with batches:

o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn’t have to be local --  you  can
push  or  pull  data  to/from a remote host using either the remote-shell syntax or
rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

o      The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get  the  right  rsync  options
when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

o      The  second  example reads the batch data via standard input so that the batch file
doesn’t need to be copied to the remote machine first.   This  example  avoids  the
foo.sh  script  because  it  needed  to use a modified --read-batch option, but you
could edit the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be  sure  that  no
other  option  is  trying  to  use  standard  input, such as the "--exclude-from=-"
option).

Caveats:

The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical  to
the  destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a difference
between the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a  warning
(if  the  file  appears  to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and
then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
should  be  safe  to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you
wish to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file’s size  and
date,  use  the  -I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination
tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its
regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The  rsync  version  used  on  all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to
generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if  the  protocol  version  in  the
option for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync  can
understand.   (Note  that  batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
older than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
in  the batch file if you didn’t set them to the same as the batch-writing command.  Other
options can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to  --read-batch,
--files-from  is  dropped,  and  the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options are not needed
unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by  --delete
is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a  new
implementation.



       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the source
directory.

By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message  "skipping  non-regular"
file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

If  --links  is  specified,  then  symlinks  are  recreated  with  the  same target on the
destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed"  by  copying  their  referent,

Rsync  can  also  distinguish  "safe"  and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An example where this
might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the  rsync  module  that  is
copied  does  not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.
Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they point  to  on
the  destination.   Using  --safe-links  will cause unsafe links to be omitted altogether.
(Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

or if they contain enough ".." components to ascend from the directory being copied.

Here’s  a  summary  of  how  the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order of
precedence, so if your combination of options isn’t mentioned, use the first line that  is
a complete subset of your options:

Turn  all  symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other options to
affect).

Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.



#### DIAGNOSTICS

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic.  The  one  that
seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing
unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to  diagnose
this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then  look  at  out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero
length file. If you are getting the above error from rsync then  you  will  probably  find
that  out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is
producing it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts  (such
as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

If  you  are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.
At this level of verbosity rsync will  show  why  each  individual  file  is  included  or
excluded.



#### EXITVALUES

       0      Success

1      Syntax or usage error

2      Protocol incompatibility

3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
platform that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported  by
the client and not by the server.

5      Error starting client-server protocol

6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

10     Error in socket I/O

11     Error in file I/O

12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

13     Errors with program diagnostics

14     Error in IPC code

21     Some error returned by waitpid()

22     Error allocating core memory buffers

23     Partial transfer due to error

24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection



#### ENVIRONMENTVARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable supplements any ignore patterns in .cvsignore
files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported
in 3.0.0.)

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify  a  non-zero  numeric  value  if  you  want the --protect-args option to be
enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure that it is  disabled  by  default.
(First supported in 3.1.0.)

RSYNC_RSH
The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as
the transport for rsync.  Command line options  are  permitted  after  the  command
name, just as in the -e option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The  RSYNC_PROXY  environment  variable allows you to redirect your rsync client to
use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to  a
hostname:port pair.

rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does
not  supply  a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do
that, consult the remote shell’s documentation.

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME  environment  variables  are  used  to  determine  the  default
username  sent  to  an  rsync  daemon.  If neither is set, the username defaults to
"nobody".

HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user’s default .cvsignore file.



#### FILES

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf



#### SEEALSO

       rsyncd.conf(5)



#### BUGS

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments
on the --modify-window option.

file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/



#### VERSION

       This man page is current for version 3.1.3 of rsync.



#### INTERNALOPTIONS

       The  options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed
by a user under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may  be  needed  in
certain  scenarios,  such  as  when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.
For instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script  named
rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.



#### CREDITS

       rsync  is  distributed  under  the  GNU  General Public License.  See the file COPYING for
details.

A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.   The  site  includes  an  FAQ-O-Matic
which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup  Gailly  and



#### THANKS

       Special  thanks  go  out  to:  John  Van  Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra, David
Dykstra, Jos Backus,  Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,  and  our  gone-but-not-forgotten

Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell.
I’ve probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.



#### AUTHOR

       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and  Paul  Mackerras.   Many  people  have
later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

Mailing lists for support and development are available at http://lists.samba.org

28 Jan 2018                                   rsync(1)