Provided by: swish-e_2.4.7-6build1_amd64 bug

NAME

       SWISH-RUN - Running Swish-e and Command Line Switches

OVERVIEW

       The Swish-e program is controlled by command line arguments (called switches).  Often, it
       is run manually from a shell (command prompt), or from a program such as a CGI script that
       passes the command line arguments to swish.

       Note: A number of the command line switches may be specified in the Swish-e configuration
       file specified with the "-c" command line argument.  Please see SWISH-CONFIG for a
       complete description of available configuration file directives.

       There are two basic operating modes of Swish-e: indexing and searching.  There are command
       line arguments that are unique to each mode, and others that apply to both (yet may have
       different meaning depending on the operating mode).  These command line arguments are
       listed below, grouped by:

       INDEXING -- describes the command line arguments used while indexing.

       SEARCHING -- lists the command line arguments used while searching.

       OTHER SWITCHES -- lists switches that don't apply to searching or indexing.

       Beginning with Swish-e version 2.1, you may embed its search engine into your
       applications.  Please see SWISH-LIBRARY.

INDEXING

       Swish-e indexing is initiated by passing command line arguments to swish.  The command
       line arguments used for searching are described in SEARCHING.  Also, see SWISH-SEARCH for
       examples of searching with Swish-e.

       Swish-e usage:

           swish-e [-i dir file ... ] [-c file] [-f file] [-l] \
                   [-v (num)] [-S method(fs⎪http⎪prog)] [-N path]

       The "-h" switch (help) will list the available Swish-e command line arguments:

           swish-e -h

       Typically, most if not all indexing settings are placed in a configuration file (specified
       with the "-c" switch).  Once the configuration file is setup indexing is initiated as:

           swish-e -c /path/to/config/file

       See SWISH-CONFIG for information on the configuration file.

       Security Note: If the swish binary is named swish-search then swish will not allow any
       operation that would cause swish to write to the index file.

       When indexing it may be advisable to index to a temporary file, and then after indexing
       has successfully completed rename the file to the final location.  This is especially
       important when replacing an index that is currently in use.

           swish-e -c swish.config -f index.tmp
           [check return code from swish or look for err: output]
           mv index.tmp index.swish-e

       Indexing Command Line Arguments

       -i *directories and/or files* (input file)
           This specifies the directories and/or files to index. Directories will be indexed
           recursively.  This is typically specified in the configuration file with the IndexDir
           directive instead of on the command line.  Use of this switch overrides the
           configuration file settings.

       -S [fs⎪http⎪prog] (document source/access mode)
           This specifies the method to use for accessing documents to index.  Can be either "fs"
           for local indexing via the file system (the default), "http" for spidering, or "prog"
           for reading documents from an external program.

           Located in the "conf" directory are example configuration files that demonstrate
           indexing with the different document source methods.

           See the SWISH-FAQ for a discussion on the different indexing methods, and the
           difference between spidering with the http method vs. using the file system method.

           fs - file system
               The "fs" method simply reads files from a local (or networked) drive.  This is the
               default method if the "-S" switch is not specified.  See SWISH-CONFIG for
               configuration directives specific to the "fs" method.

           http - spider a web server
               The "http" method is used to spider web servers.  It uses an included helper
               program called swishspider.  See SWISH-CONFIG for configuration directives
               specific to the "http" method.

               Security Note: Under Windows swish passes the URLs fetched from remote documents
               through the shell (swish uses the system() command for running swishspider under
               Windows), and this may be considered an additional security risk.

               The "http" method is deprecated (or at least not very well appreciated).  Consider
               using the "prog" method described below for spidering.  There's a spider program
               available in the prog-bin directory for use with the "prog" method.  Here's a
               number of limitation with this method that are solved with the "prog" method:

               *   swishspider only spiders standard <a href="..."> links.  Frames and other
                   links are not followed.

               *   By default, this method of spidering only indexes files that have a content
                   type of "text/*" (e.g. text/plain, text/html, text/xml).  You should use
                   "DefaultContents" and "IndexContents" to map file extensions to parsers used
                   by swish (e.g.  "IndexContents HTML* .html .htm"), but this will fail where a
                   document does not have a file extension.

               *   Swish-e's "FileFilter" directive can be used with the "http" access method,
                   although it requires a separate process (in addition to the swsihspider
                   process) for each document filtered.

               *   The SWISH::Filter modules can be used with the swishspider program.
                   SWISH::Filter provides a general purpose filtering system (see SWISH::Filter
                   documentation).  To use SWISH::Filter set PERL5LIB to point to the location of
                   the SWISH module name space (typically /usr/local/lib/swish-e under Unix).
                   For example:

                      export PERL5LIB=/usr/local/lib/swish-e  # bash, bourne shells
                      setenv PERL5LIB /usr/local/lib/swish-e  # csh, tcsh

                   or under Windows

                      set PERL5LIB=c:\program files\swish-e2.4\lib\swish-e

                   SWISH::Filter is not enabled by default due to the overhead of loading the
                   modules for every document fetched.

                   The Swish-e distribution includes perl modules in the SWISH::Filters::*
                   namespace to make converting non-text documents into a format that Swish-e can
                   parse easy.  As mentioned above, the helper script swishspider will use these
                   modules if can be found via PERL5LIB.  These modules only provide an interface
                   to programs that do the conversion.  For example, you will need to download
                   and install the "catdoc" program to convert MSWord documents into text for
                   indexing. Please see filters/README to see how to use this filter system.

           prog - general purpose access method
               The "prog" method is new to Swish-e version 2.2.  It's designed as a general
               purpose method to feed documents to swish from an external program.

               For example, the external program can read a database (e.g. MySQL), spider a web
               server, or convert documents from one format to another (e.g. pdf to html).  Or,
               you can simply use it to read the files of the file system (like "-S fs"), yet
               provide you with full control of what files are indexed.

               The external program name to run is passed to swish either by the IndexDir
               directive, or via the "-i" option.

               The program specified should be an absolute path as swish-e will attempt to stat()
               the program to make sure it exists.  Swish does this to help in error reporting.

               If the program specified with -i or IndexDir is not an absolute path (i.e.  does
               not include "/" ) then swish-e will append the "libexecdir" directory defined
               during configuration.  Typically, libexecdir is set to "$prefix/lib/swish-e"
               (/usr/local/lib/swish-e), but is platform and installation dependent.  Running
               swish-e -h will report the directory.

               For example, the -S prog program "spider.pl" is a Perl helper program for use with
               -S prog and is installed in libexecdir.

                   IndexDir spider.pl
                   SwishProgParameters default http://localhost/index.html

               and swish-e will find spider.pl in libexecdir.

               Additional parameters may be passed to the external program via the
               SwishProgParameters directive.  In the example above swish-e will pass two
               parameters to spider.pl, "default" and "http://localhost/index.html".

               A special name "stdin" may be used with "-i" or IndexDir which tells swish to read
               from standard input instead of from an external program.  See example below.

               The external program prints to standard output (which swish captures) a set of
               headers followed by the content of the file to index.  The output looks similar to
               an email message or a HTTP document returned by a web server in that it includes
               name/value pairs of headers, a blank line, and the content.

               The content length is determined by a content-length header supplied to swish by
               the program; there is no "end of record" character or flag sent between documents.
               Therefore, it is critical that the content-length header is correct.  This is a
               common source of errors.

               One advantage of this method (over using filters, for example) is that the
               external program is run only once for the entire indexing job, instead of once for
               every document.  This avoids forking and creating a new process for every
               document, and makes a huge difference when your external program is something like
               perl that has a large startup cost.

               Here's a simple example written in Perl:

                   #!/usr/local/bin/perl -w
                   use strict;

                   # Build a document
                   my $doc = <<EOF;
                   <html>
                   <head>
                       <title>Document Title</title>
                   </head>
                       <body>
                           This is the text.
                       </body>
                   </html>
                   EOF

                   # Prepare the headers for swish
                   my $path = 'Example.file';
                   my $size = length $doc;
                   my $mtime = time;

                   # Output the document (to swish)
                   print <<EOF;
                   Path-Name: $path
                   Content-Length: $size
                   Last-Mtime: $mtime
                   Document-Type: HTML*

                   EOF

                       print $doc;

               The external program passes to swish a header.  The header is separated from the
               body of the document with a blank line.  The available headers are:

               Path-Name:
                   This is the name of the file you are indexing. This can be any string, so for
                   example it could be an ID of a record in a database, a URL or a simple file
                   name.

                   This header is required.

               Content-Length:
                   This header specifies the length in bytes of the document that follows the
                   header.  This length must be exactly the length of the document -- do not make
                   the mistake of adding an extra line feed at the end of the document.

                   This header is required.

               Last-Mtime:
                   Thi parameter is the last modification time of the file, and must be a time
                   stamp (seconds since the Epoch on your platform).

                   This header is not required.

               Document-Type:
                   You may override swish's determination of document type ("Indexcontents") by
                   using the "Document-Type:" header.  The document type is used to select which
                   parser Swish-e uses to parse the document's contents.

                   For example, a spider program might map the content-type returned from a web
                   server to one of the types Swish-e understands.  For example,

                       my $doc_type = 'HTML*' if $response->content_type =~ m!text/html!'

                   This header is not required.

               Update-Mode:
                   When updating an incremental index this header can be used to select the mode
                   for updating the index.  There are three possible values:

                       Update
                       Remove
                       Index

                   "Update" will update the index with the given file if the date of the given
                   file is newer than the date of the file already in the index.  Setting to
                   "Update" is the same as using -u on the command line.

                   "Remove" mode will remove the file specified by the Path-Name header.  Setting
                   "Remove" is the same as using -r on the command line.

                   "Index" will add the file to the index. NOTE: swish-e will not check to see if
                   the file already exists.

                   If this header is not specified, the default is the mode specified on the
                   command line (-u, -r, or none).

                   This option is still experimental and is subject to change in the future.  Ask
                   on the Swish-e list before using.

               The above example program only returns one document and exits, which is not very
               useful.  Normally, your program would read data from some source, such as files or
               a database, format as XML, HTML, or text, and pass them to swish, one after
               another.  The "Content-Length:" header tells swish where each document ends --
               there is not any special "end of record" character or marker.

               To index with the above example you need to make sure that the program is
               executable (and that the path to perl is correct), and then call swish telling to
               run in "prog" mode, and the name of the program to use for input.

                   % chmod 755 example.pl
                   % ./swish-e -S prog -i ./example.pl

               Programs can and should be tested prior to running swish. For example:

                   % ./example.pl > test.out

               A few more useful example programs are provided in the swish-e distribution
               located in the prog-bin directory.  Some include documentation:

                   % cd prog-bin
                   % perldoc spider.pl

               Others are small examples that include comments:

                   % cd prog-bin
                   % less DirTree.pl

               The spider.pl program can be used as a replacement for the -S http method.  It is
               far more feature-rich and offers much more control over indexing.

               If you use the special program name "stdin" with "-i" or IndexDir then swish-e
               will read from standard input instead of from a program.  For example:

                   % ./example.pl --count=1000 /path/to/data ⎪ ./swish-e -S prog -i stdin

               This is basically the same as using a swish-e configuration file of:

                   SwishProgParameters --count=1000 /path/to/data
                   IndexDir ./example.pl

               in a config file and running

                   % ./swish-e -S prog -c swish.conf

               This gives an easy way to run swish without a configuration file with a "-S prog"
               program that requires parameters.  It also means you can capture data to a file
               and then index more once with the same data:

                   % ./example.pl /path/to/data --count=1000 > docs.txt
                   % cat docs.txt ⎪ ./swish-e -S prog -i stdin -c normal_index
                   % cat docs.txt ⎪ ./swish-e -S prog -i stdin -c fuzzy_index

               Using "stdin" might also be useful for programs that call swish (instead of swish
               calling the program).

               (The reason "stdin" is used instead of the more common "-" dash is due to the
               rotten way swish parses the command line.  This should be fixed in the future.)

               The "prog" method bypasses some of the configuration parameters available to the
               file system method -- settings such as "IndexOnly", "FileRules", "FileMatch" and
               "FollowSymLinks" are ignored when using the "prog" method.  It's expected that
               these operations are better accomplished in the external program before passing
               the document onto swish.  In other words, when using the "prog" method, only send
               the documents to swish that you want indexed.

               You may use swish's filter feature with the "prog" method, but performance will be
               better if you run filtering programs from within your external program.  See also
               filters/README for an example how to easily add document converstion and filtering
               into your Perl-based programs.

               Notes when using -S prog on MS Windows

               Windows does not use the shebang (#!) line of a program to determine the program
               to run.  So, when running, for example, a perl program you may need to specify the
               perl.exe binary as the program, and use the "SwishProgParameters" to name the
               file.

                   IndexDir e:/perl/bin/perl.exe
                   SwishProgParameters read_database.pl

               Swish will replace the forward slashes with backslashes before running the command
               specified with "IndexDir".  Swish uses the popen(3) command which passes the
               command through the shell.

       -f *indexfile* (index file)
           If you are indexing, this specifies the file to save the generated index in, and you
           can only specify one file.  See also IndexFile in the configuration file.

           If you are searching, this specifies the index files (one or more) to search from. The
           default index file is index.swish-e in the current directory.

       -c *file ...* (configuration files)
           Specify the configuration file(s) to use for indexing.  This file contains many
           directives that control how Swish-e proceeds.  See SWISH-CONFIG for a complete listing
           of configuration file directives.

           Example:

               swish-e -c docs.conf

           If you specify a directory to index, an index file, or the verbose option on the
           command-line, these values will override any specified in the configuration file.

           You can specify multiple configuration files.  For example, you may have one
           configuration file that has common site-wide settings, and another for a specific
           index.

           Examples:

               1) swish-e -c swish-e.conf
               2) swish-e -i /usr/local/www -f index.swish-e -v -c swish-e.conf
               3) swish-e -c swish-e.conf stopwords.conf

           1  The settings in the configuration file will be used to index a site.

           2  These command-line options will override anything in the configuration file.

           3  The variables in swish-e.conf will be read, then the variable in stopwords.conf
              will be read.  Note that if the same variables occur in both files, older values
              may be written over.

       -e (economy mode)
           For large sites indexing may require more RAM than is available.  The "-e" switch
           tells swish to use disk space to store data structures while indexing, saving memory.
           This option is recommended if swish uses so much RAM that the computer begins to swap
           excessively, and you cannot increase available memory.  The trade-off is slightly
           longer indexing times, and a busy disk drive.

       -l (symbolic links)
           Specifying this option tells swish to follow symbolic links when indexing.  The
           configuration file value FollowSymLinks will override the command-line value.

           The default is not to follow symlinks.  A small improvement in indexing time my result
           from enabling FollowSymLinks since swish does not need to stat every directory and
           file processed to determine if it is a symbolic link.

       -N path (index only newer files)
           The "-N" option takes a path to a file, and only files newer than the specified file
           will be indexed.  This is helpful for creating incremental indexes -- that is, indexes
           that contain just files added since the last full index was created of all files.

           Example (bad example)

               swish-e -c config.file -N index.swish-e -f index.new

           This will index as normal, but only files with a modified date newer than
           index.swish-e will be indexed.

           This is a bad example because it uses index.swish-e which one might assume was the
           date of last indexing.  The problem is that files might have been added between the
           time indexing read the directory and when the index.swish-e file was created -- which
           can be quite a bit of time for very large indexing jobs.

           The only solution is to prevent any new file additions while full indexing is running.
           If this is impossible then it will be slightly better to do this:

           Full indexing:

               touch indexing_time.file
               swish-e -c config.file -f index.tmp
               mv index.tmp index.full

           Incremental indexing:

               swish-e -c config.file -N indexing_time.file -f index.tmp
               mv index.tmp index.incremental

           Then search with

               swish-e -w foo -f index.full index.incremental

           or merge the indexes

               swish-e -M index.full index.incremental index.tmp
               mv index.tmp index.swish-e
               swish-e -w foo

       -r  **incremental index format only** The "-r" option puts swish-e into "removal" mode.
           Any input files (given with "-i" or the "IndexDir" parameter) are removed from an
           existing index.

           Example:

             swish-e -r -i file.html

           would remove file.html from the existing index.

       -u  **incremental index format only** The "-u" option puts swish-e into "update" mode. The
           timestamp of each input file is compared against the corresponding file in the
           existing index.  If swish-e encounters an input file that either does not exist yet in
           the index or exists with a timestamp older than the input file, the input file is
           updated in the index. Any words in the input file that have been added or removed are
           reflected as such in the index.

           Example:

             swish-e -i file.html -u

           would update the index.swish-e index with the contents of file.html. If file.html was
           new, it would be added. If file.html already existed in the index, its contents would
           be updated in the index.

       -v [0⎪1⎪2⎪3] (verbosity level)
           The "-v" option can take a numerical value from 0 to 3.  Specify 0 for completely
           silent operation and 3 for detailed reports.

           If no value is given then 1 is assumed.  See also IndexReport in the configuration
           file.

           Warnings and errors are reported regardless of the verbosity level.  In addition, all
           error and warnings are written to standard out.  This is for historical reasons (many
           scripts exist that parse standard out for error messages).

       -W (0⎪1⎪2⎪3) (parser warning level)
           If using the libxml2 parser, the default parser warning level is set at 2. Use the
           "-W" option to override that default. Most often, you might want to turn it off
           altogether:

             swish-e -W0 -i path/to/files

           would fail silently if the parser encountered any errors.

SEARCHING

       The following command line arguments are available when searching with Swish-e.  These
       switches are used to select the index to search, what fields to search, and how and what
       to print as results.

       This section just lists the available command line arguments and their usage.  Please see
       SWISH-SEARCH for detailed searching instructions.

       Warning: If using Swish-e via a CGI interface, please see CGI Danger!

       Security Note: If the swish binary is named swish-search then swish will not allow any
       operation that would cause swish to write to the index file.

       Searching Command Line Arguments

       -w *word1 word2 ...*  (query words)
           This performs a case-insensitive search using a number of keywords.  If no index file
           to search is specified (via the "-f" switch), swish-e will try to search a file called
           index.swish-e in the current directory.

               swish-e -w word

           Phrase searching is accomplished by placing the quote delimiter (a double-quote by
           default) around the search phrase.

               swish-e -w 'word or "this phrase"'

           Search would should be protected from the shell by quotes.  Typically, this is single
           quotes when running under Unix.

           Under Windows command.com you may not need to use quotes, but you will need to
           backslash the quotes used to delimit phrases:

               swish-e -w \"a phrase\"

           The phrase delimiter can be set with the "-P" switch.

           The search may be limited to a MetaName.  For example:

               swish-e -w meta1=(foo or baz)

           will only search within the meta1 tag.

           Please see SWISH-SEARCH for a description of MetaNames

       -f *file1 file2 ...* (index files)
           Specifies the index file(s) used while searching.  More than one file may be listed,
           and each file will be searched.  If no "-f" switch is specified then the file
           index.swish-e in the current directory will be used as the index file.

       -m *number* (max results)
           While searching, this specifies the maximum number of results to return.  The default
           is to return all results.

           This switch is often used in conjunction with the "-b" switch to return results one
           page at a time (strongly recommended for large indexes).

       -b *number* (beginning result)
           Sets the begining search result to return (records are numbered from 1).  This switch
           can be used with the "-m" switch to return results in groups or pages.

           Example:

               swish-e -w 'word' -b 1 -m 20    # first 'page'
               swish-e -w 'word' -b 21 -m 20   # second 'page'

       -t HBthec (context searching)
           The "-t" option allows you to search for words that exist only in specific HTML tags.
           Each character in the string you specify in the argument to this option represents a
           different tag in which to search for the word. H means all HEAD tags, B stands for
           BODY tags, t is all TITLE tags, h is H1 to H6 (header) tags, e is emphasized tags
           (this may be B, I, EM, or STRONG), and c is HTML comment tags

           search only in header (<H*>) tags

               swish-e -w word -t h

       -d *string* (delimiter)
           Set the delimiter used when printing results.  By default, Swish-e separates the
           output fields by a space, and places double-quotes around the document title.  This
           output may be hard to parse, so it is recommended to use "-d" to specify a character
           or string used as a separator between fields.

           The string "dq" means "double-quotes".

               swish-e -w word -d ,    # single char
               swish-e -w word -d ::   # string
               swish-e -w word -d '"'  # double quotes under Unix
               swish-e -w word -d \"   # double quotes under Windows
               swish-e -w word -d dq   # double quotes

           The following control characters may also be specified: "\t \r \n \f".

           Warning: This string is passed directly to sprintf() and therefore exposes a securty
           hole.  Do not allow user data to set -d format strings directly.

       -P *character*
           Sets the delimiter used for phrase searches.  The default is double quotes """.

           Some examples under bash: (be careful about you shell metacharacters)

               swish-e -P ^ -w 'title=^words in a phrase^'
               swish-e -P \' -w "title='words in a pharse"'

       -p *property1 property2 ...*  (display properties)
           This causes swish to print the listed property in the search results.  The properties
           are returned in the order they are listed in the "-p" argument.

           Properties are defined by the ProperNames directive in the configuration file (see
           SWISH-CONFIG) and properties must also be defined in MetaNames.  Swish stores the text
           of the meta name as a property, and then will return this text while searching if this
           option is used.

           Properties are very useful for returning data included in a source documnet without
           having to re-read the source document while searching.  For example, this could be
           used to return a short document description.  See also see Document Summeries and
           PropertyNames in SWISH-CONFIG.

           To return the subject and category properties while indexing.

               swish-e -w word -p subject category

           Properties are returned in double quotes.   If a property contains a double quote it
           is HTML escaped (&quot;).  See the "-x" switch for a more advanced method of returning
           a list of properties.

           NOTE: it is necessary to have indexed with the proper PropertyNames directive in the
           user config file in order to use this option.

       -s *property [asc⎪desc] ...*  (sort)
           Normally, search results are printed out in order of relevancy, with the most relevant
           listed first.  The "-s" sort switch allows you to sort results in order of a specified
           property, where a property was defined using the MetaNames and PropertyNames
           directives during indexing (see SWISH-CONFIG).

           The string passed can include the strings "asc" and "desc" to specify the sort order,
           and more than one property may be specified to sort on more than one key.

           Examples:

           sort by title property ascending order

               -s title

           sort descending by title, ascending by name

               -s title desc name asc

           Note: Swish limits sort keys to 100 characters.  This limit can be changed by changing
           MAX_SORT_STRING_LEN in src/config.h and rebuilding swish-e.

       -L limit to a range of property values (Limit)
           This is an experimental feature!

           The "-L" switch can be used to limit search results to a range of property values

           Example:

               swish-e -w foo -L swishtitle a m

           finds all documents that contain the word "foo", and where the document's title is in
           the range of "a" to "m", inclusive.  By default, the case of the property is ignored,
           but this can be changed by using PropertyNamesCompareCase configuation directive.

           Limiting may be done with user-defined properties, as well.

           For example, if you indexed documents that contain a created timestamp in a meta tag:

               <meta name="created_on" content="982648324">

           Then you tell Swish that you have a property called "created_on", and that it's a
           timestamp.

               PropertyNamesDate created_on

           After indexing you will be able to limit documents to a range of timestamps:

               -w foo -L created_on  946684800 949363199

           will find documents containing the word foo and that have a created_on date from the
           start of Jan 1, 2000 to the end of Jan 31, 2000.

           Note: swish currently does not parse dates; Unix timestamps must be used.

           Two special formats can be used:

               -L swishtitle <= m
               -L swishtitle >= m

           Finds titles less than or equal, or grater than or equal to the letter "m".

           This feature will not work with "swishrank" or "swishdbfile" properties.

           This feature takes advantages of the pre-sorted tables built by swish during indexing
           to make this feature fast while searching.  You should see in the indexing output a
           line such as:

              6 properties sorted.

           That indicates that six pre-sorted tables were built during indexing.  By default, all
           properties are presorted while indexing.  What properties are pre-sorted can be
           controlled by the configuration parameter "PreSortedIndex".

           Using the "-L" switch on a property that was not pre-sorted will still work, but may
           be much slower during searching.

           Note that the PropertyNamesSortKeyLength setting is used for sorting properties.
           Using too small a PropertyNamesSortKeyLength could result in -L selecting the wrong
           properties due to incomplete sorting.

           This is an experimental feature, and its use and interface are subject to change.

       -x formatstring (extended output format)
           The "-x" switch defines the output format string.  The format string can contain plain
           text and property names (including swish-defined internal property names) and is used
           to generate the output for every result.  In addition, the output format of the
           property name can be controlled with C-like printf format strings.  This feature
           overrides the cmdline switches "-d" and "-p", and a warning will be generated if "-d"
           or "-p" are used with "-x".

           Warning: The format string (fmt) is passed directly to sprintf() and therefore exposes
           a securty hole.  Do not allow user data to set -x format strings directly.

           For example, to return just the title, one per line, in the search results:

               swish-e  -w ...   -x '<swishtitle>\n' ...

           Note: the "\n" may need to be protected from your shell.

           See also ResultExtFormatName for a way to define named format strings in the swish
           configuration file.

           Format of "formatstring":

               "text<propertyname>text<propertyname fmt=propfmtstr>text..."

           Where propertyname is:

           *   the name of a user property as specified with the config file directive
               "PropertyNames"

           *   the name of a swish Auto property (see below).  These properties are defined
               automatically by swish -- you do not need to specify them with PropertyNames
               directive.  (This may change in the future.)

           propertynames must be placed within "<" and ">".

           User properties:

           Swish-e allows you to specify certain META tags within your documents that can be used
           as document properties.  The contents of any META tag that has been identified as a
           document property can be returned as part of the search results.  Doucment properties
           must be defined while indexing using the PropertyNames configuration directive (see
           SWISH-CONFIG).

           Examples of user-defined PropertyNames:

               <keywords>
               <author>
               <deliveredby>
               <reference>
               <id>

           Auto properties:

           Swish defines a number of "Auto" properties for each document indexed.  These are
           available for output when using the "-x" format.

               Name               Type     Contents
               --------------     -------  ----------------------------------------------
               swishreccount      Integer  Result record counter
               swishtitle         String   Document title
               swishrank          Integer  Result rank for this hit
               swishdocpath       String   URL or filepath to document
               swishdocsize       Integer  Document size in bytes
               swishlastmodified  Date     Last modified date of document
               swishdescription   String   Description of document (see:StoreDescription)
               swishdbfile        String   Path of swish database indexfile

           The Auto properties can also be specified using shortcuts:

               Shortcut    Property Name
               --------    --------------
                 %c        swishreccount
                 %d        swishdescription
                 %D        swishlastmodified
                 %I        swishdbfile
                 %p        swishdocpath
                 %r        swishrank
                 %l        swishdocsize
                 %t        swishtitle

           For example, these are equivalent:

              -x '<swishrank>:<swishdocpath>:<swishtitle>\n'
              -x '%r:%p:%t\n'

           Use a double percent sign "%%" to enter a literal percent sign in the output.

           Formatstrings of properties:

           Properties listed in an "-x" format string can include format control strings.  These
           "propertyformats" are used to control how the contents of the associated property are
           printed.  Property formats are used like C-language printf formats.  The property
           format is specified by including the attribute "fmt" within the property tag.

           Format strings cannot be used with the "%" shortcuts described above.

           General syntax:

               -x '<propertyname fmt="propfmtstr">'

           where "subfmt" controls the output format of "propertyname".

           Examples of property format strings:

                   date type:    <swishlastmodified fmt="%d.%m.%Y">
                   string type:  <swishtitle fmt="%-40.35s">
                   integer type: <swishreccount fmt=/%8.8d/>

           Please see the manual pages for strftime(3) and sprintf(3) for an explanation of
           format strings.  Note: some versions of strftime do not offer the %s format string
           (number of seconds since the Epoch), so swish provides a special format string "%ld"
           to display the number of seconds since the Epoch.

           The first character of a property format string defines the delimiter for the format
           string.  For example,

               -x  "<author  fmt=[%20s]> ...\n"
               -x  "<author  fmt='%20s'> ...\n"
               -x  "<author  fmt=/%20s/> ...\n"

           Standard predefined formats:

           If you ommit the sub-format, the following formats are used:

               String type:       "%s"  (like printf char *)
               Integer type:      "%d"  (like printf int)
               Float type:        "%f"  (like printf double)
               Date type:         "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S" (like strftime)

           Text in "formatstring" or "propfmtstr":

           Text will be output as-is in format strings (and property format strings).  Special
           characters can be escaped with a backslash.  To get a new line for each result hit,
           you have to include the Newline-Character "\n" at the end of "fmtstr".

               -x "<swishreccount>⎪<swishrank>⎪<swishdocpath>\n"
               -x "Count=<swishreccount>, Rank=<swishrank>\n"
               -x "Title=\<b\><swishtitle>\</b\>"
               -x 'Date: <swishlastmodified fmt="%m/%d/%Y">\n'
               -x 'Date in seconds: <swishlastmodified fmt=/%ld/>\n'

           Control/Escape charcters:

           you can use C-like control escapes in the format string:

              known controls:      \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v,
              digit escapes:       \xhexdigits   \0octaldigits
              character escapes:   \anychar

           Example,

               swish -x "%c\t%r\t%p\t\"<swishtitle fmt=/%40s/>\"\n"

           Examples of -x format strings:

               -x "%c⎪%r⎪%p⎪%t⎪%D⎪%d\n"
               -x "%c⎪%r⎪%p⎪%t⎪<swishdate fmt=/%A, %d. %B %Y/>⎪%d\n"
               -x "<swishrank>\t<swishdocpath>\t<swishtitle>\t<keywords>\n
               -x "xml_out: \<title\><swishtitle>\>\</title\>\n"
               -x "xml_out: <swishtitle fmt='<title>%s</title>'>\n"

       -H [0⎪1⎪2⎪3⎪<n>]  (header output verbosity)
           The "-H n" switch generates extened header output.  This is most useful when searching
           more than one index file at a time by specifying more than one index file with the
           "-f" switch.  "-H 2" will generate a set of headers specific to each index file.  This
           gives access to the settings used to generate each index file.

           Even when searching a single index file, "-H n" will provided additional information
           about the index file, how it was indexed, and how swish is interperting the query.

               -H 0 : print no header information, output only search result entries.
               -H 1 : print standard result header (default).
               -H 2 : print additional header information for each searched index file.
               -H 3 : enhanced header output (e.g. print stopwords).
               -H 9 : print diagnostic information in the header of the results (changed from: C<-v 4>)

       -R [0⎪1] (Ranking Scheme)
           This is an experimental feature!

           The default ranking scheme in SWISH-E evaluates each word in a query in terms of its
           frequency and position in each document. The default scheme is 0.

           New in version 2.4.3 you may optionally select an experimental ranking scheme that, in
           addition to document frequency and position, uses Inverse Document Frequency (IDF), or
           the relative frequency of each word across all the indexes being searched, and
           Relative Density, or the normalization of the frequency of a word in relationship to
           the number of words in the document.

           NOTE: IgnoreTotalWordCountWhenRanking must be set to no or 0 in your index(es) for -R
           1 to work.

           Specify -R 1 to turn on IDF ranking. See the API documentation for how to set the
           ranking scheme in your Perl or C program.

OTHER SWITCHES

       -V (version)
           Print the current version.

       -k *letter* (print out keywords)
           The "-k" switch is used for testing and will cause swish to print out all keywords in
           the index beginning with that letter.  You may enter "-k '*'" to generate a list of
           all words indexed by swish.

       -D *index file*  (debug index)
           The -D option is no longer supported in version 2.2.

       -T *options* (trace/debug swish)
           The -T option is used to print out information that may be helpful when debugging
           swish-e's operation.  This option replaced the "-D" option of previous versions.

           Running "-T help" will print out a list of available *options*

Merging Index Files

       In previous versions of Swish-e indexing would require a very large amount of memory and
       the indexing process could be very slow.  Merging provided a way to index in chunks and
       then combine the indexes together into a single index.

       Indexing is much faster now and uses much less memory, and with the "-e" switch very
       little memory is needed to index a large site.

       Still, at times it can be useful to merge different index files into one file for
       searching.  This could be because you want to keep separate site indexes and a common one
       for a global search, or you have separate collections of documents that you wish to search
       all at one time, but manage separately.

       -M *index1 index2 ... indexN out_index
           Merges the indexes specified on the command line -- the last file name entered is the
           output file.  The output index must not exist (otherwise merge will not proceed).

           Only indexes that were indexed with common settings may be merged.  (e.g. don't mix
           stemming and non-stemming indexes, or indexes with different WordCharacter settings,
           etc.).

           Use the "-e" switch while merging to reduce memory usage.

           Merge generates progress messages regardless of the setting of "-v".

       -c *configuration file*
           Specify a configuration file while indexing to add administrative information to the
           output index file.

Document Info

       $Id: SWISH-RUN.pod 1741 2005-05-17 02:22:40Z karman $

       .