Provided by: gentoo_0.20.7-1_amd64 bug


       gentoo - A highly configurable file manager for X


       gentoo  [--version]  [--locale-info] [--root-ok] [--no-rc] [--no-gtkrc] [--no-dir-history]
       [--left=path] [--right=path] [--run=ARG]


       gentoo is a file manager for Linux and compatible systems. It allows you to  interactively
       navigate  your  file  system  using the mouse, and also to perform various fairly standard
       operations (such as copy, move, rename, ...)   on  the  files  and  directories  contained

       gentoo  always  shows  you  the  contents  of  two  directories  at once. Each of these is
       displayed in its own scrollable list, called a pane. At any time, exactly one pane is  the
       current  pane,  and  has a highlighted bar running across its top region. The current pane
       acts as the source for all file operations, while the other pane is the  destination.  You
       can  select  rows  in  panes  using  selection  methods of varying complexity (from simply
       clicking a row, to selecting rows by name using a regular expression).  Once  you  have  a
       selection, you can click a button to perform some command on the selected files.

       All  file  operations performed by gentoo are implemented natively. When you use gentoo to
       copy a file, for example, gentoo does not simply  execute  the  system's  cp(1L)  command.
       Rather,  gentoo  contains  its own code for opening source and destination files, and then
       reading and writing the right amount of data between them. This way of doing things  makes
       gentoo independent of the availability of shell commands to do things.

       gentoo  incorporates a fairly powerful, object-oriented file typing and styling system. It
       can use a variety of ways to determine the type of the files it is displaying.  Each  type
       is  then  linked  to  something  called  a style, which controls how rows of that type are
       rendered in panes. You  can  use  this  system  to  control  icons,  colors,  and  various
       operations  on  the rows. For example, it is easy to make gentoo display all PNG images in
       red, and to invoke The GIMP(1) on them when double-clicked.

       A design goal with gentoo has been to provide full GUI configurability, removing the  need
       to  edit  a  configuration  file by hand and restart the program to see the changes, as is
       otherwise common in many programs for Un*x.  As  a  result  of  this,  gentoo  features  a
       Configuration  dialog  window  where  you  can  configure  most  aspects  of its operation
       directly, using the mouse and standard GUI widgets.

       gentoo borrows its basic look'n'feel from the classic Amiga file manager  Directory  OPUS,
       but is not a "clone" of any kind.


       gentoo is not primarily driven by command line arguments, but the following are available:

              Causes  gentoo to print its version number (a string of the form MAJOR.MINOR.MICRO,
              like 0.20.7) to the standard output, and then exit successfully. Numbers having  an
              odd  MINOR  component  indicate  development  versions  of the program. So far, all
              versions of gentoo have been classified as being development versions.

              Makes gentoo print a couple of localization  settings,  and  then  exit.   This  is
              mostly  useful  during development and debugging, and not of a lot of interest when
              just using the application.

              Makes gentoo accept being run by the root user. Normally, this is not allowed since
              it  is considered a big threat to system security. Note that gentoo has the ability
              to execute user-defined strings using the execvp(3)  function.  This  is  generally
              considered  harmful.  However,  if you really want to run gentoo while logged on as
              root, supplying this option allows you to. It is not recommended, though.

              Starts up gentoo without loading any configuration file. This makes  it  run  using
              the  built-in  defaults,  which  are  very  Spartan indeed. Seldom comfortable, but
              occasionally handy when trying to determine if a problem is with the  configuration
              or with the core code.

              Avoids  loading  the  GTK+  RC  file, thus disabling any widget customizations, and
              forces all widgets to use the default GTK+ look.

              Avoids loading the file that holds the history, i.e. which  directories  have  been
              previously  visited  by  the  two  panes.  Very  rarely needed, included mostly for
              completeness' sake.

       --left, --right (or -1, -2)
              Sets the initial path for the left and right pane, respectively.  If  present,  the
              path  specified  with one of these options overrides any other path for the pane in
              question. See below (Initial Directory Paths) for details.

       --run ARG (or -rARG)
              Runs ARG, a gentoo command. Commands specified this way are executed before  gentoo
              accepts any user input through the graphical interface, but after the configuration
              file has been read in. You can use it many times in order  to  make  gentoo  run  a
              whole  series of commands. Remember that gentoo's command names are case-sensitive,
              and that built-in commands (like "About") always begin with a capital letter.

       Any non-option command arguments will be silently ignored. If an argument "-h" or "--help"
       is  given,  gentoo  will  give  a  summary  of its supported command line options and exit
       successfully. If an unknown option is given, or a option is missing a  required  argument,
       gentoo will whine and exit with a failure.


       When  gentoo  starts up, it will open up its single main window, which is split vertically
       (or horizontally; it's configurable) down the middle,  forming  the  two  panes  mentioned
       above. It also contains a bank of buttons along the bottom.

   Initial Directory Paths
       The  actual  paths shown in the two panes upon start-up can be controlled in various ways.
       There are four ways of getting a path to show up in pane. In order of decreasing priority,
       they are:

       1. Command-line Argument
              Using  the  --left  and  --right  (or  their  short  forms, -1 and -2) command-line
              arguments overrides any other setting.

       2. Configured Default Directory
              If no command-line argument is present, and the "Default  Directory"  configuration
              option is set, that directory is used.

       3. Most Recently Visited Directory
              If  no  default directory exists, the most recently visited directory is taken from
              the directory history for each pane. This only works if a  directory  history  file
              has been found and loaded.

       4. Current Directory
              If all else fails, gentoo uses the current directory (".").

       Navigating  around  the  file  system  using  gentoo  is very simple. The two panes act as
       independent views of the file system, and both are navigated in exactly the same way.

       You can always see which directory a pane is showing by reading its  path,  shown  in  the
       entry box below (by default--you can change the position to above) the pane.

       To  enter  a  directory,  locate  it  in  the pane and double click it with the left mouse
       button. gentoo will read the directory's contents, and update the display accordingly.

       There are several ways of going up in the directory  structure.  To  enter  the  directory
       containing  the  one currently shown (the current dir's parent), you can: click the parent
       button (to the left of the path entry box); hit Backspace  on  your  keyboard;  click  the
       middle  mouse  button;  select "Parent" from the pop-up menu on the right mouse button, or
       click the downward arrow to the right of the path box (this pops up the directory  history
       menu), then select the second row from the top.

   Selecting Files
       Before  you can do anything to a file, you need to select it. All file-management commands
       in gentoo act upon the current selection (in the current pane). There are several ways  of
       selecting  files,  but the most frequently used are mouse-based. Note that the word "file"
       used below really should be taken to mean "file or  directory",  since  selection  doesn't
       distinguish between the two.

       To  select a file (or directory), just point the mouse at the name (anywhere in the row is
       fine), and click the left mouse button.  The  colors  of  the  clicked  row  will  change,
       indicating that it is currently selected. To select more rows, keep the mouse button down,
       and drag the mouse vertically. gentoo extends the selection, including all  rows  touched.
       If  you  drag  across  the  top or bottom border, the pane will scroll, trying to keep up.
       This is a very quick and convenient way of selecting multiple files, as long as  they  are
       listed in succession.

       If  you  click  again  on  an already selected file, you will unselect it. You can drag to
       unselect several files, just as when selecting.

       To select a sequence of files without dragging, first click normally  on  the  first  file
       that  you  wish  to  select.  Then  release  the mouse button, locate the last file in the
       sequence (it can be either above or  below  the  first  one),  hold  down  shift  on  your
       keyboard,  and  click the wanted file. gentoo now adds all files between the first and the
       last to the current selection.

       If you follow the instructions given above to select a sequence, but press control  rather
       than  shift  before  clicking  the  second  time,  gentoo will unselect the range of files

       If you click on a file with the meta key held down (that's actually  a  key  labeled  Alt,
       located  to  the  immediate  left  of  the  space  bar, on my PC keyboard), gentoo will do
       something cool: it will select (or unselect, it's a toggle just like  ordinary  selection)
       all files, including the clicked one, that have the same type as the one you clicked. This
       can be used to select for example all PNG image files in a directory even if you can  only
       see one. Occasionally very useful.

       If  you click on a file with both the shift and control keys held down, gentoo will toggle
       the selected state of all files having the  same  file  name  extension  as  the  one  you
       clicked.  This  can  sometimes be useful to select files that you don't have a proper type
       defined for, as long as those files do share an extension, that is.

   Changing Sort Order
       The files and directories listed in each of gentoo's two panes are always sorted  on  some
       column:  typically  file  name.  You can chose to sort on some other field by clicking the
       appropriate column title once. If you click on the field  that  is  already  current,  the
       sorting will be reversed (i.e., for names it will be Z-A rather than A-Z).

       If  your  display  includes icons, try sorting on that column: gentoo will then order each
       row according to its File Style, grouping the rows based on their parent styles,  all  the
       way  up to the root of the Style tree. This means that, for example, JPEG and PNG pictures
       (both having an immediate parent style of Image) will be shown together,  and  before  all
       Text files (HTML, man pages and so on). It's quite cool, really. :)

   Executing Commands
       Commands  are  used  to make gentoo do stuff. The typical command operates upon the set of
       selected files in the current pane, so it's usually a  good  idea  to  first  select  some
       files.  See  the  previous  subsection for details on how to select files. Once you have a
       bunch of files selected, you need to tell gentoo  which  command  to  execute.  There  are
       several ways of doing this.

       Most basic file operations (e.g. copy, move, rename, and so on) are found on the (cleverly
       labeled) buttons along the bottom of gentoo's main window. To copy a file, just select it,
       then  click the button labeled "Copy". It's really that simple. Most of these built-in (or
       native) commands automatically operate recursively on directories, so you could  copy  (or
       move) a whole directory of files by just selecting it and then clicking "Copy".

       If you can't see a button that does what you want to do, there's a chance that the command
       exists, but isn't bound. Click the right mouse button in a pane, this opens up  the  "pane
       pop-up  menu".  Select  the  "Run..."  item.  This  opens  up  a dialog window showing all
       available commands. Select a command, and click "OK" to execute it.


       gentoo is a pretty complicated program; it has a rather large amount of configuration data
       that it needs in order to be really useful. For example, my current personal configuration
       file contains well over a thousand different configuration values.

       To store this hefty amount  of  configuration  data,  gentoo  uses  a  heavily  structured
       configuration file. In fact, the file is (or at least it should be) legal XML!

       When  new  features  are  added  to  gentoo,  they  will  typically  require  some form of
       configuration data. This data is then simply added somewhere in the existing configuration
       file  structure.  Effort is made to assign reasonable built-in default values for all such
       new features, so older configuration files (that don't contain the values required by  the
       new features) should still work. The first time you hit "Save" in the configuration window
       after changing your version of gentoo, your personal configuration file will be updated to
       match the version of gentoo.

       Describing  how  to  go  about  configuring gentoo is too big a topic for a manual page to
       cover. I'll just say that the command to  open  up  the  configuration  window  is  called
       "Configure".  It is by default available on a button (typically the top-right one), in the
       pane pop-up menu, and also by pressing the C key on your keyboard.


              A user's personal configuration file. When gentoo starts up, it will  try  to  load
              this file. If the file isn't found, the old name ~/.gentoorc is tested, and if that
              also fails a site-wide configuration (see below) will be tried instead.

              This is the site-wide configuration file. If a user doesn't have a configuration in
              his/her home directory, gentoo loads this file instead. The actual location of this
              file is slightly system-dependent, the above is the default. As an  end  user,  you
              typically won't need to access this file manually.

              This  file contains lists of the most recently visited directories, for both panes.
              These are the lists that appear in the drop-down menu when the arrow  next  to  the
              path entry box is clicked. Can be disabled in the Dir Pane configuration.

              This file allows you to control the look of the widgets used by gentoo, through the
              GTK+ style system. You can change the actual path in gentoo's Configuration window,
              the  above  is the typical default for a modern Linux-based system. If a file named
              gtkrc is not found in the configured path, the names gentoogtkrc  and  .gentoogtkrc
              (note the period), in that order, are also tested.

       /etc/passwd, /etc/group
              These  two  files normally hold the system's password and group information.  These
              are (probably) the ones gentoo uses to map user IDs to login names,  to  do  tilde-
              expansion  (mapping  of user name to directory path), and to map group IDs to group
              names.  That is probably, because gentoo doesn't actually refer to these  files  by
              name.  Instead,  it  uses  the  (BSD-style)  API  function  calls  getpwent(3)  and
              getgrent(3) to access this information.

       /etc/fstab, /proc/mounts, (or /etc/mtab)
              These files contain data on available and mounted file systems. They  are  read  by
              gentoo's  auto-mounting  code.  You can configure the exact file names used, on the
              "Mounting" tab in the main configuration  window.   Note  that  using  /proc/mounts
              rather  than  /etc/mtab  is  recommended on Linux systems; they contain roughly the
              same data, but the one in /proc is always up to date, and faster to read!


       All releases of gentoo numbered 0.x.y, where x (the so called  minor  version  number)  is
       odd, are to be considered development releases, as opposed to stable ones. This means that
       the software will probably suffer from bugs. If you find something  that  you  suspect  is
       indeed a bug, please don't hesitate to contact the author!  For details on how to do this,
       see below.

       If you're concerned about using potentially buggy and completely unwarranted  software  to
       manage  your  precious  files,  please  feel  free not to use gentoo. The world is full of

       The chances that a bug gets fixed increase greatly if you report it. When reporting a bug,
       you  must  describe  how  to  reproduce  it, and also try to be as detailed and precise as
       possible in your description of the actual bug. If possible, perhaps  you  should  include
       the  output  of  gdb(1)  (or  whatever your system's debugger is called). In some cases it
       might be helpful if you include the configuration file you were  using  when  the  problem
       occurred.  Before  reporting  a  bug,  please  make sure that you are running a reasonably
       recent version of the software, since otherwise "your" bug might already been  fixed.  See
       below for how to obtain new releases.

       Also,  you  should  locate  and read through the BUGS file distributed with gentoo, so you
       don't go through all this hassle just to report an  already  known  bug,  thereby  wasting
       everybody's time...


       gentoo was written, from scratch, by Emil Brink. The first line of code was written on May
       15th, 1998. It is my first program to use the GTK+ GUI toolkit, my  first  program  to  be
       released under the GPL, and also my first really major Linux application.

       The   only   efficient   way   to  contact  me  (to  report  bugs,  give  praise,  suggest
       features/fixes/extensions/whatever)   is   by   Internet    e-mail.    My    address    is
       <>.  Please try and include the word "gentoo" in the Subject part of your
       e-mail, to help me organize my inbox. Thanks.  If you're really not in the  mood  for  the
       direct feel of e-mail, the second best choice for reporting bugs and making suggestions is
       the use the web-based bug tracker at <>.  Thanks for


       The author wishes to thank the following people for their various contributions to gentoo:

       Johan Hanson (<>)
              Johan  is  the  man  behind all icon graphics in gentoo, and also the author of the
              custom widgets used in it. He also comes up with plenty of ideas for  new  features
              and  changes  to  old  ones, some of which are even implemented. Johan has stuff at

       Jonas Minnberg (<>)
              Jonas did intensive testing of early versions of gentoo, and  eventually  persuaded
              me into releasing it (back around version 0.9.7 or so).

       Ulf Petterson (<>)
              Ulf  drew  the  main  gentoo  logo  (the  one  shown in the About window), and also
              designed the main HTML documentation's layout.

       Josip Rodin (<>)
              Maintainer of the gentoo package for Debian Linux, and also a source of suggestions
              for improvements, as well as a relay for bug reports from Debian Linux users.

       Ryan Weaver (<>)
              Maintainer  of  the  gentoo  packages  for  Red  Hat Linux, and probably one of the
              fastest package creators out there. :)

       Oliver Braun, Jim Geovedi and Pehr Johansson
              Maintainers of gentoo ports to FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD, respectively.

       Thanks also to all people who have mailed me about gentoo, providing bug reports,  feature
       requests, and the occasional kind word. :^) It's because of people like yourselves that we
       have this wonderful computer platform to play with.


       gentoo is released as free, open-source software, under  the  terms  of  the  GNU  General
       Public  License  (GNU  GPL), version 2. This license is included in the distribution under
       the traditional name of COPYING, and I suggest that you read it  if  you're  not  familiar
       with  it.  If  you can't find the file, but have Internet access, you could take a look at
       <>.  It is important to realize that the mentioned license  means  that
       there is ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY for this software.


       Some  unfinished,  outdated,  but  still pretty informative documentation is available, in
       HTML format, in the docs/  subdirectory  in  the  distribution  archive.  If  you  haven't
       installed  gentoo from the original .tar.gz distribution archive, you might need to either
       inspect the distribution you did use (perhaps it came  as  some  form  of  "package"),  or
       contact a system administrator.

       The  GTK+  GUI toolkit that gentoo requires is available at <>.  gentoo
       uses the slightly outdated stable series, called 1.2.x. The latest known release  in  that
       series is GTK+ 1.2.10. Because of severe performance problems, gentoo will probably not be
       ported to use the current (2.0.x) series of GTK+ any time soon.

       The latest version of gentoo is always available on the  official  gentoo  home  page,  at


       regex(7), file(1), magic(5), fstab(5), strftime(3)

       Manual page section numbers in this page refer to sections on (some?)  Linux systems, your
       mileage will most likely vary. Try the apropos(1) command, it might help you out.