Provided by: gpg_2.2.12-1ubuntu3_amd64 bug

NAME

       gpg - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS

       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION

       gpg  is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool to provide digital
       encryption and signing services using the OpenPGP  standard.  gpg  features  complete  key
       management  and  all  the  bells  and  whistles  you  would  expect  from  a  full OpenPGP
       implementation.

       There are two main versions of GnuPG: GnuPG 1.x and GnuPG 2.x.  GnuPG 2.x supports  modern
       encryption  algorithms  and thus should be preferred over GnuPG 1.x.  You only need to use
       GnuPG 1.x if your platform doesn't support  GnuPG  2.x,  or  you  need  support  for  some
       features that GnuPG 2.x has deprecated, e.g., decrypting data created with PGP-2 keys.

       If  you  are looking for version 1 of GnuPG, you may find that version installed under the
       name gpg1.

RETURN VALUE

       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature was bad, and other
       error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS

       Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to protect your secret
       key. This passphrase is the weakest part of the whole system. Programs  to  do  dictionary
       attacks  on  your  secret  keyring  are  very easy to write and so you should protect your
       "~/.gnupg/" directory very well.

       Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it is *very*  easy  to
       spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the program knows about it;
       either give both filenames on the command line or use '-' to specify STDIN.

       For scripted or other unattended use  of  gpg  make  sure  to  use  the  machine-parseable
       interface  and  not the default interface which is intended for direct use by humans.  The
       machine-parseable interface provides a stable and well documented API independent  of  the
       locale  or  future changes of gpg.  To enable this interface use the options --with-colons
       and --status-fd.  For certain operations the option --command-fd may come handy too.   See
       this  man  page  and the file ‘DETAILS’ for the specification of the interface.  Note that
       the GnuPG ``info'' pages as well as the PDF version of the GnuPG manual features a chapter
       on  unattended  use  of GnuPG.  As an alternative the library GPGME can be used as a high-
       level abstraction on top of that interface.

INTEROPERABILITY

       GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP standard.  In  particular,
       GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and
       the ZLIB and BZIP2 compression algorithms. It is  important  to  be  aware  that  not  all
       OpenPGP programs implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via the
       --cipher-algo, --digest-algo, --cert-digest-algo, or --compress-algo options in GnuPG,  it
       is  possible  to  create a perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by
       the intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and each supports a slightly
       different subset of these optional algorithms.  For example, until recently, no (unhacked)
       version of PGP supported the BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message  using  BLOWFISH  simply
       could  not  be read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP preferences
       system that will always do the right thing and create messages  that  are  usable  by  all
       recipients,  regardless of which OpenPGP program they use. Only override this safe default
       if you really know what you are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences on a given key are
       invalid  for  some  reason,  you  are  far  better off using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8
       options. These options are safe  as  they  do  not  force  any  particular  algorithms  in
       violation of OpenPGP, but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS

       Commands  are  not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one command is
       allowed.  Generally speaking, irrelevant options are silently  ignored,  and  may  not  be
       checked for correctness.

       gpg  may  be  run  with  no  commands.  In  this  case it will perform a reasonable action
       depending on the type of file it is given as input (an encrypted message is  decrypted,  a
       signature is verified, a file containing keys is listed, etc.).

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print  the  program  version  and  licensing  information.   Note  that  you cannot
              abbreviate this command.

       --help
       -h     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line options.  Note  that
              you  cannot  arbitrarily abbreviate this command (though you can use its short form
              -h).

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print a list  of  all  available  options  and  commands.   Note  that  you  cannot
              abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign
       -s     Sign  a message. This command may be combined with --encrypt (to sign and encrypt a
              message), --symmetric (to sign  and  symmetrically  encrypt  a  message),  or  both
              --encrypt  and  --symmetric  (to  sign  and encrypt a message that can be decrypted
              using a secret key or a passphrase).  The signing key is chosen by default  or  can
              be set explicitly using the --local-user and --default-key options.

       --clear-sign
       --clearsign
              Make  a  cleartext  signature.   The  content  in a cleartext signature is readable
              without any special software.  OpenPGP  software  is  only  needed  to  verify  the
              signature.   cleartext  signatures  may  modify end-of-line whitespace for platform
              independence and are not intended to be reversible.  The signing key is  chosen  by
              default or can be set explicitly using the --local-user and --default-key options.

       --detach-sign
       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt
       -e     Encrypt  data  to one or more public keys. This command may be combined with --sign
              (to sign and encrypt a  message),  --symmetric  (to  encrypt  a  message  that  can
              decrypted  using  a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign and --symmetric together
              (for a signed message that can be decrypted using a secret key  or  a  passphrase).
              --recipient and related options specify which public keys to use for encryption.

       --symmetric
       -c     Encrypt  with  a  symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default symmetric cipher
              used is AES-128, but may be chosen with the --cipher-algo option. This command  may
              be  combined  with  --sign  (for  a  signed  and  symmetrically encrypted message),
              --encrypt (for a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or  a  passphrase),
              or  --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed message that may be decrypted via a
              secret key or  a  passphrase).   gpg  caches  the  passphrase  used  for  symmetric
              encryption so that a decrypt operation may not require that the user needs to enter
              the passphrase.  The option --no-symkey-cache can be used to disable this feature.

       --store
              Store only (make a simple literal data packet).

       --decrypt
       -d     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file is  specified)  and
              write  it to STDOUT (or the file specified with --output). If the decrypted file is
              signed, the signature is also verified.  This  command  differs  from  the  default
              operation,  as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file and it
              rejects files that don't begin with an encrypted message.

       --verify
              Assume that the first argument is a signed file and verify  it  without  generating
              any  output.   With no arguments, the signature packet is read from STDIN.  If only
              one argument is given, the  specified  file  is  expected  to  include  a  complete
              signature.

              With  more  than  one  argument,  the  first  argument should specify a file with a
              detached signature and the remaining files should contain the signed data. To  read
              the  signed data from STDIN, use '-' as the second filename.  For security reasons,
              a detached signature will not read the signed material from STDIN if not explicitly
              specified.

              Note: If the option --batch is not used, gpg may assume that a single argument is a
              file with a detached signature, and it will try to find a  matching  data  file  by
              stripping  certain  suffixes.   Using  this historical feature to verify a detached
              signature is  strongly  discouraged;  you  should  always  specify  the  data  file
              explicitly.

              Note:  When  verifying  a  cleartext signature, gpg verifies only what makes up the
              cleartext signed data and not any extra data outside of the cleartext signature  or
              the  header lines directly following the dash marker line.  The option --output may
              be used to write out the actual signed data, but there are other pitfalls with this
              format as well.  It is suggested to avoid cleartext signatures in favor of detached
              signatures.

              Note: Sometimes the use of the gpgv tool is easier than using the full-fledged  gpg
              with  this  option.   gpgv  is  designed  to  compare signed data against a list of
              trusted keys and returns with success only for a good signature.  It  has  its  own
              manual page.

       --multifile
              This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files for processing on the
              command line or read from STDIN with each filename on a separate line. This  allows
              for  many  files  to  be processed at once. --multifile may currently be used along
              with --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --verify may not  be
              used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys
       -k
       --list-public-keys
              List  the  specified  keys.   If  no  keys  are  specified,  then all keys from the
              configured public keyrings are listed.

              Never use the output of this command in scripts or other programs.  The  output  is
              intended  only  for  humans  and its format is likely to change.  The --with-colons
              option emits the output in a stable, machine-parseable format,  which  is  intended
              for use by scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys
       -K     List  the  specified  secret keys.  If no keys are specified, then all known secret
              keys are listed.  A # after the initial tags sec or ssb means that the  secret  key
              or  subkey  is  currently  not  usable.   We  also say that this key has been taken
              offline (for example, a primary key can be taken offline by exporting the key using
              the  command  --export-secret-subkeys).  A > after these tags indicate that the key
              is stored on a smartcard.  See also --list-keys.

       --check-signatures
       --check-sigs
              Same as --list-keys, but the key signatures are verified and listed too.  Note that
              for  performance reasons the revocation status of a signing key is not shown.  This
              command has the same effect as using --list-keys with --with-sig-check.

              The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly following the  "sig"
              tag (and thus before the flags described below.  A "!" indicates that the signature
              has been successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and a "%" is used  if
              an  error  occurred  while checking the signature (e.g. a non supported algorithm).
              Signatures where the public key is not available  are  not  listed;  to  see  their
              keyids the command --list-sigs can be used.

              For  each signature listed, there are several flags in between the signature status
              flag and keyid.  These flags give additional information about each key  signature.
              From  left  to  right,  they  are  the numbers 1-3 for certificate check level (see
              --ask-cert-level), "L" for a local or non-exportable signature  (see  --lsign-key),
              "R"  for  a nonRevocable signature (see the --edit-key command "nrsign"), "P" for a
              signature that contains a policy URL (see --cert-policy-url), "N" for  a  signature
              that  contains  a notation (see --cert-notation), "X" for an eXpired signature (see
              --ask-cert-expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to  indicate  trust
              signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --locate-keys
              Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses the same algorithm
              as used when locating keys for encryption or signing and may thus be  used  to  see
              what  keys gpg might use.  In particular external methods as defined by --auto-key-
              locate may be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

       --show-keys
              This commands takes OpenPGP keys as input and prints information about them in  the
              same way the command --list-keys does for locally stored key.  In addition the list
              options show-unusable-uids, show-unusable-subkeys, show-notations and  show-policy-
              urls  are  also enabled.  As usual for automated processing, this command should be
              combined with the option --with-colons.

       --fingerprint
              List all keys (or the specified ones) along with their fingerprints.  This  is  the
              same  output  as  --list-keys  but  with  the  additional output of a line with the
              fingerprint. May also be combined with  --check-signatures.   If  this  command  is
              given  twice,  the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed too.  This command
              also forces pretty printing of fingerprints if the keyid format  has  been  set  to
              "none".

       --list-packets
              List  only  the  sequence  of  packets.  This command is only useful for debugging.
              When used with option --verbose the actual MPI values are dumped and not only their
              lengths.  Note that the output of this command may change with new releases.

       --edit-card
       --card-edit
              Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help" provides an overview
              on available commands. For a detailed description, please see  the  Card  HOWTO  at
              https://gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
              Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This functionality is also
              available as the subcommand "passwd" with the --edit-card command.

       --delete-keys name
              Remove key from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes is required  or  the
              key  must  be  specified  by  fingerprint.  This  is a safeguard against accidental
              deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-keys name
              Remove key from the secret keyring. In batch mode the  key  must  be  specified  by
              fingerprint.   The  option  --yes  can be used to advice gpg-agent not to request a
              confirmation.  This extra pre-caution is done because gpg can't be  sure  that  the
              secret  key  (as controlled by gpg-agent) is only used for the given OpenPGP public
              key.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same as --delete-key, but if a secret key exists, it  will  be  removed  first.  In
              batch  mode the key must be specified by fingerprint.  The option --yes can be used
              to advice gpg-agent not to request a confirmation.

       --export
              Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and those registered via
              option  --keyring),  or if at least one name is given, those of the given name. The
              exported keys are written to STDOUT or to the file given with option --output.  Use
              together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys keyIDs
              Similar  to  --export  but sends the keys to a keyserver.  Fingerprints may be used
              instead of key IDs.  Option --keyserver must be used  to  give  the  name  of  this
              keyserver.  Don't  send  your complete keyring to a keyserver --- select only those
              keys which are new or changed by you.  If no keyIDs are given, gpg does nothing.

       --export-secret-keys
       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same as --export, but exports the secret  keys  instead.   The  exported  keys  are
              written to STDOUT or to the file given with option --output.  This command is often
              used along with the option --armor to allow for easy printing of the key for  paper
              backup; however the external tool paperkey does a better job of creating backups on
              paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can be a security  risk  if  the  exported
              keys are sent over an insecure channel.

              The  second  form of the command has the special property to render the secret part
              of the primary  key  useless;  this  is  a  GNU  extension  to  OpenPGP  and  other
              implementations  can  not  be  expected  to  successfully  import  such a key.  Its
              intended use is in generating a full key with an additional  signing  subkey  on  a
              dedicated  machine.   This  command then exports the key without the primary key to
              the main machine.

              GnuPG may ask you to enter the passphrase for the key.  This is  required,  because
              the  internal  protection  method  of  the  secret  key  is  different from the one
              specified by the OpenPGP protocol.

       --export-ssh-key
              This command is used to export a key in the OpenSSH public key format.  It requires
              the specification of one key by the usual means and exports the latest valid subkey
              which has an authentication capability to STDOUT or to the file given  with  option
              --output.  That output can directly be added to ssh's ‘authorized_key’ file.

              By  specifying  the  key to export using a key ID or a fingerprint suffixed with an
              exclamation mark (!), a specific subkey or the primary key can be  exported.   This
              does not even require that the key has the authentication capability flag set.

       --import
       --fast-import
              Import/merge  keys.  This  adds  the given keys to the keyring. The fast version is
              currently just a synonym.

              There are a few other options which control how this command works.   Most  notable
              here  is  the --import-options merge-only option which does not insert new keys but
              does only the merging of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --receive-keys keyIDs
       --recv-keys keyIDs
              Import the keys with the given keyIDs from a keyserver. Option --keyserver must  be
              used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
              Request  updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on the local keyring.
              This is useful for updating a key  with  the  latest  signatures,  user  IDs,  etc.
              Calling  this with no arguments will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver
              must be used to give the name of the keyserver  for  all  keys  that  do  not  have
              preferred keyservers set (see --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search  the keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given here will be joined
              together to create the search string for the keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be
              used  to give the name of this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search
              methods allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user ID" below.  Note
              that  different  keyserver  types  support different search methods. Currently only
              LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different  installations  of
              GnuPG  may  support  different protocols (HTTP, FTP, LDAP, etc.).  When using HTTPS
              the system provided root certificates are used by this command.

       --update-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance. This command iterates over all keys and  builds  the
              Web  of  Trust.  This  is an interactive command because it may have to ask for the
              "ownertrust" values for keys. The user has to give an estimation  of  how  far  she
              trusts the owner of the displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other keys. GnuPG
              only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet been assigned to a key.  Using
              the --edit-key menu, the assigned value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance without user interaction. From time to time the trust
              database must be updated so that expired  keys  or  signatures  and  the  resulting
              changes  in  the  Web  of Trust can be tracked. Normally, GnuPG will calculate when
              this is required and do it automatically  unless  --no-auto-check-trustdb  is  set.
              This  command  can  be  used  to  force  a  trust  database  check at any time. The
              processing is identical to that of --update-trustdb but it skips keys  with  a  not
              yet defined "ownertrust".

              For  use  with  cron  jobs, this command can be used together with --batch in which
              case the trust database check is done only if a check is needed.  To  force  a  run
              even in batch mode add the option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send  the  ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup purposes as these
              values are the only ones which  can't  be  re-created  from  a  corrupted  trustdb.
              Example:
                  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
              Update  the  trustdb  with  the  ownertrust values stored in files (or STDIN if not
              given); existing values will be overwritten.  In case of a severely damaged trustdb
              and  if  you  have  a  recent  backup  of  the  ownertrust values (e.g. in the file
              ‘otrust.txt’), you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should  be  used  to  create
              signature caches in the keyring. It might be handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo
       --print-mds
              Print  message  digest  of  algorithm  algo for all given files or STDIN.  With the
              second form (or a deprecated "*" for algo) digests for all available algorithms are
              printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If count is not given
              or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes will be emitted.  If used with --armor
              the  output will be base64 encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you know
              what you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is subject to change with ant release.

       --enarmor
       --dearmor
              Pack or unpack an arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP  ASCII  armor.   This  is  a
              GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not very useful.

       --tofu-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask} keys
              Set  the  TOFU policy for all the bindings associated with the specified keys.  For
              more information about the meaning of the policies, see:  [trust-model-tofu].   The
              keys may be specified either by their fingerprint (preferred) or their keyid.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management.

       --quick-generate-key user-id [algo [usage [expire]]]
       --quick-gen-key
              This  is a simple command to generate a standard key with one user id.  In contrast
              to --generate-key the key is generated directly without the need to answer a  bunch
              of prompts.  Unless the option --yes is given, the key creation will be canceled if
              the given user id already exists in the keyring.

              If invoked directly on the console without any  special  options  an  answer  to  a
              ``Continue?''  style  confirmation prompt is required.  In case the user id already
              exists in the keyring a second prompt to force the creation of the  key  will  show
              up.

              If  algo  or  usage  are  given, only the primary key is created and no prompts are
              shown.  To specify an expiration date but still create a  primary  and  subkey  use
              ``default''  or  ``future-default''  for  algo  and  ``default''  for usage.  For a
              description of these optional arguments see the command --quick-add-key.  The usage
              accepts  also  the  value ``cert'' which can be used to create a certification only
              primary key; the default is to a create certification and signing key.

              The expire argument can be used to specify an expiration date for the key.  Several
              formats    are    supported;   commonly   the   ISO   formats   ``YYYY-MM-DD''   or
              ``YYYYMMDDThhmmss'' are used.  To make the key expire  in  N  seconds,  N  days,  N
              weeks,  N  months,  or N years use ``seconds=N'', ``Nd'', ``Nw'', ``Nm'', or ``Ny''
              respectively.  Not specifying a value, or using ``-'' results in a key expiring  in
              a  reasonable  default interval.  The values ``never'', ``none'' can be used for no
              expiration date.

              If this command is used with --batch, --pinentry-mode has been set to loopback, and
              one  of  the passphrase options (--passphrase, --passphrase-fd, or passphrase-file)
              is used, the supplied passphrase is used for the new key and the agent does not ask
              for it.  To create a key without any protection --passphrase '' may be used.

              Note  that  it  is  possible to create a primary key and a subkey using non-default
              algorithms by using ``default'' and  changing  the  default  parameters  using  the
              option --default-new-key-algo.

       --quick-set-expire fpr expire [*|subfprs]
              With  two  arguments  given,  directly  set  the expiration time of the primary key
              identified by fpr to expire.  To remove the expiration time 0 can  be  used.   With
              three arguments and the third given as an asterisk, the expiration time of all non-
              revoked and not yet expired  subkeys  are  set  to  expire.   With  more  than  two
              arguments  and  a  list  of fingerprints given for subfprs, all non-revoked subkeys
              matching these fingerprints are set to expire.

       --quick-add-key fpr [algo [usage [expire]]]
              Directly add a subkey to the key identified by the fingerprint  fpr.   Without  the
              optional  arguments  an  encryption  subkey  is added.  If any of the arguments are
              given a more specific subkey is added.

              algo may be any of the supported algorithms or curve names given in the  format  as
              used by key listings.  To use the default algorithm the string ``default'' or ``-''
              can be used.  Supported algorithms  are  ``rsa'',  ``dsa'',  ``elg'',  ``ed25519'',
              ``cv25519'',  and other ECC curves.  For example the string ``rsa'' adds an RSA key
              with the default key length; a string ``rsa4096'' requests that the key  length  is
              4096  bits.  The string ``future-default'' is an alias for the algorithm which will
              likely be used as default algorithm  in  future  versions  of  gpg.   To  list  the
              supported ECC curves the command gpg --with-colons --list-config curve can be used.

              Depending  on  the  given  algo  the subkey may either be an encryption subkey or a
              signing subkey.  If an algorithm is capable of signing and encryption  and  such  a
              subkey is desired, a usage string must be given.  This string is either ``default''
              or ``-'' to keep the default or a comma delimited list (or space delimited list) of
              keywords: ``sign'' for a signing subkey, ``auth'' for an authentication subkey, and
              ``encr'' for an encryption subkey (``encrypt'' can be used as alias for  ``encr'').
              The valid combinations depend on the algorithm.

              The expire argument can be used to specify an expiration date for the key.  Several
              formats   are   supported;   commonly   the   ISO   formats    ``YYYY-MM-DD''    or
              ``YYYYMMDDThhmmss''  are  used.   To  make  the  key expire in N seconds, N days, N
              weeks, N months, or N years use ``seconds=N'', ``Nd'', ``Nw'',  ``Nm'',  or  ``Ny''
              respectively.   Not specifying a value, or using ``-'' results in a key expiring in
              a reasonable default interval.  The values ``never'', ``none'' can be used  for  no
              expiration date.

       --generate-key
       --gen-key
              Generate a new key pair using the current default parameters.  This is the standard
              command to create a new key.  In addition to the key a  revocation  certificate  is
              created  and  stored  in  the  ‘openpgp-revocs.d’  directory  below  the GnuPG home
              directory.

       --full-generate-key
       --full-gen-key
              Generate a new key pair with dialogs for all options.  This is an extended  version
              of --generate-key.

              There  is  also  a  feature  which allows you to create keys in batch mode. See the
              manual section ``Unattended key generation'' on how to use this.

       --generate-revocation name
       --gen-revoke name
              Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key.  To only revoke a subkey or
              a key signature, use the --edit command.

              This  command  merely  creates the revocation certificate so that it can be used to
              revoke the key if that is ever needed.   To  actually  revoke  a  key  the  created
              revocation  certificate needs to be merged with the key to revoke.  This is done by
              importing the revocation certificate using the --import command.  Then the  revoked
              key  needs  to  be  published, which is best done by sending the key to a keyserver
              (command --send-key) and by exporting (--export) it to a file which is then send to
              frequent communication partners.

       --generate-designated-revocation name
       --desig-revoke name
              Generate  a  designated  revocation certificate for a key. This allows a user (with
              the permission of the keyholder) to revoke someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present a menu which enables you to do most of the key  management  related  tasks.
              It expects the specification of a key on the command line.

              uid n  Toggle  selection of user ID or photographic user ID with index n.  Use * to
                     select all and 0 to deselect all.

              key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n or key ID n.  Use *  to  select  all
                     and 0 to deselect all.

              sign   Make  a  signature  on key of user name. If the key is not yet signed by the
                     default user (or  the  users  given  with  -u),  the  program  displays  the
                     information of the key again, together with its fingerprint and asks whether
                     it should be signed. This question is repeated for all users specified  with
                     -u.

              lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked as non-exportable and will
                     therefore never be used by others. This may be used to make keys valid  only
                     in the local environment.

              nrsign Same  as  "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked  as  non-revocable and can
                     therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that  combines  the  notions  of
                     certification  (like  a  regular  signature),  and  trust  (like the "trust"
                     command). It is generally only useful in  distinct  communities  or  groups.
                     For  more  information  please  read  the  sections  ``Trust Signature'' and
                     ``Regular Expression'' in RFC-4880.

              Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for non-revocable, and  "t"  (for
              trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to "sign" to create a signature of any type
              desired.

       If the option --only-sign-text-ids is specified, then any non-text based user  ids  (e.g.,
       photo IDs) will not be selected for signing.

              delsig Delete  a  signature.  Note  that it is not possible to retract a signature,
                     once it has been send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you
                     better use revsig.

              revsig Revoke  a  signature. For every signature which has been generated by one of
                     the secret keys, GnuPG asks  whether  a  revocation  certificate  should  be
                     generated.

              check  Check  the  signatures  on  all  selected  user  IDs.  With the extra option
                     selfsig only self-signatures are shown.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a JPEG file that will be
                     embedded  into the user ID. Note that a very large JPEG will make for a very
                     large key. Also note that some programs will  display  your  JPEG  unchanged
                     (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete  a  user ID or photographic user ID.  Note that it is not possible to
                     retract a user id,  once  it  has  been  send  to  the  public  (i.e.  to  a
                     keyserver).  In that case you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag  the  current  user  id as the primary one, removes the primary user id
                     flag from all other user ids and sets the timestamp of  all  affected  self-
                     signatures  one  second  ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary
                     makes it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regular user ID as
                     primary makes it primary over other regular user IDs.

              keyserver
                     Set  a  preferred  keyserver for the specified user ID(s). This allows other
                     users to know where you prefer they get  your  key  from.  See  --keyserver-
                     options  honor-keyserver-url for more on how this works.  Setting a value of
                     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.

              notation
                     Set a name=value notation for the specified user ID(s). See  --cert-notation
                     for more on how this works. Setting a value of "none" removes all notations,
                     setting a notation prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting  a  notation  name  (without  the =value) prefixed with a minus sign
                     removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List  preferences  from  the  selected  user  ID.  This  shows  the   actual
                     preferences, without including any implied preferences.

              showpref
                     More  verbose  preferences  listing for the selected user ID. This shows the
                     preferences in effect by including the implied preferences of 3DES (cipher),
                     SHA-1  (digest),  and  Uncompressed  (compression)  if  they are not already
                     included in the preference list. In addition, the  preferred  keyserver  and
                     signature notations (if any) are shown.

              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or just the selected)
                     user IDs. Calling setpref with no arguments sets the preference list to  the
                     default  (either built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and calling
                     setpref with "none" as the argument sets an empty preference list.  Use  gpg
                     --version  to  get  a  list of available algorithms. Note that while you can
                     change the preferences on an attribute user ID (aka "photo ID"), GnuPG  does
                     not select keys via attribute user IDs so these preferences will not be used
                     by GnuPG.

                     When setting preferences, you should list the algorithms in the order  which
                     you'd  like  to  see  them used by someone else when encrypting a message to
                     your key.  If you don't include 3DES, it will be automatically added at  the
                     end.   Note  that  there are many factors that go into choosing an algorithm
                     (for example, your key may not be the only recipient),  and  so  the  remote
                     OpenPGP  application  being  used  to send to you may or may not follow your
                     exact chosen order for a given message.  It will, however,  only  choose  an
                     algorithm  that  is  present  on the preference list of every recipient key.
                     See also the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the primary key  if  no  subkey  has
                     been  selected)  to  a  smartcard.  The  secret  key  in the keyring will be
                     replaced by a stub if the key could be stored successfully on the  card  and
                     you use the save command later. Only certain key types may be transferred to
                     the card. A sub menu allows you to select on what card  to  store  the  key.
                     Note  that  it  is  not possible to get that key back from the card - if the
                     card gets broken your secret key will be  lost  unless  you  have  a  backup
                     somewhere.

              bkuptocard file
                     Restore  the  given  file  to  a card. This command may be used to restore a
                     backup key (as generated during card  initialization)  to  a  new  card.  In
                     almost  all  cases  this  will  be  the  encryption key. You should use this
                     command only with the corresponding public key and make sure that  the  file
                     given  as argument is indeed the backup to restore. You should then select 2
                     to restore as encryption  key.   You  will  first  be  asked  to  enter  the
                     passphrase of the backup key and then for the Admin PIN of the card.

              delkey Remove  a  subkey (secondary key). Note that it is not possible to retract a
                     subkey, once it has been send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In  that
                     case  you  better  use  revkey.  Also note that this only deletes the public
                     part of a key.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change the key or subkey expiration time.  If  a  subkey  is  selected,  the
                     expiration  time  of this subkey will be changed. With no selection, the key
                     expiration of the primary key is changed.

              trust  Change the owner  trust  value  for  the  key.  This  updates  the  trust-db
                     immediately and no save is required.

              disable
              enable Disable or enable an entire key. A disabled key can not normally be used for
                     encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add a designated revoker to the  key.  This  takes  one  optional  argument:
                     "sensitive".  If a designated revoker is marked as sensitive, it will not be
                     exported by default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle This is dummy command which exists only for backward compatibility.

              clean  Compact (by removing all signatures except the selfsig) any user ID that  is
                     no  longer  usable  (e.g.  revoked, or expired). Then, remove any signatures
                     that are not usable by the trust calculations.  Specifically,  this  removes
                     any  signature that does not validate, any signature that is superseded by a
                     later signature, revoked signatures, and signatures issued by keys that  are
                     not present on the keyring.

              minimize
                     Make  the  key  as  small as possible. This removes all signatures from each
                     user ID except for the most recent self-signature.

              change-usage
                     Change the usage flags (capabilities) of the  primary  key  or  of  subkeys.
                     These usage flags (e.g. Certify, Sign, Authenticate, Encrypt) are set during
                     key creation.  Sometimes it is useful to have the opportunity to change them
                     (for example to add Authenticate) after they have been created.  Please take
                     care when doing this; the allowed usage flags depend on the key algorithm.

              cross-certify
                     Add cross-certification signatures to signing subkeys that may not currently
                     have  them.  Cross-certification  signatures protect against a subtle attack
                     against signing subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.   All  new  keys
                     generated  have this signature by default, so this command is only useful to
                     bring older keys up to date.

              save   Save all changes to the keyrings and quit.

              quit   Quit the program without updating the keyrings.

              The listing shows you the key with its  secondary  keys  and  all  user  IDs.   The
              primary  user ID is indicated by a dot, and selected keys or user IDs are indicated
              by an asterisk.  The trust value is displayed with the primary key: "trust" is  the
              assigned  owner  trust  and  "validity"  is  the  calculated  validity  of the key.
              Validity values are also displayed for all user IDs.  For possible values of trust,
              see: [trust-values].

       --sign-key name
              Signs  a  public  key  with  your  secret  key.  This  is a shortcut version of the
              subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key but marks it as non-exportable. This  is  a
              shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign" from --edit-key.

       --quick-sign-key fpr [names]
       --quick-lsign-key fpr [names]
              Directly  sign a key from the passphrase without any further user interaction.  The
              fpr must be the verified primary fingerprint of a key in the local keyring.  If  no
              names  are  given,  all  useful user ids are signed; with given [names] only useful
              user ids matching one of theses names are signed.  By default,  or  if  a  name  is
              prefixed  with  a  '*',  a  case insensitive substring match is used.  If a name is
              prefixed with a '=' a case sensitive exact match is done.

              The command --quick-lsign-key marks the signatures as non-exportable.   If  such  a
              non-exportable  signature  already  exists  the  --quick-sign-key  turns  it into a
              exportable signature.

              This  command  uses  reasonable  defaults  and  thus  does  not  provide  the  full
              flexibility  of the "sign" subcommand from --edit-key.  Its intended use is to help
              unattended key signing by utilizing a list of verified fingerprints.

       --quick-add-uid user-id new-user-id
              This command adds a new user id to an existing key.  In contrast to the interactive
              sub-command  adduid  of  --edit-key  the  new-user-id  is  added verbatim with only
              leading and trailing white space removed, it is expected to be UTF-8  encoded,  and
              no checks on its form are applied.

       --quick-revoke-uid user-id user-id-to-revoke
              This command revokes a user ID on an existing key.  It cannot be used to revoke the
              last user ID on key (some non-revoked user ID must remain), with revocation  reason
              ``User  ID  is  no  longer  valid''.  If you want to specify a different revocation
              reason, or to supply supplementary revocation text, you should use the  interactive
              sub-command revuid of --edit-key.

       --quick-set-primary-uid user-id primary-user-id
              This  command sets or updates the primary user ID flag on an existing key.  user-id
              specifies the key and primary-user-id the user ID which shall  be  flagged  as  the
              primary  user  ID.  The primary user ID flag is removed from all other user ids and
              the timestamp of all affected self-signatures is set one second ahead.

       --change-passphrase user-id
       --passwd user-id
              Change the passphrase of the secret key belonging to the certificate  specified  as
              user-id.  This is a shortcut for the sub-command passwd of the edit key menu.  When
              using together with  the  option  --dry-run  this  will  not  actually  change  the
              passphrase but check that the current passphrase is correct.

OPTIONS

       gpg  features  a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to change the default
       configuration.

       Long options can be put in an options file  (default  "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short  option
       names  will  not work - for example, "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while
       "a" is not. Do not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any  required
       arguments.  Lines  with  a  hash ('#') as the first non-white-space character are ignored.
       Commands may be put in this file too, but that is not generally useful as the command will
       execute automatically with every execution of gpg.

       Please  remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is encountered, you can
       explicitly stop parsing by using the special option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change the configuration and are usually  found  in  the  option
       file.

       --default-key name
              Use  name  as the default key to sign with. If this option is not used, the default
              key is the first key found in the secret keyring.  Note  that  -u  or  --local-user
              overrides this option.  This option may be given multiple times.  In this case, the
              last key for which a secret key is available is used.  If there is  no  secret  key
              available for any of the specified values, GnuPG will not emit an error message but
              continue as if this option wasn't given.

       --default-recipient name
              Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not used and  don't  ask  if
              this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
              Use  the  default  key  as  default recipient if option --recipient is not used and
              don't ask if this is a valid one. The default key is the first one from the  secret
              keyring or the one set with --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give more information during processing. If used twice, the input data is listed in
              detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch
       --no-batch
              Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.  --no-batch disables
              this  option.   Note that even with a filename given on the command line, gpg might
              still need to read from STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that  the  input  is  a
              detached  signature  and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do not want
              to feed data via STDIN, you should connect STDIN to g‘/dev/null’.

              It is highly recommended to use this option along with the options --status-fd  and
              --with-colons for any unattended use of gpg.

       --no-tty
              Make  sure  that  the  TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.  This option is
              needed in some cases because GnuPG sometimes prints warnings to  the  TTY  even  if
              --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used when listing keys
              and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,  --check-signatures,  --list-public-keys,
              --list-secret-keys, and the --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended with a
              no- (after the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The options are:

              show-photos
                     Causes  --list-keys,  --check-signatures,  --list-public-keys,  and  --list-
                     secret-keys  to  display any photo IDs attached to the key.  Defaults to no.
                     See also --photo-viewer.  Does not work with --with-colons: see --attribute-
                     fd  for  the  appropriate  way  to  get  photo  data  for  scripts and other
                     frontends.

              show-usage
                     Show usage information for keys and subkeys in  the  standard  key  listing.
                     This  is  a  list  of  letters  indicating  the  allowed  usage  for  a  key
                     (E=encryption, S=signing, C=certification, A=authentication).   Defaults  to
                     yes.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the  --check-signatures listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-notations
              show-std-notations
              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations in the --check-
                     signatures listings. Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show  any  preferred  keyserver  URL  in  the  --check-signatures  listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display  the  calculated validity of user IDs during key listings.  Defaults
                     to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings. Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings. Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a
                     given key resides on. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show signature expiration dates (if any) during --check-signatures listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include signature subpackets in the key listing. This  option  can  take  an
                     optional  argument list of the subpackets to list. If no argument is passed,
                     list all subpackets. Defaults to no. This option  is  only  meaningful  when
                     using --with-colons along with --check-signatures.

              show-only-fpr-mbox
                     For  each  valid  user-id which also has a valid mail address print only the
                     fingerprint and the mail address.

       --verify-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options  used  when  verifying
              signatures. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The
              options are:

              show-photos
                     Display any photo  IDs  present  on  the  key  that  issued  the  signature.
                     Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the signature being verified. Defaults to yes.

              show-notations
              show-std-notations
              show-user-notations
                     Show  all,  IETF  standard,  or  user-defined  signature  notations  in  the
                     signature being verified. Defaults to IETF standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being verified.   Defaults
                     to yes.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display  the  calculated validity of the user IDs on the key that issued the
                     signature. Defaults to yes.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature  verification.   Defaults
                     to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show  only  the  primary user ID during signature verification.  That is all
                     the AKA lines as well  as  photo  Ids  are  not  shown  with  the  signature
                     verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable  PKA  lookups  to  verify sender addresses. Note that PKA is based on
                     DNS, and so enabling this option may disclose information on when  and  what
                     signatures are verified or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                     "web bug" described for the --auto-key-retrieve option.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise the trust  in  a  signature  to  full  if  the  signature  passes  PKA
                     validation. This option is only meaningful if pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa
       --disable-large-rsa
              With --generate-key and --batch, enable the creation of RSA secret keys as large as
              8192 bit.  Note: 8192 bit is more than is generally recommended.  These large  keys
              don't significantly improve security, but they are more expensive to use, and their
              signatures and certifications are larger.  This option is  only  available  if  the
              binary was build with large-secmem support.

       --enable-dsa2
       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up to 1024 bit.  This
              is also the default with  --openpgp.   Note  that  older  versions  of  GnuPG  also
              required this flag to allow the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This  is  the  command  line  that  should  be run to view a photo ID. "%i" will be
              expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I" does the same,  except  the  file
              will  not  be  deleted once the viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID,
              "%K" for the long key ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the  extension  of
              the  image  type  (e.g.  "jpg"),  "%T"  for  the  MIME  type  of  the  image  (e.g.
              "image/jpeg"), "%v" for the single-character calculated validity of the image being
              viewed  (e.g.  "f"),  "%V"  for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"),
              "%U" for a base32 encoded hash of the user ID, and "%%" for an actual percent sign.
              If  neither  %i or %I are present, then the photo will be supplied to the viewer on
              standard input.

              The default viewer is "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title  'KeyID  0x%k'  STDIN".  Note
              that  if your image viewer program is not secure, then executing it from GnuPG does
              not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
              Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and  keyserver  helpers.  If
              not  provided,  keyserver  helpers use the compiled-in default directory, and photo
              viewers use the PATH environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value  is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add  file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a tilde and a slash,
              these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If  the  filename  does  not  contain  a
              slash,  it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or
              $GNUPGHOME is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the  intent  is  to  use  the
              specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with --no-default-keyring.

              If the option --no-keyring has been used no keyrings will be used at all.

       --secret-keyring file
              This  is  an  obsolete  option  and  ignored.   All  secret  keys are stored in the
              ‘private-keys-v1.d’ directory below the GnuPG home directory.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate file as the primary public keyring. This means that newly  imported  keys
              (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use  file  instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a tilde and a slash,
              these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If  the  filename  does  not  contain  a
              slash,  it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory (‘~/.gnupg’ if --homedir or
              $GNUPGHOME is not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is  not  used,  the  home
              directory  defaults to ‘~/.gnupg’.  It is only recognized when given on the command
              line.  It also overrides any home directory stated through the environment variable
              ‘GNUPGHOME’   or   (on   Windows   systems)   by   means   of  the  Registry  entry
              HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

              On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable  application.   In
              this case only this command line option is considered, all other ways to set a home
              directory are ignored.

              To install GnuPG as a portable application under  Windows,  create  an  empty  file
              named  ‘gpgconf.ctl’  in the same directory as the tool ‘gpgconf.exe’.  The root of
              the installation is then that directory; or, if ‘gpgconf.exe’  has  been  installed
              directly  below  a  directory  named ‘bin’, its parent directory.  You also need to
              make sure that the following directories exist and are  writable:  ‘ROOT/home’  for
              the GnuPG home and ‘ROOT/var/cache/gnupg’ for internal cache files.

       --display-charset name
              Set  the  name  of  the  native  character  set.  This  is  used  to  convert  some
              informational strings like user IDs to the proper UTF-8 encoding.  Note  that  this
              has  nothing  to do with the character set of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG
              does not recode user-supplied data.  If  this  option  is  not  used,  the  default
              character  set  is determined from the current locale. A verbosity level of 3 shows
              the chosen set.  Valid values for name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (RFC-1489).

              utf-8  Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings
       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume that command line arguments are given as UTF-8 strings. The  default  (--no-
              utf8-strings)  is  to  assume  that  arguments  are encoded in the character set as
              specified by --display-charset. These options affect all following arguments.  Both
              options may be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read options from file and do not try to read them from the default options file in
              the homedir (see --homedir). This option is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before an attempt to open
              an  option  file.  Using this option will also prevent the creation of a ‘~/.gnupg’
              homedir.

       -z n
       --compress-level n
       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set compression level to n for the ZIP and ZLIB compression algorithms. The default
              is  to  use  the  default compression level of zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-
              level sets the compression level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to
              6  as  well).  This  is a different option from --compress-level since BZIP2 uses a
              significant amount of memory for each additional compression level.  -z sets  both.
              A value of 0 for n disables compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use  a  different  decompression  method for BZIP2 compressed files. This alternate
              method uses a bit more than half the memory, but also runs at half the speed.  This
              is  useful  under  extreme  low  memory  circumstances when the file was originally
              compressed at a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames
       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than one dot.  --mangle-
              dos-filenames  causes  GnuPG  to  replace  (rather than add to) the extension of an
              output filename to avoid this problem. This option is off by  default  and  has  no
              effect on non-Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level
       --no-ask-cert-level
              When  making  a  key signature, prompt for a certification level. If this option is
              not specified, the certification level used is set  via  --default-cert-level.  See
              --default-cert-level  for information on the specific levels and how they are used.
              --no-ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to  own  it  but  you
              could  not,  or  did  not  verify  the  key  at all. This is useful for a "persona"
              verification, where you sign the key of a pseudonymous user.

              2 means you did casual verification of the key. For example, this could  mean  that
              you verified the key fingerprint and checked the user ID on the key against a photo
              ID.

              3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For  example,  this  could  mean
              that you verified the key fingerprint with the owner of the key in person, and that
              you checked, by means of a hard to forge document  with  a  photo  ID  (such  as  a
              passport)  that  the  name  of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that the email address on
              the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note  that  the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just that: examples. In
              the end, it is up to you to decide just what "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
              When building the trust database, treat any signatures with a  certification  level
              below  this  as  invalid.  Defaults to 2, which disregards level 1 signatures. Note
              that level 0 "no particular claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a full 8 byte key ID)  is  as
              trustworthy as one of your own secret keys. This option is useful if you don't want
              to keep your secret keys (or one of them) online but still want to be able to check
              the validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model {pgp|classic|tofu|tofu+pgp|direct|always|auto}
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This  is  the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures as used in PGP 5.x
                     and later. This is the  default  trust  model  when  creating  a  new  trust
                     database.

              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

              tofu

                     TOFU  stands  for Trust On First Use.  In this trust model, the first time a
                     key is seen, it is memorized.  If later another key with a user id with  the
                     same  email address is seen, both keys are marked as suspect.  In that case,
                     the next time  either  is  used,  a  warning  is  displayed  describing  the
                     conflict,  why  it  might have occurred (either the user generated a new key
                     and failed to cross sign the old and new keys, the key is forgery, or a man-
                     in-the-middle  attack  is  being  attempted),  and  the  user is prompted to
                     manually confirm the validity of the key in question.

                     Because a potential attacker is  able  to  control  the  email  address  and
                     thereby  circumvent  the  conflict  detection  algorithm  by  using an email
                     address that is similar in appearance to a trusted email address, whenever a
                     message is verified, statistics about the number of messages signed with the
                     key are shown.  In this way, a user can easily identify attacks  using  fake
                     keys for regular correspondents.

                     When  compared  with  the  Web  of  Trust,  TOFU offers significantly weaker
                     security guarantees.  In particular,  TOFU  only  helps  ensure  consistency
                     (that  is, that the binding between a key and email address doesn't change).
                     A major advantage of TOFU is that it  requires  little  maintenance  to  use
                     correctly.  To use the web of trust properly, you need to actively sign keys
                     and mark users as trusted introducers.  This is a time-consuming process and
                     anecdotal  evidence  suggests that even security-conscious users rarely take
                     the time to do this thoroughly and instead rely on an ad-hoc TOFU process.

                     In the TOFU model, policies are associated with bindings  between  keys  and
                     email  addresses  (which are extracted from user ids and normalized).  There
                     are five policies, which can be set manually using the --tofu-policy option.
                     The default policy can be set using the --tofu-default-policy option.

                     The TOFU policies are: auto, good, unknown, bad and ask.  The auto policy is
                     used by default (unless overridden by  --tofu-default-policy)  and  marks  a
                     binding  as  marginally  trusted.  The good, unknown and bad policies mark a
                     binding as fully trusted, as having unknown trust or as having trust  never,
                     respectively.   The  unknown  policy is useful for just using TOFU to detect
                     conflicts, but to never assign positive  trust  to  a  binding.   The  final
                     policy, ask prompts the user to indicate the binding's trust.  If batch mode
                     is enabled (or input is inappropriate in the context), then the user is  not
                     prompted and the undefined trust level is returned.

              tofu+pgp
                     This  trust  model  combines  TOFU  with  the Web of Trust.  This is done by
                     computing the trust level for each model and then taking the  maximum  trust
                     level  where  the trust levels are ordered as follows: unknown < undefined <
                     marginal < fully < ultimate < expired < never.

                     By  setting  --tofu-default-policy=unknown,  this  model  can  be  used   to
                     implement  the  web  of  trust with TOFU's conflict detection algorithm, but
                     without its assignment  of  positive  trust  values,  which  some  security-
                     conscious users don't like.

              direct Key  validity  is set directly by the user and not calculated via the Web of
                     Trust.  This model is solely based on the key and does not distinguish  user
                     IDs.   Note  that  when  changing  to  another  trust model the trust values
                     assigned to a  key  are  transformed  into  ownertrust  values,  which  also
                     indicate how you trust the owner of the key to sign other keys.

              always Skip  key  validation  and assume that used keys are always fully valid. You
                     generally won't use this unless  you  are  using  some  external  validation
                     scheme.  This  option  also  suppresses  the  "[uncertain]" tag printed with
                     signature checks when there is no evidence that the user ID is bound to  the
                     key.   Note  that  this trust model still does not allow the use of expired,
                     revoked, or disabled keys.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever  the  internal  trust  database
                     says.  This  is  the  default model if such a database already exists.  Note
                     that a tofu  trust  model  is  not  considered  here  and  must  be  enabled
                     explicitly.

       --auto-key-locate mechanisms
       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using this option.  This
              happens when encrypting to an email address (in the "user@example.com"  form),  and
              there  are  no "user@example.com" keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any
              number of the mechanisms listed below, in the order they are to be tried.   Instead
              of  listing  the  mechanisms  as  comma delimited arguments, the option may also be
              given several times to add more mechanism.  The option --no-auto-key-locate or  the
              mechanism "clear" resets the list.  The default is "local,wkd".

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in RFC-4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              dane   Locate a key using DANE, as specified in draft-ietf-dane-openpgpkey-05.txt.

              wkd    Locate a key using the Web Key Directory protocol.

              ldap   Using  DNS  Service  Discovery,  check  the  domain in question for any LDAP
                     keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt to locate the key using  the  PGP
                     Universal method of checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

              keyserver
                     Locate  a  key  using  whatever  keyserver  is defined using the --keyserver
                     option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the --keyserver option may  be  used
                     here to query that particular keyserver.

              local  Locate  the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism allows the user to
                     select the order a local key lookup is done.  Thus using  '--auto-key-locate
                     local' is identical to --no-auto-key-locate.

              nodefault
                     This  flag  disables  the  standard local key lookup, done before any of the
                     mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-locate are tried.  The position of this
                     mechanism  in the list does not matter.  It is not required if local is also
                     used.

              clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override  mechanisms  given
                     in  a config file.  Note that a nodefault in mechanisms will also be cleared
                     unless it is given after the clear.

       --auto-key-retrieve
       --no-auto-key-retrieve
              These options enable or disable the automatic retrieving of keys from  a  keyserver
              when  verifying  signatures  made  by  keys that are not on the local keyring.  The
              default is --no-auto-key-retrieve.

              If the method "wkd" is included in the list of methods  given  to  auto-key-locate,
              the  signer's user ID is part of the signature, and the option --disable-signer-uid
              is not used, the "wkd" method may also be used to retrieve a key.

              Note that this option makes a "web bug" like behavior possible.  Keyserver  or  Web
              Key Directory operators can see which keys you request, so by sending you a message
              signed by a brand new key  (which  you  naturally  will  not  have  on  your  local
              keyring), the operator can tell both your IP address and the time when you verified
              the signature.

       --keyid-format {none|short|0xshort|long|0xlong}
              Select how to display key IDs.  "none" does not show the key ID at  all  but  shows
              the fingerprint in a separate line.  "short" is the traditional 8-character key ID.
              "long" is the more accurate (but less convenient) 16-character key ID.  Add an "0x"
              to  either  to  include  an  "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.
              Note that this option is ignored if the option --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
              This option is deprecated - please use the --keyserver in ‘dirmngr.conf’ instead.

              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server  that  --receive-keys,  --send-keys,
              and  --search-keys  will  communicate  with to receive keys from, send keys to, and
              search   for   keys    on.    The    format    of    the    name    is    a    URI:
              `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]'  The  scheme  is the type of keyserver: "hkp" for
              the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP  keyservers,  or  "mailto"
              for  the Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of GnuPG may
              have  other  keyserver  types  available  as  well.  Keyserver  schemes  are  case-
              insensitive. After the keyserver name, optional keyserver configuration options may
              be provided. These are the same as the global --keyserver-options from  below,  but
              apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most  keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally no need to send
              keys to more than one server. The keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses  round  robin
              DNS to give a different keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options {name=value}
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options for the keyserver.
              Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the opposite  meaning.  Valid  import-
              options  or  export-options may be used here as well to apply to importing (--recv-
              key) or exporting (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not  all  options  are
              available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on
                     the keyserver as revoked. Note that not all keyservers differentiate between
                     revoked  and  unrevoked  keys,  and  for  such  keyservers  this  option  is
                     meaningless. Note also  that  most  keyservers  do  not  have  cryptographic
                     verification  of  key revocations, and so turning this option off may result
                     in skipping keys that are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on
                     the  keyserver  as  disabled.  Note  that  this  option is not used with HKP
                     keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This is an obsolete alias for the option auto-key-retrieve.  Please  do  not
                     use it; it will be removed in future versions..

              honor-keyserver-url
                     When  using --refresh-keys, if the key in question has a preferred keyserver
                     URL, then use that preferred keyserver to refresh the key from. In addition,
                     if  auto-key-retrieve  is  set,  and  the  signature  being  verified  has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to fetch the  key
                     from.  Note  that this option introduces a "web bug": The creator of the key
                     can see when the keys is refreshed.  Thus this  option  is  not  enabled  by
                     default.

              honor-pka-record
                     If  --auto-key-retrieve  is used, and the signature being verified has a PKA
                     record, then use the PKA information to fetch the key. Defaults to "yes".

              include-subkeys
                     When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential targets. Note  that  this
                     option  is  not  used with HKP keyservers, as they do not support retrieving
                     keys by subkey id.

              timeout
                     Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds) to try and perform a
                     keyserver  action before giving up. Note that performing multiple actions at
                     the same time uses  this  timeout  value  per  action.   For  example,  when
                     retrieving  multiple keys via --receive-keys, the timeout applies separately
                     to each key retrieval, and not to the --receive-keys  command  as  a  whole.
                     Defaults to 30 seconds.

              http-proxy=value
                     This  option  is  deprecated.   Set  the  proxy  to  use  for  HTTP  and HKP
                     keyservers.  This overrides any proxy defined in ‘dirmngr.conf’.

              verbose
                     This option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the  dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

              debug  This  option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

              check-cert
                     This option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the  dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

              ca-cert-file
                     This  option  has  no  more  function  since  GnuPG  2.1.   Use  the dirmngr
                     configuration options instead.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 3)

       --tofu-default-policy {auto|good|unknown|bad|ask}
              The default TOFU policy (defaults to auto).  For more information about the meaning
              of this option, see: [trust-model-tofu].

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do  not  cache  the  verification  status  of key signatures.  Caching gives a much
              better performance in key listings.  However,  if  you  suspect  that  your  public
              keyring is not safe against write modifications, you can use this option to disable
              the caching. It probably does not make sense to disable  it  because  all  kind  of
              damage can be done if someone else has write access to your public keyring.

       --auto-check-trustdb
       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If  GnuPG  feels  that its information about the Web of Trust has to be updated, it
              automatically runs the --check-trustdb command internally.   This  may  be  a  time
              consuming process. --no-auto-check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent
       --no-use-agent
              This is dummy option. gpg always requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
              This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg.

       --agent-program file
              Specify  an  agent program to be used for secret key operations.  The default value
              is determined by running gpgconf with the option --list-dirs.  Note that  the  pipe
              symbol (|) is used for a regression test suite hack and may thus not be used in the
              file name.

       --dirmngr-program file
              Specify a dirmngr program to be used for keyserver access.  The  default  value  is
              ‘/usr/bin/dirmngr’.

       --disable-dirmngr
              Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

       --no-autostart
              Do  not  start  the gpg-agent or the dirmngr if it has not yet been started and its
              service is required.  This option is mostly useful on machines where the connection
              to  gpg-agent  has  been redirected to another machines.  If dirmngr is required on
              the remote machine, it may be started manually using gpgconf --launch dirmngr.

       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not release  the  lock
              until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
              Release  the  locks  every  time a lock is no longer needed. Use this to override a
              previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
              Disable locking  entirely.  This  option  should  be  used  only  in  very  special
              environments,  where  it  can  be  assured that only one process is accessing those
              files. A bootable floppy with a stand-alone encryption  system  will  probably  use
              this. Improper usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This  option  will cause write errors on the status FD to immediately terminate the
              process. That should in fact be the default but it never worked this way  and  thus
              we need an option to enable this, so that the change won't break applications which
              close their end of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using  this  option  along
              with  --enable-progress-filter  may  be  used  to  cleanly  cancel long running gpg
              operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With n greater than 0 the number of prompts  asking  to  insert  a  smartcard  gets
              limited  to  N-1.  Thus  with a value of 1 gpg won't at all ask to insert a card if
              none has been inserted at startup. This option is useful in the configuration  file
              in  case  an  application  does  not  know about the smartcard support and waits ad
              infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invocations.   This  makes
              random  generation faster; however sometimes write operations are not desired. This
              option can be used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress the warning about unsafe file and home directory (--homedir)  permissions.
              Note  that  the  permission  checks  that  GnuPG  performs  are  not intended to be
              authoritative,  but  rather  they  simply  warn  about  certain  common  permission
              problems.  Do  not  assume  that  the  lack  of a warning means that your system is
              secure.

              Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be suppressed in  the
              gpg.conf  file, as this would allow an attacker to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in
              place, and  use  this  file  to  suppress  warnings  about  itself.  The  --homedir
              permissions warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --require-secmem
       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no (i.e. run, but give
              a warning).

       --require-cross-certification
       --no-require-cross-certification
              When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the cross  certification
              "back  signature"  on  the  subkey  is  present and valid.  This protects against a
              subtle  attack  against  subkeys  that  can  sign.   Defaults  to  --require-cross-
              certification for gpg.

       --expert
       --no-expert
              Allow  the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like signing an expired
              or revoked key, or certain potentially incompatible things like generating  unusual
              key   types.   This  also  disables  certain  warning  messages  about  potentially
              incompatible actions. As the name implies, this option is for experts only. If  you
              don't  fully  understand  the  implications of what it allows you to do, leave this
              off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name
       -r     Encrypt for user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient  is  not  specified,
              GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name
       -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key ID of this user's key. This option helps
              to hide the receiver of the message and is a limited countermeasure against traffic
              analysis.  If  this option or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user
              ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --recipient-file file
       -f     This option is similar to --recipient except that it encrypts to a  key  stored  in
              the  given  file.  file must be the name of a file containing exactly one key.  gpg
              assumes that the key in this file is fully valid.

       --hidden-recipient-file file
       -F     This option is similar to --hidden-recipient except  that  it  encrypts  to  a  key
              stored  in  the given file.  file must be the name of a file containing exactly one
              key.  gpg assumes that the key in this file is fully valid.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same as --recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and may be
              used  with  your own user-id as an "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when
              there are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or by the asked  user
              id.   No  trust checking is performed for these user ids and even disabled keys can
              be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and
              may  be  used  with  your own user-id as a hidden "encrypt-to-self". These keys are
              only used when there are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or  by
              the  asked  user  id.   No  trust checking is performed for these user ids and even
              disabled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable the use of all --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to keys.

       --group {name=value}
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email programs.  Any time the
              group  name  is  a recipient (-r or --recipient), it will be expanded to the values
              specified. Multiple groups with the same  name  are  automatically  merged  into  a
              single group.

              The  values  are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key description is accepted. Note
              that a value with spaces in it will be treated as two different values.  Note  also
              there  is  only  one level of expansion --- you cannot make an group that points to
              another group. When used from the command line, it may be necessary  to  quote  the
              argument  to  this  option  to  prevent  the  shell  from  treating  it as multiple
              arguments.

       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name
       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that this option overrides --default-key.

       --sender mbox
              This option has two purposes.  mbox must either be a complete user id with a proper
              mail  address  or just a mail address.  When creating a signature this option tells
              gpg the user id of a key used to make a signature  if  the  key  was  not  directly
              specified  by  a  user id.  When verifying a signature the mbox is used to restrict
              the information printed by the TOFU code to matching user ids.

       --try-secret-key name
              For hidden recipients GPG needs to know the keys to use for trial decryption.   The
              key set with --default-key is always tried first, but this is often not sufficient.
              This option allows setting more keys to be used for trial decryption.  Although any
              valid user-id specification may be used for name it makes sense to use at least the
              long keyid to avoid ambiguities.  Note that gpg-agent might pop up a pinentry for a
              lot  keys  to  do  the  trial  decryption.   If  you want to stop all further trial
              decryption you may use close-window button instead of the cancel button.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message but try all secret keys  in  turn
              to  find  the  right  decryption  key.  This option forces the behaviour as used by
              anonymous recipients (created by using --throw-keyids  or  --hidden-recipient)  and
              might come handy in case where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients
       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During  decryption  skip  all  anonymous recipients.  This option helps in the case
              that people use the hidden recipients feature to hide their own encrypt-to key from
              others.  If one has many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because all
              keys are tried in turn to decrypt something which was not really intended  for  it.
              The  drawback  of  this  option  is  that it is currently not possible to decrypt a
              message which includes real anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor
       -a     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file
       -o file
              Write output to file.  To write to stdout use - as the filename.

       --max-output n
              This option sets a limit on the  number  of  bytes  that  will  be  generated  when
              processing  a  file.  Since  OpenPGP  supports various levels of compression, it is
              possible that the plaintext of a given message may be significantly larger than the
              original  OpenPGP  message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages, there is
              often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be generated before  processing
              is forced to stop by the OS limits. Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --input-size-hint n
              This option can be used to tell GPG the size of the input data in bytes.  n must be
              a positive base-10 number.  This option is only useful if the input  is  not  taken
              from a file.  GPG may use this hint to optimize its buffer allocation strategy.  It
              is also used by the --status-fd line ``PROGRESS'' to provide a value for  ``total''
              if that is not available by other means.

       --key-origin string[,url]
              gpg  can  track  the  origin  of  a key. Certain origins are implicitly known (e.g.
              keyserver, web key directory) and set.  For a standard import  the  origin  of  the
              keys  imported can be set with this option.  To list the possible values use "help"
              for string.  Some origins can  store  an  optional  url  argument.   That  URL  can
              appended to string after a comma.

       --import-options parameters
              This  is  a  space or comma delimited string that gives options for importing keys.
              Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the  opposite  meaning.  The  options
              are:

              import-local-sigs
                     Allow  importing  key  signatures  marked  as "local". This is not generally
                     useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.  Defaults to no.

              keep-ownertrust
                     Normally possible still existing ownertrust values of a key are cleared if a
                     key  is  imported.   This is in general desirable so that a formerly deleted
                     key does not automatically gain an ownertrust values merely due  to  import.
                     On  the  other  hand it is sometimes necessary to re-import a trusted set of
                     keys again but keeping already assigned  ownertrust  values.   This  can  be
                     achieved by using this option.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During  import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the PKS keyserver bug
                     (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys with multiple subkeys. Note that  this
                     cannot  completely repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the keyserver, but it does at least give you back one subkey. Defaults to no
                     for regular --import and to yes for keyserver --receive-keys.

              import-show
              show-only
                     Show  a  listing of the key as imported right before it is stored.  This can
                     be combined with the option --dry-run to only look at keys; the option show-
                     only is a shortcut for this combination.  The command --show-keys is another
                     shortcut for this.  Note that suffixes like '#' for "sec"  and  "sbb"  lines
                     may or may not be printed.

              import-export
                     Run  the  entire  import  code  but  instead of storing the key to the local
                     keyring write it to the output.  The export options export-pka  and  export-
                     dane affect the output.  This option can be used to remove all invalid parts
                     from a key without the need to store it.

              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do not allow any  new
                     keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After  import, compact (remove all signatures except the self-signature) any
                     user IDs from the new key that are not usable.  Then, remove any  signatures
                     from  the  new  key that are not usable.  This includes signatures that were
                     issued by keys that are not present on the keyring. This option is the  same
                     as running the --edit-key command "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

              repair-keys. After import, fix various problems with the
                     keys.    For   example,  this  reorders  signatures,  and  strips  duplicate
                     signatures.  Defaults to yes.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes  all  signatures  except  the
                     most  recent  self-signature  on  each  user  ID. This option is the same as
                     running the --edit-key command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

              restore
              import-restore
                     Import in key restore mode.  This imports all data which is usually  skipped
                     during  import;  including all GnuPG specific data.  All other contradicting
                     options are overridden.

       --import-filter {name=expr}
       --export-filter {name=expr}
              These  options  define  an  import/export  filter  which   are   applied   to   the
              imported/exported  keyblock  right  before it will be stored/written.  name defines
              the type of filter to use, expr the expression to evaluate.  The option can be used
              several times which then appends more expression to the same name.

              The available filter types are:

              keep-uid
                     This  filter  will  keep  a  user id packet and its dependent packets in the
                     keyblock if the expression evaluates to true.

              drop-subkey
                     This filter drops the selected  subkeys.   Currently  only  implemented  for
                     --export-filter.

              drop-sig
                     This  filter drops the selected key signatures on user ids.  Self-signatures
                     are not considered.  Currently only implemented for --import-filter.

       For the syntax of the expression see the chapter "FILTER EXPRESSIONS".  The property names
       for  the  expressions  depend on the actual filter type and are indicated in the following
       table.

       The available properties are:

              uid    A string with the user id.  (keep-uid)

              mbox   The addr-spec part of a user id with mailbox or the  empty  string.   (keep-
                     uid)

              key_algo
                     A  number  with  the public key algorithm of a key or subkey packet.  (drop-
                     subkey)

              key_created
              key_created_d
                     The first is the timestamp a public key or subkey packet was  created.   The
                     second  is  the  same  but given as an ISO string, e.g. "2016-08-17". (drop-
                     subkey)

              primary
                     Boolean indicating whether the user id is the primary one.  (keep-uid)

              expired
                     Boolean indicating whether a user id (keep-uid), a key (drop-subkey),  or  a
                     signature (drop-sig) expired.

              revoked
                     Boolean  indicating  whether a user id (keep-uid) or a key (drop-subkey) has
                     been revoked.

              disabled
                     Boolean indicating whether a primary key is disabled. (not used)

              secret Boolean indicating whether a key or subkey is a secret one.  (drop-subkey)

              usage  A string indicating the usage  flags  for  the  subkey,  from  the  sequence
                     ``ecsa?''.  For example, a subkey capable of just signing and authentication
                     would be an exact match for ``sa''. (drop-subkey)

              sig_created
              sig_created_d
                     The first is the timestamp a signature packet was created.   The  second  is
                     the same but given as an ISO date string, e.g. "2016-08-17". (drop-sig)

              sig_algo
                     A number with the public key algorithm of a signature packet. (drop-sig)

              sig_digest_algo
                     A number with the digest algorithm of a signature packet. (drop-sig)

       --export-options parameters
              This  is  a  space or comma delimited string that gives options for exporting keys.
              Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the opposite  meaning.   The  options
              are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow  exporting  key  signatures  marked  as "local". This is not generally
                     useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include attribute user  IDs  (photo  IDs)  while  exporting.  Not  including
                     attribute  user IDs is useful to export keys that are going to be used by an
                     OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute user IDs.  Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     Include designated revoker  information  that  was  marked  as  "sensitive".
                     Defaults to no.

              backup
              export-backup
                     Export  for  use  as a backup.  The exported data includes all data which is
                     needed to restore the key or keys later with GnuPG.  The format is basically
                     the  OpenPGP  format  but  enhanced  with  GnuPG  specific  data.  All other
                     contradicting options are overridden.

              export-clean
                     Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the key being  exported  if
                     the user IDs are not usable. Also, do not export any signatures that are not
                     usable. This includes signatures that were  issued  by  keys  that  are  not
                     present  on  the  keyring. This option is the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "clean" before export except that the local copy of the key  is  not
                     modified. Defaults to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export  the  smallest  key  possible. This removes all signatures except the
                     most recent self-signature on each user ID.  This  option  is  the  same  as
                     running  the  --edit-key  command  "minimize"  before export except that the
                     local copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

              export-pka
                     Instead of outputting the key material output PKA records  suitable  to  put
                     into  DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is printed before each record to allow
                     diverting the records to the corresponding zone file.

              export-dane
                     Instead of outputting the key material output OpenPGP DANE records  suitable
                     to put into DNS zone files.  An ORIGIN line is printed before each record to
                     allow diverting the records to the corresponding zone file.

       --with-colons
              Print key listings delimited by colons. Note that the output  will  be  encoded  in
              UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset setting. This format is useful when GnuPG
              is called from scripts and other programs as  it  is  easily  machine  parsed.  The
              details  of this format are documented in the file ‘doc/DETAILS’, which is included
              in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in --with-colon listing mode and print
              all  timestamps  as  seconds  since  1970-01-01.   Since GnuPG 2.0.10, this mode is
              always used and thus this option is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

       --legacy-list-mode
              Revert to the pre-2.1 public key list mode.  This only affects the  human  readable
              output  and  not  the machine interface (i.e. --with-colons).  Note that the legacy
              format does not convey suitable information for elliptic curves.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of the output and may
              be used together with another command.

       --with-subkey-fingerprint
              If a fingerprint is printed for the primary key, this option forces printing of the
              fingerprint for all subkeys.  This could also be  achieved  by  using  the  --with-
              fingerprint twice but by using this option along with keyid-format "none" a compact
              fingerprint is printed.

       --with-icao-spelling
              Print the ICAO spelling of the fingerprint in addition to the hex digits.

       --with-keygrip
              Include the keygrip in the key listings.  In --with-colons mode this is  implicitly
              enable for secret keys.

       --with-key-origin
              Include  the  locally  held information on the origin and last update of a key in a
              key listing.  In --with-colons mode this is always printed.  This data is currently
              experimental and shall not be considered part of the stable API.

       --with-wkd-hash
              Print a Web Key Directory identifier along with each user ID in key listings.  This
              is an experimental feature and semantics may change.

       --with-secret
              Include info about the presence of a secret key in public key  listings  done  with
              --with-colons.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options

       -t, --textmode
       --no-textmode
              Treat  input  files  as text and store them in the OpenPGP canonical text form with
              standard "CRLF" line endings. This also sets the  necessary  flags  to  inform  the
              recipient  that  the encrypted or signed data is text and may need its line endings
              converted back to whatever the local  system  uses.  This  option  is  useful  when
              communicating  between  two  platforms  that have different line ending conventions
              (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc). --no-textmode disables this option, and is
              the default.

       --force-v3-sigs
       --no-force-v3-sigs

       --force-v4-certs
       --no-force-v4-certs
              These options are obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG 2.1.

       --force-mdc
       --disable-mdc
              These options are obsolete and have no effect since GnuPG 2.2.8.  The MDC is always
              used.  But note: If the creation of  a  legacy  non-MDC  message  is  exceptionally
              required, the option --rfc2440 allows for this.

       --disable-signer-uid
              By default the user ID of the signing key is embedded in the data signature.  As of
              now this is only done if the signing key has been specified with local-user using a
              mail  address.  This information can be helpful for verifier to locate the key; see
              option --auto-key-retrieve.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg --version to get  a
              list  of  available  algorithms,  and  use  none to set no preference at all.  This
              allows the user to safely override  the  algorithm  chosen  by  the  recipient  key
              preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
              The most highly ranked cipher in  this  list  is  also  used  for  the  --symmetric
              encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set  the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg --version to get a
              list of available algorithms, and use none to  set  no  preference  at  all.   This
              allows  the  user  to  safely  override  the  algorithm chosen by the recipient key
              preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
              The  most  highly  ranked  digest  algorithm in this list is also used when signing
              without encryption (e.g. --clear-sign or --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use gpg  --version  to
              get a list of available algorithms, and use none to set no preference at all.  This
              allows the user to safely override  the  algorithm  chosen  by  the  recipient  key
              preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
              The most highly ranked compression algorithm in this list is also used  when  there
              are no recipient keys to consider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  cipher  algorithm for symmetric encryption with a passphrase if
              --personal-cipher-preferences and --cipher-algo are  not  given.   The  default  is
              AES-128.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  digest  algorithm  used to mangle the passphrases for symmetric
              encryption.  The default is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
              Selects how passphrases for symmetric encryption are mangled. If n  is  0  a  plain
              passphrase  (which  is  in  general  not recommended) will be used, a 1 adds a salt
              (which should not be used) to the passphrase and a 3  (the  default)  iterates  the
              whole process a number of times (see --s2k-count).

       --s2k-count n
              Specify  how  many  times  the  passphrases  mangling  for  symmetric encryption is
              repeated.  This value may range between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive.   The  default
              is  inquired  from  gpg-agent.  Note that not all values in the 1024-65011712 range
              are legal and if an illegal value is selected, GnuPG will round up to  the  nearest
              legal value.  This option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is set to the default of
              3.

   Compliance options

       These options control what GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these options may be  active
       at a time. Note that the default setting of this is nearly always the correct one. See the
       INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section  below  before  using  one  of  these
       options.

       --gnupg
              Use  standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP behavior (see --openpgp),
              but with some additional workarounds for common compatibility problems in different
              versions  of PGP. This is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but it
              may be useful to override a different compliance option in the gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP  behavior.  Use  this
              option to reset all previous options like --s2k-*, --cipher-algo, --digest-algo and
              --compress-algo to OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880 behavior. Note  that
              this is currently the same thing as --openpgp.

       --rfc4880bis
              Enable experimental features from proposed updates to RFC-4880.  This option can be
              used in addition to the other compliance options.  Warning: The behavior may change
              with any GnuPG release and created keys or data may not be usable with future GnuPG
              versions.

       --rfc2440
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440 behavior.  Note that
              by  using  this  option encryption packets are created in a legacy mode without MDC
              protection.  This is dangerous and should thus only be used for  experiments.   See
              also option --ignore-mdc-error.

       --pgp6 Set  up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This restricts you to the
              ciphers IDEA (if the IDEA plugin is installed), 3DES, and CAST5,  the  hashes  MD5,
              SHA1 and RIPEMD160, and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
              --throw-keyids, and making signatures with  signing  subkeys  as  PGP  6  does  not
              understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This option implies --escape-from-lines.

       --pgp7 Set  up  all  options  to  be  as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is identical to
              --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and the  list  of  allowable  ciphers  is
              expanded to add AES128, AES192, AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8 is a lot closer to
              the OpenPGP standard than previous versions of PGP, so all  this  does  is  disable
              --throw-keyids  and set --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for
              the SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

       --compliance string
              This option can be used instead of one of the  options  above.   Valid  values  for
              string  are the above option names (without the double dash) and possibly others as
              shown when using "help" for value.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do

       -n
       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes the behaviour of some commands. This is like  --dry-run  but  different  in
              some cases. The semantic of this option may be extended in the future. Currently it
              only skips the actual decryption pass and therefore enables a fast listing  of  the
              encryption keys.

       -i
       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a numeric value or
              by a keyword:

              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may  be  used  instead  of  the
                     keyword.

              basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
                     the keyword.

              guru   All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8  may  be  used
                     instead  of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only enabled
                     if the keyword is used.

       How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging  flags  is  not  specified  and  may
       change  with  newer  releases of this program. They are however carefully selected to best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given in C  syntax  (e.g.
              0x0042) or as a comma separated list of flag names.  To get a list of all supported
              flags the single word "help" can be used.

       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-iolbf
              Set stdout into line buffered mode.  This option is only honored when given on  the
              command line.

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This  option  is  only useful for testing; it sets the system time back or forth to
              epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed since the  year  1970.   Alternatively
              epoch may be given as a full ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

              If you suffix epoch with an exclamation mark (!), the system time will appear to be
              frozen at the specified time.

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows frontends to  display  a
              progress  indicator  while  gpg  is  processing  larger  files.   There is a slight
              performance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
              Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See the file DETAILS in the
              documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written to file file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file
       --logger-file file
              Same  as  --logger-fd,  except  the  logger  data  is  written  to  file file.  Use
              ‘socket://’ to log to s socket.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor n. This is most  useful  for  use
              with  --status-fd, since the status messages are needed to separate out the various
              subpackets from the stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to file file.

       --comment string
       --no-comments
              Use string as a comment string in cleartext signatures and ASCII  armored  messages
              or  keys  (see  --armor).  The  default  behavior  is  not to use a comment string.
              --comment may be repeated multiple times to get  multiple  comment  strings.  --no-
              comments  removes  all  comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a single
              comment below 60 characters to avoid problems  with  mail  programs  wrapping  such
              lines.   Note that comment lines, like all other header lines, are not protected by
              the signature.

       --emit-version
       --no-emit-version
              Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored output.  If given once  only
              the  name  of the program and the major number is emitted, given twice the minor is
              also emitted, given thrice the micro is added, and given four  times  an  operating
              system  identification  is  also emitted.  --no-emit-version (default) disables the
              version line.

       --sig-notation {name=value}
       --cert-notation {name=value}
       -N, --set-notation {name=value}
              Put the name value pair into the signature as notation  data.   name  must  consist
              only  of  printable  characters  or spaces, and must contain a '@' character in the
              form keyname@domain.example.com (substituting the appropriate  keyname  and  domain
              name,  of course).  This is to help prevent pollution of the IETF reserved notation
              namespace. The --expert flag overrides the '@' check. value may  be  any  printable
              string;  it  will  be  encoded  in  UTF-8, so you should check that your --display-
              charset is set correctly. If you prefix name with  an  exclamation  mark  (!),  the
              notation data will be flagged as critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16). --sig-notation sets a
              notation for data signatures. --cert-notation sets a notation  for  key  signatures
              (certifications). --set-notation sets both.

              There  are  special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k" will be expanded
              into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K" into the long key ID of the key being
              signed,  "%f" into the fingerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of
              the key making the signature, "%S" into the long key  ID  of  the  key  making  the
              signature,  "%g"  into the fingerprint of the key making the signature (which might
              be a subkey), "%p" into the fingerprint of the primary key of the  key  making  the
              signature,  "%c"  into  the  signature  count  from the OpenPGP smartcard, and "%%"
              results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are  only  meaningful  when  making  a  key
              signature  (certification),  and  %c  is  only  meaningful  when  using the OpenPGP
              smartcard.

       --known-notation name
              Adds name to a list of known critical signature notations.  The effect of  this  is
              that  gpg will not mark a signature with a critical signature notation of that name
              as bad.  Note that gpg already knows by default about  a  few  critical  signatures
              notation names.

       --sig-policy-url string
       --cert-policy-url string
       --set-policy-url string
              Use  string  as  a  Policy URL for signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).  If you prefix it
              with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL packet will be  flagged  as  critical.
              --sig-policy-url  sets  a  policy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a
              policy url for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If you prefix it  with
              an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --set-filename string
              Use  string  as  the  filename which is stored inside messages.  This overrides the
              default, which is to use the actual filename of the file  being  encrypted.   Using
              the empty string for string effectively removes the filename from the output.

       --for-your-eyes-only
       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Set  the  `for  your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes GnuPG to refuse to
              save the file unless the --output option is given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer"
              with a claimed Tempest-resistant font to display the message. This option overrides
              --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename
       --no-use-embedded-filename
              Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This can be  a  dangerous
              option as it enables overwriting files. Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the command --version yields
              a list of supported algorithms. If  this  is  not  used  the  cipher  algorithm  is
              selected  from  the preferences stored with the key. In general, you do not want to
              use this option as it allows you to  violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.   --personal-
              cipher-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  message  digest algorithm. Running the program with the command
              --version yields a list of supported algorithms. In general, you do not want to use
              this  option  as  it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib"  is  RFC-1950  ZLIB  compression.  "zip"  is
              RFC-1951  ZIP  compression  which  is  used  by  PGP.   "bzip2"  is  a  more modern
              compression scheme that can compress some things better than zip or  zlib,  but  at
              the  cost  of more memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed"
              or "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the default behavior is
              to  examine  the  recipient  key  preferences to see which algorithms the recipient
              supports. If all else fails, ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as the compression  window  size
              is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even better compression results than that, but
              will  use  a  significantly  larger  amount  of  memory   while   compressing   and
              decompressing.  This  may  be  significant in low memory situations. Note, however,
              that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP compression. Using  any  algorithm  other
              than  ZIP  or  "none" will make the message unreadable with PGP. In general, you do
              not want to use this option as it allows  you  to  violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.
              --personal-compress-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use  name  as  the  message  digest  algorithm used when signing a key. Running the
              program with the command --version yields a list of supported algorithms. Be  aware
              that   if   you   choose  an  algorithm  that  GnuPG  supports  but  other  OpenPGP
              implementations do not, then some users will not be able to use the key  signatures
              you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never  allow  the  use  of  name  as  cipher algorithm.  The given name will not be
              checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given name  will  not  be
              checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids
       --no-throw-keyids
              Do  not  put  the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This helps to hide the
              receivers of the message and is a limited countermeasure against traffic  analysis.
              ([Using  a  little social engineering anyone who is able to decrypt the message can
              check whether one of the other  recipients  is  the  one  he  suspects.])   On  the
              receiving  side,  it  may  slow  down  the decryption process because all available
              secret keys must be tried.  --no-throw-keyids disables this option. This option  is
              essentially the same as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This  option  changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that they can be used
              for patch files. You should not send such an armored file  via  email  because  all
              spaces  and line endings are hashed too. You can not use this option for data which
              has 5 dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't  have  this.  A  special
              armor header line tells GnuPG about this cleartext signature option.

       --escape-from-lines
       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because  some  mailers change lines starting with "From " to ">From " it is good to
              handle such lines in a special way when creating cleartext  signatures  to  prevent
              the mail system from breaking the signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it
              this way too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines disables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify how many times gpg will request a new  passphrase  be  repeated.   This  is
              useful for helping memorize a passphrase.  Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read  the  passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line will be read from
              file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the passphrase will be read from STDIN. This
              can only be used if only one passphrase is supplied.

              Note  that since Version 2.0 this passphrase is only used if the option --batch has
              also been given. Since Version 2.1 the --pinentry-mode also  needs  to  be  set  to
              loopback.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read  the  passphrase  from  file  file. Only the first line will be read from file
              file. This can only be used if  only  one  passphrase  is  supplied.  Obviously,  a
              passphrase  stored  in  a  file is of questionable security if other users can read
              this file. Don't use this option if you can avoid it.

              Note that since Version 2.0 this passphrase is only used if the option --batch  has
              also  been  given.  Since  Version  2.1 the --pinentry-mode also needs to be set to
              loopback.

       --passphrase string
              Use string as the passphrase. This can only be  used  if  only  one  passphrase  is
              supplied.  Obviously, this is of very questionable security on a multi-user system.
              Don't use this option if you can avoid it.

              Note that since Version 2.0 this passphrase is only used if the option --batch  has
              also  been  given.  Since  Version  2.1 the --pinentry-mode also needs to be set to
              loopback.

       --pinentry-mode mode
              Set the pinentry mode to mode.  Allowed values for mode are:

              default
                     Use the default of the agent, which is ask.

              ask    Force the use of the Pinentry.

              cancel Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.

              error  Return a Pinentry error (``No Pinentry'').

              loopback
                     Redirect Pinentry queries to the caller.  Note that in contrast to  Pinentry
                     the user is not prompted again if he enters a bad password.

       --no-symkey-cache
              Disable  the  passphrase cache used for symmetrical en- and decryption.  This cache
              is based on the message specific salt value (cf. --s2k-mode).

       --request-origin origin
              Tell gpg to assume that the operation ultimately originated at  origin.   Depending
              on  the  origin  certain  restrictions  are applied and the Pinentry may include an
              extra note on the origin.  Supported values for origin  are:  local  which  is  the
              default,  remote  to indicate a remote origin or browser for an operation requested
              by a web browser.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.  If this option is
              enabled,  user  input  on questions is not expected from the TTY but from the given
              file descriptor. It  should  be  used  together  with  --status-fd.  See  the  file
              doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use it.

       --command-file file
              Same as --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid
       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow  the  import and use of keys with user IDs which are not self-signed. This is
              not recommended, as a non self-signed user ID is trivial to forge.  --no-allow-non-
              selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable  all  checks  on  the  form of the user ID while generating a new one. This
              option should only be used in very special environments as it does not  ensure  the
              de-facto standard format of user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG  normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and signatures have
              plausible values. However, sometimes a signature seems to be older than the key due
              to  clock  problems.  This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a warning. See also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys created in the future.  This  option
              allows  the  use of such keys and thus exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should
              not use this option unless there is some clock  problem.  See  also  --ignore-time-
              conflict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum against transmission
              errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled somewhere on the transmission channel but
              the  actual  content  (which  is protected by the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This option changes a MDC integrity protection  failure  into  a  warning.   It  is
              required  to  decrypt old messages which did not use an MDC.  It may also be useful
              if a message is partially garbled, but it is necessary  to  get  as  much  data  as
              possible out of that garbled message.  Be aware that a missing or failed MDC can be
              an indication of an attack.  Use with great caution; see also option --rfc2440.

       --allow-weak-digest-algos
              Signatures made with known-weak digest algorithms are  normally  rejected  with  an
              ``invalid  digest  algorithm''  message.   This  option  allows the verification of
              signatures made with such weak  algorithms.   MD5  is  the  only  digest  algorithm
              considered  weak  by  default.   See  also  --weak-digest  to  reject  other digest
              algorithms.

       --weak-digest name
              Treat the specified digest algorithm as weak.  Signatures made  over  weak  digests
              algorithms  are  normally  rejected.  This option can be supplied multiple times if
              multiple algorithms should be considered weak.  See also  --allow-weak-digest-algos
              to  disable rejection of weak digests.  MD5 is always considered weak, and does not
              need to be listed explicitly.

       --no-default-keyring
              Do not add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings. Note that GnuPG  will  not
              operate  without  any  keyrings,  so  if  you  use  this  option and do not provide
              alternate keyrings via --keyring or --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the
              default public or secret keyrings.

       --no-keyring
              Do not add use any keyrings even if specified as options.

       --skip-verify
              Skip  the  signature  verification  step.  This  may be used to make the decryption
              faster if the signature verification is not needed.

       --with-key-data
              Print key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and  print  the  public
              key data.

       --list-signatures
       --list-sigs
              Same  as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.  This command has the same
              effect as using  --list-keys  with  --with-sig-list.   Note  that  in  contrast  to
              --check-signatures  the  key signatures are not verified.  This command can be used
              to create a list of signing keys missing in the lcoal keyring; for example:

               gpg --list-sigs --with-colons USERID | \
                 awk -F: '$1=="sig" && $2=="?" {if($13){print $13}else{print $5}}'

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this is achieved by leaving
              some  parts  empty.  Some  applications  don't  need  the  user  ID  and  the trust
              information given in the listings. By using this options  they  can  get  a  faster
              listing.  The exact behaviour of this option may change in future versions.  If you
              are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display the session key used for one message. See  --override-session-key  for  the
              counterpart of this option.

              We  think  that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should have the freedom
              to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal the content of one specific  message
              without compromising all messages ever encrypted for one secret key.

              You  can  also use this option if you receive an encrypted message which is abusive
              or offensive, to prove to the administrators  of  the  messaging  system  that  the
              ciphertext  transmitted  corresponds to an inappropriate plaintext so they can take
              action against the offending user.

       --override-session-key string
       --override-session-key-fd fd
              Don't use the public key but the session key  string  respective  the  session  key
              taken  from the first line read from file descriptor fd.  The format of this string
              is the same as the one printed by --show-session-key. This option is  normally  not
              used  but  comes  handy  in  case  someone  forces  you to reveal the content of an
              encrypted message; using this option you can do this without handing out the secret
              key.   Note  that  using  --override-session-key  may reveal the session key to all
              local users via the global process table.  Often  it  is  useful  to  combine  this
              option with --no-keyring.

       --ask-sig-expire
       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When  making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this option is not
              specified, the expiration time set via --default-sig-expire is used.  --no-ask-sig-
              expire disables this option.

       --default-sig-expire
              The  default  expiration time to use for signature expiration. Valid values are "0"
              for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d (for days), w (for  weeks),  m
              (for  months),  or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --ask-cert-expire
       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this option  is  not
              specified,  the  expiration  time  set via --default-cert-expire is used. --no-ask-
              cert-expire disables this option.

       --default-cert-expire
              The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.  Valid values  are
              "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d (for days), w (for weeks),
              m (for months), or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --default-new-key-algo string
              This  option  can  be used to change the default algorithms for key generation. The
              string is similar to the arguments required for  the  command  --quick-add-key  but
              slightly     different.      For     example     the     current     default     of
              "rsa2048/cert,sign+rsa2048/encr" (or "rsa3072") can be changed to the value of what
              we  currently  call future default, which is "ed25519/cert,sign+cv25519/encr".  You
              need to consult the source code to learn the details.  Note that the  advanced  key
              generation commands can always be used to specify a key algorithm directly.

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP messages contained in a single file or stream.
              Some programs that call GPG are not prepared to deal with multiple  messages  being
              processed together, so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior
              to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a temporary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This option enables a mode in which filenames of the form ‘-&n’, where n is a  non-
              negative decimal number, refer to the file descriptor n and not to a file with that
              name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user read/write only.  Use
              this option only if you really know what you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set the list of default preferences to string. This preference list is used for new
              keys and becomes the default for "setpref" in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This keyserver will be used as the keyserver
              URL  when  writing a new self-signature on a key, which includes key generation and
              changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This option is intended
              for  external  programs that call GnuPG to perform tasks, and is thus not generally
              useful. See the file ‘doc/DETAILS’ in the source distribution for  the  details  of
              which  configuration items may be listed. --list-config is only usable with --with-
              colons set.

       --list-gcrypt-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of Libgcrypt.

       --gpgconf-list
              This command is similar to --list-config but in general only internally used by the
              gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
              This  is  more  or less dummy action.  However it parses the configuration file and
              returns with failure if the configuration file  would  prevent  gpg  from  startup.
              Thus it may be used to run a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos
       --no-show-photos
              Causes  --list-keys, --list-signatures, --list-public-keys, --list-secret-keys, and
              verifying a signature to also display the photo ID attached to the key, if any. See
              also  --photo-viewer.  These  options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-
              photos and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a  given
              key  resides  on.  This  option is deprecated: use --list-options [no-]show-keyring
              instead.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation
       --no-show-notation
              Show signature notations in the --list-signatures or --check-signatures listings as
              well  as  when  verifying  a  signature  with  a  notation in it. These options are
              deprecated.   Use   --list-options   [no-]show-notation   and/or   --verify-options
              [no-]show-notation instead.

       --show-policy-url
       --no-show-policy-url
              Show policy URLs in the --list-signatures or --check-signatures listings as well as
              when verifying a signature with a policy URL in it. These options  are  deprecated.
              Use  --list-options  [no-]show-policy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-
              url instead.

EXAMPLES

       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clear-sign file
              make a cleartext signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile
       gpg --verify sigfile [datafile]
              Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data unless requested.   The
              second  form  is  used  for  detached  signatures,  where  sigfile  is the detached
              signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and datafile are  the  signed  data;  if
              this  is  not given, the name of the file holding the signed data is constructed by
              cutting off the extension (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the  user  for
              the  filename.   If  the option --output is also used the signed data is written to
              the file specified by that option; use - to write the signed data to stdout.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID

       There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them are only  valid  for
       gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This  format is deduced from the length of the string and its content or 0x prefix.
              The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the low 64 bits of  its  SHA-1  fingerprint.
              The use of key Ids is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
              should be used.

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
              primary  or  secondary  key and not to try and calculate which primary or secondary
              key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long form as internally
              used  by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the long key ID using the option --with-
              colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This format is deduced from the length of the string and  its  content  or  the  0x
              prefix.   Note,  that  only the 20 byte version fingerprint is available with gpgsm
              (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
              primary  or  secondary  key and not to try and calculate which primary or secondary
              key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by using  the  fingerprint.   This  avoids  any
              ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm  also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits because this is the de-
       facto standard on how to present X.509 fingerprints.  gpg also allows the use of the space
       separated SHA-1 fingerprint as printed by the key listing commands.

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This  is  denoted  by  a  leading  equal  sign.  It  does  not make sense for X.509
              certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This is indicated by enclosing the email address in the usual  way  with  left  and
              right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By partial match on an email address.
              This  is indicated by prefixing the search string with an @.  This uses a substring
              search but considers only the mail address (i.e. inside the angle brackets).

         @heinrichh

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded  DN
              of  the  subject.   Note that you can't use the string printed by gpgsm --list-keys
              because that one has been  reordered  and  modified  for  better  readability;  use
              --with-colons to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string.

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This  is  indicated  by  a leading hash mark, directly followed by a slash and then
              directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return the
              Root cert of the issuer.  See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the
              serial number, then followed by a slash and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the  issuer.
              See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip.
              This  is  indicated  by  an  ampersand  followed by the 40 hex digits of a keygrip.
              gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command --dump-cert.  It does not yet  work
              for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This  is  the default mode but applications may want to explicitly indicate this by
              putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       . and + prefixes
              These prefixes are reserved for looking up mails anchored at the end and for a word
              search mode.  They are not yet implemented and using them is undefined.

              Please  note  that  we  have  reused the hash mark identifier which was used in old
              GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It  is  not  anymore  used  and
              there should be no conflict when used with X.509 stuff.

              Using  the  RFC-2253  format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possible to map
              them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to do  this  because  our
              key database stores this encoding as meta data.

FILTER EXPRESSIONS

       The  options  --import-filter and --export-filter use expressions with this syntax (square
       brackets indicate an optional part and curly braces a repetition, white space between  the
       elements are allowed):

                  [lc] {[{flag}] PROPNAME op VALUE [lc]}

       The  name  of  a  property (PROPNAME) may only consist of letters, digits and underscores.
       The description for the filter  type  describes  which  properties  are  defined.   If  an
       undefined  property is used it evaluates to the empty string.  Unless otherwise noted, the
       VALUE must always be given and may not be the empty string.  No quoting is defined for the
       value,  thus  the  value  may  not contain the strings && or ||, which are used as logical
       connection operators.  The flag -- can be used to remove this restriction.

       Numerical values are computed as long int; standard C notation applies.  lc is the logical
       connection  operator;  either && for a conjunction or || for a disjunction.  A conjunction
       is assumed at the begin of  an  expression.   Conjunctions  have  higher  precedence  than
       disjunctions.  If VALUE starts with one of the characters used in any op a space after the
       op is required.

       The supported operators (op) are:

       =~     Substring must match.

       !~     Substring must not match.

       =      The full string must match.

       <>     The full string must not match.

       ==     The numerical value must match.

       !=     The numerical value must not match.

       <=     The numerical value of the field must be LE than the value.

       <      The numerical value of the field must be LT than the value.

       >      The numerical value of the field must be GT than the value.

       >=     The numerical value of the field must be GE than the value.

       -le    The string value of the field must be less or equal than the value.

       -lt    The string value of the field must be less than the value.

       -gt    The string value of the field must be greater than the value.

       -ge    The string value of the field must be greater or equal than the value.

       -n     True if value is not empty (no value allowed).

       -z     True if value is empty (no value allowed).

       -t     Alias for "PROPNAME != 0" (no value allowed).

       -f     Alias for "PROPNAME == 0" (no value allowed).

       Values for flag must be space separated.  The supported flags are:

       --     VALUE spans to the end of the expression.

       -c     The string match in this part is done case-sensitive.

       The filter options concatenate several specifications for a filter of the same type.   For
       example the four options in this example:

                 --import-option keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa"
                 --import-option keep-uid="&& uid !~ Test"
                 --import-option keep-uid="|| uid =~ Alpha"
                 --import-option keep-uid="uid !~ Test"

       which is equivalent to

                 --import-option \
                  keep-uid="uid =~ Alfa" && uid !~ Test" || uid =~ Alpha" && "uid !~ Test"

       imports  only  the  user ids of a key containing the strings "Alfa" or "Alpha" but not the
       string "test".

TRUST VALUES

       Trust values are used to indicate ownertrust and validity of keys and user IDs.  They  are
       displayed with letters or strings:

       -
       unknown
              No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

       e
       expired

              Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired key.

       q
       undefined, undef
              Not enough information for calculation.

       n
       never  Never trust this key.

       m
       marginal
              Marginally trusted.

       f
       full   Fully trusted.

       u
       ultimate
              Ultimately trusted.

       r
       revoked
              For validity only: the key or the user ID has been revoked.

       ?
       err    The program encountered an unknown trust value.

FILES

       There  are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg's operation. Unless
       noted, they are expected in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg on startup.  It may contain any
              valid long option; the leading two dashes may not be entered and the option may not
              be abbreviated.  This default name may be changed on the command line  (see:  [gpg-
              option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files into the directory
       ‘/etc/skel/.gnupg’ so that newly created users start up with a working configuration.  For
       existing   users   a  small  helper  script  is  provided  to  create  these  files  (see:
       [addgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They all  live  in  the
       current  home  directory (see: [option --homedir]).  Only the gpg program may modify these
       files.

       ~/.gnupg
              This is the default home  directory  which  is  used  if  neither  the  environment
              variable GNUPGHOME nor the option --homedir is given.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
              The  public keyring using a different format.  This file is shared with gpgsm.  You
              should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
              The lock file for ‘pubring.kbx’.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              A secret keyring as used by GnuPG versions before 2.1.  It is not used by GnuPG 2.1
              and later.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/.gpg-v21-migrated
              File indicating that a migration to GnuPG 2.1 has been done.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The  trust  database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is better to backup
              the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
              This is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated revocation certificates.   The
              file  name  corresponds  to  the  OpenPGP fingerprint of the respective key.  It is
              suggested to backup those certificates and if the primary private key is not stored
              on  the  disk  to  move  them to an external storage device.  Anyone who can access
              theses files is able to revoke the corresponding key.  You may want to  print  them
              out.   You  should  backup  all  files in this directory and take care to keep this
              backup closed away.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              This variable is obsolete; it was used by GnuPG versions before 2.1.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.   It  is  useful  to  convey  extra
              information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS
       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart  from  its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to override the language
              selection done through the Registry.  If used and set  to  a  valid  and  available
              language   name   (langid),   the   file   with  the  translation  is  loaded  from
              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory  out  of  which  the  gpg
              binary  has  been  loaded.  If it can't be loaded the Registry is tried and as last
              resort the native Windows locale system is used.

       When calling the gpg-agent component gpg sends a set  of  environment  variables  to  gpg-
       agent.  The names of these variables can be listed using the command:

           gpg-connect-agent 'getinfo std_env_names' /bye | awk '$1=="D" {print $2}'

BUGS

       On  older  systems  this program should be installed as setuid(root). This is necessary to
       lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the operating system from writing  memory
       pages  (which  may contain passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no
       warning message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking without being
       root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked memory is allocated.

       Note  also  that some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to ``suspend to disk''
       (also known as ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').  This writes all memory  to  disk  before
       going  into  a  low  power  or  even  powered  off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the
       operating system to protect the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material  may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before  you  report  a  bug  you should first search the mailing list archives for similar
       problems and second check whether such a bug has already been reported to our bug  tracker
       at https://bugs.gnupg.org.

SEE ALSO

       gpgv(1), gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The  full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If GnuPG and the
       info program are properly installed at your site, the command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.