Provided by: gmt-common_5.4.5+dfsg-1_all bug


       greenspline - Interpolate using Green's functions for splines in 1-3 dimensions


       greenspline [ table ] [  -Agradfile+f1|2|3|4|5 ] [  -C[n|r|v]value[+ffile] ] [  -Dmode ] [
       -E[misfitfile] ] [  -Ggrdfile ] [  -Ixinc[/yinc[/zinc]] ]  [   -L  ]  [   -Nnodefile  ]  [
       -Qaz|x/y/z  ]  [   -Rwest/east/south/north[/zmin/zmax][+r]  ]  [   -Sc|t|l|r|p|q[pars] ] [
       -Tmaskgrid ] [  -V[level] ] [  -W[w]] [ -bbinary ] [ -dnodata ] [ -eregexp ] [ -fflags ] [
       -hheaders ] [ -oflags ] [ -x[[-]n] ] [ -:[i|o] ]

       Note: No space is allowed between the option flag and the associated arguments.


       greenspline  uses  the  Green's  function  G(x;  x') for the chosen spline and geometry to
       interpolate data at regular [or arbitrary] output locations. Mathematically, the  solution
       is  composed  as  w(x)  =  sum {c(i) G(x'; x(i))}, for i = 1, n, the number of data points
       {x(i), w(i)}. Once the n coefficients c(i) have been found the sum can be evaluated at any
       output  point  x.  Choose  between minimum curvature, regularized, or continuous curvature
       splines in tension for either 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D Cartesian coordinates or spherical  surface
       coordinates.  After first removing a linear or planar trend (Cartesian geometries) or mean
       value (spherical surface)  and  normalizing  these  residuals,  the  least-squares  matrix
       solution  for  the  spline  coefficients c(i) is found by solving the n by n linear system
       w(j) = sum-over-i {c(i) G(x(j); x(i))}, for j =  1,  n;  this  solution  yields  an  exact
       interpolation  of  the  supplied  data points.  Alternatively, you may choose to perform a
       singular value decomposition (SVD)  and  eliminate  the  contribution  from  the  smallest
       eigenvalues;  this approach yields an approximate solution. Trends and scales are restored
       when evaluating the output.




       table  The name of one or more ASCII [or binary, see -bi] files  holding  the  x,  w  data
              points. If no file is given then we read standard input instead.

              The  solution  will  partly be constrained by surface gradients v = v*n, where v is
              the gradient magnitude and n its unit vector direction. The gradient direction  may
              be  specified  either by Cartesian components (either unit vector n and magnitude v
              separately or gradient components v directly) or angles w.r.t. the coordinate axes.
              Append name of ASCII file with the surface gradients.  Use +f to select one of five
              input formats: 0: For 1-D data there  is  no  direction,  just  gradient  magnitude
              (slope)  so  the input format is x, gradient. Options 1-2 are for 2-D data sets: 1:
              records contain x, y, azimuth, gradient (azimuth in degrees is  measured  clockwise
              from  the  vertical  (north) [Default]). 2: records contain x, y, gradient, azimuth
              (azimuth in degrees is measured clockwise from the vertical (north)).  Options  3-5
              are for either 2-D or 3-D data: 3: records contain x, direction(s), v (direction(s)
              in degrees are measured counter-clockwise from the  horizontal  (and  for  3-D  the
              vertical axis). 4: records contain x, v. 5: records contain x, n, v.

              Find   an  approximate  surface  fit:  Solve  the  linear  system  for  the  spline
              coefficients by SVD and eliminate the contribution from all eigenvalues whose ratio
              to the largest eigenvalue is less than value [Default uses Gauss-Jordan elimination
              to solve the linear system and fit the data exactly]. Optionally, append +ffile  to
              save the eigenvalue ratios to the specified file for further analysis.  Finally, if
              a negative value is given then +ffile is required and  execution  will  stop  after
              saving  the  eigenvalues,  i.e., no surface output is produced.  Specify -Cv to use
              the largest eigenvalues needed  to  explain  approximately  value  %  of  the  data
              variance.  Specify -Cr to use the largest eigenvalues needed to leave approximately
              value as the model misfit.  If value is not  given  then  -W  is  required  and  we
              compute  value  as  the  rms  of the data uncertainties.  Alternatively, use -Cn to
              select the value largest eigenvalues.  If a file is given with -Cv then we save the
              eigenvalues instead of the ratios.

       -Dmode Sets  the  distance  flag  that  determines how we calculate distances between data
              points. Select mode 0 for Cartesian 1-D spline interpolation: -D0 means (x) in user
              units,  Cartesian  distances,  Select  mode  1-3  for  Cartesian 2-D surface spline
              interpolation: -D1 means (x,y) in user units, Cartesian distances, -D2 for (x,y) in
              degrees, Flat Earth distances, and -D3 for (x,y) in degrees, Spherical distances in
              km. Then, if PROJ_ELLIPSOID is spherical, we compute great circle  arcs,  otherwise
              geodesics.  Option mode = 4 applies to spherical surface spline interpolation only:
              -D4 for (x,y) in degrees, use cosine of great circle  (or  geodesic)  arcs.  Select
              mode  5  for  Cartesian 3-D surface spline interpolation: -D5 means (x,y,z) in user
              units, Cartesian distances.

          Evaluate the spline exactly at the input data locations and report  statistics  of  the
          misfit  (mean, standard deviation, and rms).  Optionally, append a filename and we will
          write the data table, augmented by two extra columns holding the  spline  estimate  and
          the misfit.

              Name  of  resulting  output file. (1) If options -R, -I, and possibly -r are set we
              produce an equidistant output table. This will be written to stdout  unless  -G  is
              specified.  Note:  for  2-D  grids  the  -G option is required. (2) If option -T is
              selected then -G is required and the output file is a 2-D binary grid file. Applies
              to  2-D  interpolation  only. (3) If -N is selected then the output is an ASCII (or
              binary; see -bo) table; if -G is not given then this table is written  to  standard
              output. Ignored if -C or -C0 is given.

              Specify  equidistant  sampling  intervals,  on  for  each  dimension,  separated by

       -L     Do not remove a linear (1-D) or planer (2-D) trend when -D selects  mode  0-3  [For
              those  Cartesian  cases  a least-squares line or plane is modeled and removed, then
              restored after fitting a spline to the residuals]. However,  in  mixed  cases  with
              both  data  values and gradients, or for spherical surface data, only the mean data
              value is removed (and later and restored).

              ASCII file with coordinates of desired output locations x in the  first  column(s).
              The resulting w values are appended to each record and written to the file given in
              -G [or stdout if not specified]; see -bo for binary  output  instead.  This  option
              eliminates the need to specify options -R, -I, and -r.

              Rather than evaluate the surface, take the directional derivative in the az azimuth
              and return the magnitude of this derivative instead. For 3-D interpolation, specify
              the three components of the desired vector direction (the vector will be normalized
              before use).

              Specify the  domain  for  an  equidistant  lattice  where  output  predictions  are
              required. Requires -I and optionally -r.

              1-D: Give xmin/xmax, the minimum and maximum x coordinates.

              2-D:  Give  xmin/xmax/ymin/ymax, the minimum and maximum x and y coordinates. These
              may be Cartesian or geographical. If geographical,  then  west,  east,  south,  and
              north  specify  the Region of interest, and you may specify them in decimal degrees
              or in [±]dd:mm[][W|E|S|N] format. The two shorthands -Rg and -Rd  stand  for
              global  domain  (0/360  and  -180/+180  in  longitude respectively, with -90/+90 in

              3-D: Give xmin/xmax/ymin/ymax/zmin/zmax,  the  minimum  and  maximum  x,  y  and  z
              coordinates.  See  the 2-D section if your horizontal coordinates are geographical;
              note the shorthands -Rg and -Rd cannot be used if a 3-D domain is specified.

              Select one of six different splines. The first two are used for 1-D,  2-D,  or  3-D
              Cartesian  splines  (see  -D  for  discussion).  Note  that  all tension values are
              expected to be normalized tension in the range 0 < t <  1:  (c)  Minimum  curvature
              spline  [Sandwell,  1987],  (t)  Continuous curvature spline in tension [Wessel and
              Bercovici, 1998];  append  tension[/scale]  with  tension  in  the  0-1  range  and
              optionally supply a length scale [Default is the average grid spacing]. The next is
              a 1-D or 2-D spline: (l) Linear (1-D)  or  Bilinear  (2-D)  spline;  these  produce
              output  that  do  not exceed the range of the given data.  The next is a 2-D or 3-D
              spline: (r) Regularized spline in tension [Mitasova and Mitas, 1993]; again, append
              tension  and  optional  scale.  The last two are spherical surface splines and both
              imply -D4: (p) Minimum curvature spline [Parker, 1994],  (q)  Continuous  curvature
              spline  in tension [Wessel and Becker, 2008]; append tension. The G(x'; x') for the
              last method is slower to compute (a series solution) so we pre-calculate values and
              use  cubic  spline  interpolation  lookup  instead.   Optionally append +nN (an odd
              integer) to change how many points to use in the spline setup [10001].  The  finite
              Legendre sum has a truncation error [1e-6]; you can lower that by appending +elimit
              at the expense of longer run-time.

              For 2-D interpolation only. Only evaluate the solution at the nodes in the maskgrid
              that  are  not equal to NaN. This option eliminates the need to specify options -R,
              -I, and -r.

       -V[level] (more ...)
              Select verbosity level [c].

       -W[w]  Data one-sigma uncertainties are provided in the  last  column.   We  then  compute
              weights  that are inversely proportional to the uncertainties.  Append w if weights
              are given instead of uncertainties.  This results in a weighted least squares  fit.
              Note  that  this  only  has  an  effect if -C is used.  [Default uses no weights or

       -bi[ncols][t] (more ...)
              Select native binary input. [Default is 2-4 input columns (x,w); the number depends
              on the chosen dimension].

       -bo[ncols][type] (more ...)
              Select native binary output.

       -d[i|o]nodata (more ...)
              Replace input columns that equal nodata with NaN and do the reverse on output.

       -e[~]"pattern" | -e[~]/regexp/[i] (more ...)
              Only accept data records that match the given pattern.

       -f[i|o]colinfo (more ...)
              Specify data types of input and/or output columns.

       -h[i|o][n][+c][+d][+rremark][+rtitle] (more ...)
              Skip or produce header record(s).

       -icols[+l][+sscale][+ooffset][,...] (more ...)
              Select input columns and transformations (0 is first column).

       -ocols[,...] (more ...)
              Select output columns (0 is first column).

       -r (more ...)
              Set pixel node registration [gridline].

       -x[[-]n] (more ...)
              Limit number of cores used in multi-threaded algorithms (OpenMP required).

       -^ or just -
              Print a short message about the syntax of the command, then exits (NOTE: on Windows
              just use -).

       -+ or just +
              Print  an  extensive  usage  (help)  message,  including  the  explanation  of  any
              module-specific option (but not the GMT common options), then exits.

       -? or no arguments
              Print  a  complete  usage (help) message, including the explanation of all options,
              then exits.


       To resample the x,y Gaussian  random  data  created  by  gmtmath  and  stored  in  1D.txt,
       requesting output every 0.1 step from 0 to 10, and using a minimum cubic spline, try

              gmt math -T0/10/1 0 1 NRAND = 1D.txt
              gmt psxy -R0/10/-5/5 -JX6i/3i -B2f1/1 -Sc0.1 -Gblack 1D.txt -K >
              gmt greenspline 1D.txt -R0/10 -I0.1 -Sc -V | psxy -R -J -O -Wthin >>

       To apply a spline in tension instead, using a tension of 0.7, try

              gmt psxy -R0/10/-5/5 -JX6i/3i -B2f1/1 -Sc0.1 -Gblack 1D.txt -K >
              gmt greenspline 1D.txt -R0/10 -I0.1 -St0.7 -V | psxy -R -J -O -Wthin >>


       To  make a uniform grid using the minimum curvature spline for the same Cartesian data set
       from Davis (1986) that is used in the GMT Technical Reference and Cookbook example 16, try

              gmt greenspline table_5.11 -R0/6.5/-0.2/6.5 -I0.1 -Sc -V -D1
              gmt psxy -R0/6.5/-0.2/6.5 -JX6i -B2f1 -Sc0.1 -Gblack table_5.11 -K >
              gmt grdcontour -JX6i -B2f1 -O -C25 -A50 >>

       To use Cartesian splines in tension but only evaluate the solution where  the  input  mask
       grid is not NaN, try

              gmt greenspline table_5.11 -St0.5 -V -D1

       To  use  Cartesian  generalized splines in tension and return the magnitude of the surface
       slope in the NW direction, try

              gmt greenspline table_5.11 -R0/6.5/-0.2/6.5 -I0.1 -Sr0.95 -V -D1 -Q-45

       Finally, to use Cartesian minimum curvature splines in  recovering  a  surface  where  the
       input  data  is a single surface value (pt.txt) and the remaining constraints specify only
       the surface slope and direction (slopes.txt), use

              gmt greenspline pt.txt -R-3.2/3.2/-3.2/3.2 -I0.1 -Sc -V -D1 -Aslopes.txt+f1


       To create a uniform 3-D Cartesian grid table based on the  data  in  table_5.23  in  Davis
       (1986)  that  contains  x,y,z  locations and a measure of uranium oxide concentrations (in
       percent), try

              gmt greenspline table_5.23 -R5/40/-5/10/5/16 -I0.25 -Sr0.85 -V -D5 -G3D_UO2.txt


       To recreate Parker's [1994] example on a global 1x1 degree grid, assuming the data are  in
       file mag_obs_1990.txt, try

              greenspline -V -Rg -Sp -D3 -I1 mag_obs_1990.txt

       To do the same problem but applying tension of 0.85, use

              greenspline -V -Rg -Sq0.85 -D3 -I1 mag_obs_1990.txt


       1. For  the  Cartesian  cases  we  use  the  free-space Green functions, hence no boundary
          conditions are applied at the edges of the specified  domain.   For  most  applications
          this  is  fine as the region typically is arbitrarily set to reflect the extent of your
          data. However, if your application requires particular boundary conditions then you may
          consider using surface instead.

       2. In all cases, the solution is obtained by inverting a n x n double precision matrix for
          the Green function coefficients, where n is the number of data constraints. Hence, your
          computer's  memory  may  place restrictions on how large data sets you can process with
          greenspline.  Pre-processing  your  data  with   doc:blockmean,   doc:blockmedian,   or
          doc:blockmode  is recommended to avoid aliasing and may also control the size of n. For
          information, if n = 1024 then only 8 Mb memory is needed, but for n = 10240 we need 800
          Mb. Note that greenspline is fully 64-bit compliant if compiled as such.  For spherical
          data you may consider decimating using doc:gmtspatial nearest neighbor reduction.

       3. The inversion for coefficients can become numerically unstable when data neighbors  are
          very  close  compared  to  the  overall  span  of  the  data.   You  can remedy this by
          pre-processing the data, e.g., by averaging closely  spaced  neighbors.  Alternatively,
          you  can improve stability by using the SVD solution and discard information associated
          with the smallest eigenvalues (see -C).

       4. The series solution implemented for -Sq was developed  by  Robert  L.  Parker,  Scripps
          Institution of Oceanography, which we gratefully acknowledge.

       5. If  you  need  to  fit  a  certain  1-D spline through your data points you may wish to
          consider sample1d instead.  It will offer traditional splines  with  standard  boundary
          conditions  (such as the natural cubic spline, which sets the curvatures at the ends to
          zero).  In contrast, greenspline's 1-D spline, as is explained  in  note  1,  does  not
          specify boundary conditions at the end of the data domain.


       Tension  is  generally  used  to  suppress  spurious  oscillations  caused  by the minimum
       curvature requirement, in particular when rapid gradient changes are present in the  data.
       The  proper  amount  of tension can only be determined by experimentation. Generally, very
       smooth data (such as potential fields) do not require much, if any tension, while  rougher
       data  (such  as  topography) will typically interpolate better with moderate tension. Make
       sure you try a range of values before choosing your final result.  Note:  the  regularized
       spline  in  tension is only stable for a finite range of scale values; you must experiment
       to find the valid range and a useful setting. For more  information  on  tension  see  the
       references below.


       Davis,  J. C., 1986, Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology, 2nd Edition, 646 pp., Wiley,
       New York,

       Mitasova, H., and L. Mitas, 1993, Interpolation by regularized  spline  with  tension:  I.
       Theory and implementation, Math. Geol., 25, 641-655.

       Parker,  R.  L.,  1994,  Geophysical  Inverse  Theory,  386  pp.,  Princeton  Univ. Press,
       Princeton, N.J.

       Sandwell, D. T., 1987, Biharmonic spline interpolation  of  Geos-3  and  Seasat  altimeter
       data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 14, 139-142.

       Wessel,  P.,  and  D.  Bercovici,  1998,  Interpolation with splines in tension: a Green's
       function approach, Math. Geol., 30, 77-93.

       Wessel, P., and J. M. Becker, 2008, Interpolation using a generalized Green's function for
       a spherical surface spline in tension, Geophys. J.  Int, 174, 21-28.

       Wessel,   P.,   2009,   A  general-purpose  Green's  function  interpolator,  Computers  &
       Geosciences, 35, 1247-1254, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.08.012.


       gmt, gmtmath, nearneighbor, psxy, sample1d, sphtriangulate, surface, triangulate, xyz2grd


       2019, P. Wessel, W. H. F. Smith, R. Scharroo, J. Luis, and F. Wobbe