Provided by: ckermit_302-5.3build1_amd64 bug

NAME

       kermit - C‐Kermit 9.0: transport‐ and platform‐independent interactive and scriptable
       communications software.

              This document is intended to give the beginner sufficient information to make basic
              (if not advanced) use of C‐Kermit 9.0.  Although it might be rather long for a Unix
              manual page, it's still far shorter than the C‐Kermit manual, which should be
              consulted for advanced topics such as customization, character‐sets, scripting,
              etc. We also attempt to provide a clear structural overview of C‐Kermit's many
              capabilities, functional areas, states, and modes and their interrelation, that
              should be helpful to beginners and veterans alike, as well as to those upgrading to
              version 9.0 from earlier releases.

       This document is also available as a Web page at:

              http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckututor.html

DESCRIPTION

       C‐Kermit is an all‐purpose communications software package from the Kermit Project at
       Columbia University that:

       ·    Is portable to many platforms, Unix and non‐Unix alike.
       ·    Can make both serial and network connections.
       ·    Can conduct interactive terminal sessions over its connection.
       ·    Can transfer text or binary files over the same connection.
       ·    Can convert character sets in the terminal session.
       ·    Can convert character sets during text‐file file transfer.
       ·    Is customizable in every aspect of its operation.

       C‐Kermit is a modem program, a Telnet client, an Rlogin client, an FTP client, an HTTP
       client, and on selected platforms, also an X.25 client. It can make its own secure
       Internet connections using IETF‐approved security methods including Kerberos IV, Kerberos
       V, SSL/TLS, and SRP and it can also make SSH connections through your external SSH client
       application. It can be the far‐end file‐transfer or client/server partner of your desktop
       Kermit client. It can also accept incoming dialed and network connections.  It can even be
       installed as an Internet service on its own standard TCP socket, 1649 [RFC2839, RFC2840].

       And perhaps most important, everything you can do "by hand" (interactively) with C‐Kermit,
       can be "scripted" (automated) using its built‐in cross‐platform transport‐independent
       script programming language, which happens to be identical to its interactive command
       language.

       This manual page offers an overview of C‐Kermit 9.0 for Unix ("Unix" is an operating
       system family that includes AIX, DG/UX, FreeBSD, HP‐UX, IRIX, Linux, Mac OS X, NetBSD,
       OpenBSD, Open Server, Open Unix, QNX, Solaris, SunOS, System V R3, System V R4, Tru64
       Unix, Unixware, Xenix, and many others). For thorough coverage, please consult the
       published C‐Kermit manual and supplements (see DOCUMENTATION below). For further
       information about C‐Kermit, Kermit software for other platforms, and Kermit manuals, visit
       the Kermit Project website:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/

       This is a longer‐than‐average manual page, and yet it barely scratches the surface. Don't
       be daunted. C‐Kermit is a large and complex package, evolving over decades of practice and
       experience, but that doesn't mean it's hard to learn or use. Its most commonly used
       functions are explained here with pointers to additional information elsewhere.

SYNOPSIS

       kermit [ filename ] [ options ] [ {=,--,+} text ] ]

       or:

       kermit URL

       If the first command‐line argument is the name of a file, interactive‐mode commands are
       executed from the file. The '=' (or "--") argument tells Kermit not to parse the remainder
       of the command line, but to make the words following '=' available as \%1, \%2, ... \%9.
       The "+" argument is like "=" but for use in "kerbang scripts" (explained below). A second
       command‐line format allows the one and only argument to be a Telnet, FTP, HTTP, or IKSD
       URL.

       Order of execution:

        1.    The command file (if any).

        2.    The initialization file, if any, unless suppressed with -Y.

        3.    The customization file (if it is executed by the initialization file).

        4.    The command‐line URL (if any, and if so, execution stops here).

        5.    Command‐line options (if any).

        6.    Interactive commands.

       Some command‐line options can cause actions (such as -s to send a file); others just set
       parameters. If any action options are included on the command line, Kermit exits when
       finished unless also given the -S ("stay") option. If no action options are given, no
       initialization or command files contained an EXIT or QUIT command, and no fatal errors
       occurred, Kermit issues its prompt and waits for you to type commands.

              Bear in mind that C‐Kermit can be built with selected features disabled, and also
              that certain features are not available on all platforms. For example, C‐Kermit
              can't be built with TCP/IP support on a platform that does not have TCP/IP header
              files and libraries (and even if Kermit does include TCP/IP support, it can't be
              used to make TCP/IP connections on a computer that does not have a TCP/IP stack
              installed). If your version of C‐Kermit lacks a feature mentioned here, use its
              SHOW FEATURES command to see what might have been excluded.

       C‐Kermit has three kinds of commands: regular single‐letter command‐line options,
       extended‐format command‐line options, and interactive commands.

       Like most Unix commands, C‐Kermit can be be given options on the command line. But C‐
       Kermit also can be used interactively by giving it commands composed of words, which are
       more intuitive than cryptic command‐line options, and more flexible too. In other words,
       you don't have to use C‐Kermit's command‐line options, but they are available if you want
       to. (By the same token, you don't have to use its interactive commands either ‐‐ you can
       use either or both in any combination.)

       C‐Kermit is generally installed in the PATH as "kermit", and therefore is invoked by
       typing the word "kermit" (lowercase) at the shell prompt, and then pressing the Return or
       Enter key. If you wish to include command‐line options, put them after the word "kermit"
       but before pressing Return or Enter, separated by spaces, for example:

         $ kermit -s ckermit.tar.gz

       ('$' is the shell prompt; "kermit -s ckermit.tar.gz" is what you type, followed by Return
       or Enter.)

OPTIONS

       Here is a list of C‐Kermit's single‐letter command‐line options, which start with a single
       dash (-), in ASCII ("alphabetical") order. Alphabetic case is significant (-A is not the
       same as -a).  Action options are tagged "ACTION".

       -0     (digit zero)  100% transparent Connect state for "in‐the‐middle" operation: 8 bits,
              no parity, no escape character, everything passes through.

       -8     (digit eight)  Connection is 8‐bit clean (this is the default in C‐Kermit 8.0 and
              later). Equivalent to the EIGHTBIT command, which in turn is a shortcut for SET
              TERMINAL BYTESIZE 8, SET COMMAND BYTESIZE 8, SET PARITY NONE.

       -9 arg (digit nine)  Make a connection to an FTP server.  Equivalent to the FTP OPEN
              command.  Argument: IP‐address‐or‐hostname[:optional‐TCP‐port].  NOTE: C‐Kermit
              also has a separate FTP command‐line personality, with regular FTP‐like command‐
              line syntax. More about this below.

       -A     Kermit is to be started as an Internet service (IKSD) (only from inetd.conf).

       -B     Kermit is running in Batch or Background (no controlling terminal). To be used in
              case Kermit doesn't automatically sense its background status.  Equivalent to the
              SET BACKGROUND ON command.

       -C arg Interactive‐mode Commands to be executed.  Argument: Commands separated by commas,
              list in doublequotes.

       -D arg Delay before starting to send in Remote mode.  Equivalent to the SET DELAY command.
              Argument: Number of seconds.

       -E     Exit automatically when connection closes. Equivalent to SET EXIT ON-DISCONNECT ON.

       -F arg Use an open TCP connection.  Argument: Numeric file descriptor of open TCP
              connection.  Also see: -j, -J.

       -G arg (ACTION) Get file(s) from server, send contents to standard output, which normally
              would be piped to another process.  Argument: Remote file specification, in quotes
              if it contains metacharacters.  Also see: -g, -k.

       -H     Suppress program startup Herald and greeting.

       -I     Tell Kermit it has a reliable connection, to force streaming to be used where it
              normally would not be.  Equivalent to the SET RELIABLE ON command.

       -J arg (ACTION) "Be like Telnet." Like -j but implies -E.  Argument: IP hostname/address
              optionally followed by service.  NOTE: C‐Kermit also has a separate Telnet command‐
              line personality, with regular Telnet‐like command‐line syntax. More about this
              below.

       -L     Recursive directory descent for files in -s option.

       -M arg My user name (for use with Telnet, Rlogin, FTP, etc).  Equivalent to the SET LOGIN
              USER command.  Argument: Username string.

       -O     (ACTION) (Uppercase letter O) Be a server for One command only.  Also see: -x.

       -P     Don't convert file (Path) names of transferred files.  Equivalent to SET FILE NAMES
              LITERAL.

       -Q     Quick Kermit protocol settings. Equivalent to the FAST command. This is the default
              in C‐Kermit 7.0 and later.

       -R     Remote‐only (this just makes IF REMOTE true).

       -S     Stay (enter command parser after action options).

       -T     Force Text mode for file transfer; implies -V.  Equivalent to SET TRANSFER MODE
              MANUAL, SET FILE TYPE TEXT.

       -V     Disable automatic per‐file text/binary switching.  Equivalent to SET TRANSFER MODE
              MANUAL.

       -Y     Skip (don't execute) the initialization file.

       -a arg As‐name for file(s) in -s, -r, or -g.  Argument: As‐name string (alternative
              filename). When receiving files, this can be a directory name.

       -b arg Speed for serial device. Equivalent to SET SPEED.  Argument: Numeric Bits per
              second for serial connections.

       -c     (ACTION) Enter Connect state before transferring files.

       -d     Create a debug.log file with detailed debugging information (a second -d adds
              timestamps). Equivalent to LOG DEBUG but takes effect sooner.

       -e arg Maximum length for incoming Kermit file‐transfer packets. Equivalent to SET RECEIVE
              PACKET-LENGTH.  Argument: Length in bytes.

       -f     (ACTION) Send a FINISH command to a Kermit server.

       -g arg Get file(s) from a Kermit server.  Argument: File specification on other computer,
              in quotes if it contains metacharacters. Equivalent to GET. Also see: -a, -G, -r.

       -h     (ACTION) Print Help text for single‐letter command‐line options (pipe thru 'more'
              to prevent scrolling).

       -i     Force binary (Image) mode for file transfer; implies -V. Equivalent to SET TRANSFER
              MODE MANUAL, SET FILE TYPE BINARY.

       -j arg Make a TCP/IP connection.  Argument: IP host name/address and optional service name
              or number. Equivalent to the TELNET command.  Also see: -J, -F.

       -k     (ACTION) Receive file(s) to standard output, which normally would be piped to
              another process.  Also see: -r, -G.

       -l arg (Lowercase letter L) Make a connection on the given serial communications device.
              Equivalent to the SET LINE (SET PORT) command.  Argument: Serial device name, e.g.
              /dev/ttyS0.

       -m arg Modem type for use with the -l device. Equivalent to the SET MODEM TYPE command.
              Argument: Modem name as in SET MODEM TYPE command, e.g. "usrobotics".

       -n     (ACTION) Enter Connect state after transferring files (historical).

       -p arg Parity. Equivalent to the SET PARITY command.  Argument: One of the following:
              e(ven), o(dd), m(ark), n(one), s(pace).

       -q     Quiet (suppress most messages). Equivalent to SET QUIET ON.

       -r     (ACTION) Receive file(s). Equivalent to the RECEIVE command.  Argument: (none, but
              see -a)

       -s arg Send file(s).  Argument: One or more local file specifications.  Equivalent to the
              SEND command.  Also see: -a.

       -t     (Historical) Xon (Ctrl-Q) Turnaround character for half‐duplex connections (used on
              serial linemode connections to old mainframes). Equivalent to SET DUPLEX HALF, SET
              HANDSHAKE XON.

       -v arg Window size for Kermit protocol (ignored when streaming). Equivalanet to SET
              WINDOW-SIZE.  Argument: Number, 1 to 32.

       -w     Incoming files Write over existing files. Equivalent to SET FILE COLLISION
              OVERWRITE.

       -x     (ACTION) Enter server mode. Equivalent to the SERVER command.  Also see: -O.

       -y arg Alternative initialization file.  Argument: Filename.

       -z     Force foreground behavior. To be used in case Kermit doesn't automatically sense
              its foreground status.  Equivalent to the SET BACKGROUND OFF command.

       Extended command‐line options (necessary because single‐letter ones are about used up)
       start with two dashes (--), with words rather than single letters as option names. If an
       extended option takes an argument, it is separated from the option word by a colon (:).
       Extended options include:

        --bannerfile:filename
              File to display upon startup or IKSD login.

        --cdfile:filename
              File to be sent for display to the client when server changes directory (filename
              is relative to the changed‐to directory).

        --cdmessage:{on,off}
              Enable/disable the server CD message feature.

        --help
              Prints usage message for extended options.

        --helpfile:filename
              Designates a file containing custom text to replace the top‐level HELP command.

        --nointerrupts
              Disables keyboard interrupts.

        --noperms
              Disables the Kermit protocol file Permissions attribute, to prevent transmission of
              file permissions (protection) from sender to receiver.

        --version
              (ACTION) C‐Kermit prints its version number.

       Plus several other IKSD‐Only options described at:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/iksd.html

       See the file‐transfer section for examples of command‐line invocation.

COMMAND LANGUAGE

       C‐Kermit's interactive command language is the subject of a 622‐page book and another
       several hundred pages of updates, far too much for a manual page. But it's not hard to get
       started. At the shell prompt, just type "kermit" to get C‐Kermit's interactive command
       prompt:

         $ kermit
         (/current/directory) C-Kermit>

       Begin by typing "help" (and then press the Return or Enter key) for a top‐level overview,
       read it, and go from there. Your second command should probably be "intro" (introduction).
       Note the prompt shows your current directory (unless you tell Kermit to prompt you with
       something else).

       Interactive commands are composed mainly of regular English words, usually in the form of
       imperative sentences, such as:

         send oofa.txt

       which tells Kermit to send (transfer) the file whose name is oofa.txt, or:

         set transfer mode automatic

       which sets Kermit's "transfer mode" to "automatic" (whatever that means).

       While typing commands, you can abbreviate, ask for help (by pressing the "?" key anywhere
       in a command), complete keywords or filenames (with the Tab or Esc key), and edit your
       typing with Backspace or Delete, Ctrl-W, Ctrl-U, etc. You can also recall previous
       commands, save your command history, and who knows what else. Give the INTRO command for
       details.

       C‐Kermit has hundreds of commands, and they can be issued in infinite variety and
       combinations, including commands for:

       ·    Making connections (SET LINE, DIAL, TELNET, SSH, FTP, ...)
       ·    Breaking connections (HANGUP, CLOSE)
       ·    Transferring files (SEND, GET, RECEIVE, MOVE, RESEND, ...)
       ·    Establishing preferences (SET)
       ·    Displaying preferences (SHOW)
       ·    Managing local files (CD, DELETE, MKDIR, DIR, RENAME, TYPE, ...)
       ·    Managing remote files (RCD, RDEL, RMKDIR, RDIR, ...)
       ·    Using local files (FOPEN, FCLOSE, FREAD, FWRITE)
       ·    Programming (TAKE, DEFINE, IF, FOR, WHILE, SWITCH, DECLARE, ...)
       ·    Interacting with the user (ECHO, ASK, ...)
       ·    Interacting with a remote computer (INPUT, OUTPUT, ...)
       ·    Interacting with local programs (RUN, EXEC, PTY, ...)
       ·    Logging things (LOG SESSION, LOG PACKETS, LOG DEBUG, ...)

       And of course QUIT or EXIT to get out and HELP to get help, and for programmers: loops,
       decision making, variables, arrays, associative arrays, integer and floating point
       arithmetic, macros, built‐in and user‐defined functions, string manipulation, pattern
       matching, block structure, scoping, recursion, and all the rest. To get a list of all C‐
       Kermit's commands, type a question mark (?) at the prompt. To get a description of any
       command, type HELP followed by the name of the command, for example:

         help send

       The command interruption character is Ctrl-C (hold down the Ctrl key and press the C key).

       The command language "escape character", used to introduce variable names, function
       invocations, and so on, is backslash (. If you need to include a literal backslash in a
       command, type two of them, e.g.:

         get c:\k95\k95custom.ini

   Command Files, Macros, and Scripts
       A file containing Kermit commands is called a Kermit command file or Kermit script. It can
       be executed with Kermit's TAKE command:

         (/current/dir) C-Kermit> take commandfile

       (where "commandfile" is the name of the command file). Please don't pipe a command file
       into Kermit's standard input (which might or might not work); if you have Kermit commands
       in a file, tell Kermit to TAKE the file.

       In Unix only, a Kermit command file can also be executed directly by including a "kerbang"
       line as the first line of the file:

         #!/usr/local/bin/kermit +

       That is, a top line that starts with "#!", followed immediately by the full path of the
       Kermit executable, and then, if the Kermit script is to be given arguments on the command
       line, a space and a plus sign. The script file must also have execute permission:

         chmod +x commandfile

       Except for the " +" part, this is exactly the same as you would do for a shell script, a
       Perl script, etc. Here's a simple but useless example script that regurgitates its
       arguments (up to three of them):

         #!/usr/local/bin/kermit +
         if defined \%1 echo "Argument 1: \%1"
         if defined \%2 echo "Argument 2: \%2"
         if defined \%3 echo "Argument 3: \%3"
         if defined \%4 echo "etc..."
         exit

       If this file is stored in your current directory as "commandfile", then:

         ./commandfile one two three four five

       prints:

         Argument 1: one
         Argument 2: two
         Argument 3: three
         etc...

       This illustrates the basic structure of a standalone Kermit script: the "kerbang line",
       then some commands. It should end with "exit" unless you want the Kermit prompt to appear
       when it is finished. \%1 is the first argument, \%2 the second, and so on.

       You can also create your own commands by defining named macros composed of other Kermit
       commands (or macros). For example:

         define mydelete {
             local trash
             assign trash \v(home)trashcan/
             if not defined \%1 end 1 "Delete what?"
             if wild \%1 {
                 end 1 "Deleting multiple files is too scary"
             }
             if not exist \%1 end 1 "I can't find \%1"
             if not directory \m(trash) {
                 mkdir \m(trash)
                 if fail end 1 "No trash can"
             }
             rename /list \%1 \m(trash)
         }
         define myundelete {
             local trash
             assign trash \v(home)trashcan/
             if not defined \%1 end 1 "Undelete what?"
             if wild \%1 {
                 end 1 "Undeleting multiple files is too hard"
             }
             if not directory \m(trash) end 1 "No trash can"
             if not exist \m(trash)\%1 {
                 end 1 "I can't find \%1 in trash can"
             }
             rename /list \m(trash)\%1 .
         }

       These sample macros are not exactly production quality (they don't handle filenames that
       include path segments, they don't handle multiple files, etc), but you get the idea: you
       can pass arguments to macros, and they can check them and make other kinds of decisions.
       If you put the above lines into your initialization or customization file (explained
       below), you'll have MYDELETE and MYUNDELETE commands available every time you start
       Kermit, at least as long as you don't suppress execution of the initialization file.
       (Exercise for the reader: Make these macros generally useful: remove limitations, add
       trashcan display, browsing, emptying, etc.)

       Kerbang scripts execute without the initialization file. This to keep them portable and
       also to make them start faster. If you want to write Kerbang scripts that depend on the
       initialization file, include the command

         take \v(home).kermrc

       at the desired spot in the script. By the way, \v(xxx) is a built‐in variable (xxx is the
       variable name, "home" in this case). To see what built‐in variables are available, type
       "show variables" at the C‐Kermit prompt. To see what else you can show, type "show ?".
       \m(xxx) is a user defined variable (strictly speaking, it is a macro used as a variable).

   Command List
       C‐Kermit has more than 200 top‐level commands, and some of these, such as SET, branch off
       into hundreds of subcommands of their own, so it's not practical to describe them all
       here. Instead, here's a concise list of the most commonly used top‐level commands, grouped
       by category. To learn about each command, type "help" followed by the command name, e.g.
       "help set".  Terms such as Command state and Connect state are explained in subsequent
       sections.

       Optional fields are shown in [ brackets ].  "filename" means the name of a single file.
       filespec means a file specification that is allowed to contain wildcard characters like
       '*' to match groups of files. options are (optional) switches like /PAGE, /NOPAGE, /QUIET,
       etc, listed in the HELP text for each command. Example:

         send /recursive /larger:10000 /after:-1week /except:*.txt *

       which can be read as "send all the files in this directory and all the ones underneath it
       that are larger than 10000 bytes, no more than one week old, and whose names don't end
       with ".txt".

   Basic Commands
              HELP   Requests top‐level help.

              HELP command
                     Requests help about the given command.

              INTRODUCTION
                     Requests a brief introduction to C‐Kermit.

              LICENSE
                     Displays the C‐Kermit software copyright and license.

              VERSION
                     Displays C‐Kermit's version number.

              EXIT [ number ]
                     Exits from Kermit with the given status code. Synonyms: QUIT, E, Q.

              TAKE filename [ parameters... ]
                     Executes commands from the given

              LOG item [ filename ]
                     Keeps a log of the given item in the given file.

              [ DO ] macro [ parameters... ]
                     Executes commands from the given macro.

              SET parameter value
                     Sets the given parameter to the given value.

              SHOW category
                     Shows settings in a given category.

              STATUS Tells whether previous command succeeded or failed.

              DATE [ date‐and/or‐time ]
                     Shows current date‐time or interprets given date‐time.

              RUN [ extern‐command [ parameters... ]
                     Runs the given external command. Synonym: !.

              EXEC [ extern‐command [ params... ]
                     Kermit overlays itself with the given command.

              SUSPEND
                     Stops Kermit and puts it in the background. Synonym: Z.

   Local File Management
              TYPE [ options ] filename
                     Displays the contents of the given file.

              MORE [ options ] filename
                     Equivalent to TYPE /PAGE (pause after each screenful).

              CAT [ options ] filename
                     Equivalent to TYPE /NOPAGE.

              HEAD [ options ] filename
                     Displays the first few lines of a given file.

              TAIL [ options ] filename
                     Displays the last few lines of a given file.

              GREP [ options ] pattern filespec
                     Displays lines from files that match the pattern. Synonym: FIND.

              DIRECTORY [ options ] [filespec ]
                     Lists files (built‐in, many options).

              LS [ options ] [ filespec ]
                     Lists files (runs external "ls" command).

              DELETE [ options ] [ filespec ]
                     Deletes files. Synonym: RM.

              PURGE [ options ] [ filespec ]
                     Removes backup (*.~n~) files.

              COPY [ options ] [ filespecs... ]
                     Copies files. Synonym: CP.

              RENAME [ options ] [ filespecs... ]
                     Renames files. Synonym: MV.

              CHMOD [ options ] [ filespecs... ]
                     Changes permissions of files.

              TRANSLATE filename charsets [ filename ]
                     Converts file's character set. Synonym: XLATE.

              CD     Changes your working directory to your home directory.

              CD directory
                     Changes your working directory to the one given.

              CDUP   Changes your working directory one level up.

              PWD    Displays your working directory.

              BACK   Returns to your previous working directory.

              MKDIR [ directory ]
                     Creates a directory.

              RMDIR [ directory ]
                     Removes a directory.

   Making Connections
              SET LINE [ options ] devicename
                     Opens the named serial port. Synonym: SET PORT.

              OPEN LINE [ options ] devicename
                     Same as SET LINE. Synonym: OPEN PORT.

              SET MODEM TYPE [ name ]
                     Tells Kermit what kind of modem is on the port.

              DIAL [ number ]
                     Tells Kermit to dial the given phone number with the modem.

              REDIAL Redials the most recently dialed phone number.

              ANSWER Waits for and answers an incoming call on the modem.

              AUTHENTICATE [ parameters... ]
                     Performs secure authentication on a TCP/IP connection.

              SET NETWORK TYPE { TCP/IP, X.25, ... }
                     Selects network type for subsequent SET HOST commands.

              SET HOST [ options ] host [ port ]
                     Opens a network connection to the given host and port.

              SET HOST * port
                     Waits for an incoming TCP/IP connection on the given port.

              TELNET [ options ] host
                     Opens a Telnet connection to the host and enters Connect state.

              RLOGIN [ options ] host
                     Opens an Rlogin connection to the host and enters Connect state.

              IKSD [ options ] host
                     Opens a connection to an Internet Kermit Service.

              SSH [ options ] host
                     Opens an SSH connection to the host and enters Connect state.

              FTP OPEN host [ options ]
                     Opens an FTP connection to the host.

              HTTP [ options ] OPEN host
                     Opens an HTTP connection to the host.

              PTY external‐command
                     Runs the command on a pseudoterminal as if it were a connection.

              PIPE external‐command
                     Runs the command through a pipe as if it were a connection.

   Using Connections
              CONNECT [ options ]
                     Enters Connect (terminal) state.  Synonym: C.

              REDIRECT command
                     Redirects the given external command over the connection.

              TELOPT command
                     Sends a Telnet protocol command (Telnet connections only).

              Ctrl-\C
                     "Escapes back" from Connect state to Command state.

              Ctrl-\B
                     (In Connect state) Sends a BREAK signal (serial or Telnet).

              Ctrl-\!
                     (In Connect state) Enters inferior shell; "exit" to return.

              Ctrl-\?
                     (In Connect state) Shows a menu of other escape‐level options.

              Ctrl-\Ctrl-\
                     (In Connect state) Type two Ctrl-Backslashes to send one of them.

              SET ESCAPE [ character ]
                     Changes Kermit's Connect‐state escape character.

   Closing Connections
              HANGUP Hangs up the currently open serial‐port or network connection.

              CLOSE  Closes the currently open serial‐port or network connection.

              SET LINE (with no devicename)
                     Closes the currently open serial‐port or network connection.

              SET HOST (with no hostname)
                     Closes the currently open serial‐port or network connection.

              FTP CLOSE
                     Closes the currently open FTP connection.

              HTTP CLOSE
                     Closes the currently open HTTP connection.

              EXIT   Also closes all connections. Synonym: QUIT.

              SET EXIT WARNING OFF
                     Suppresses warning about open connections on exit or close.

   File Transfer
              SEND [ options ] filename [ as‐name ]
                     Sends the given file. Synonym: S.

              SEND [ options ] filespec
                     Sends all files that match.

              RESEND [ options ] filespec
                     Resumes an interrupted SEND from the point of failure.

              RECEIVE [ options ] [ as‐name ]
                     Waits passively for files to arrive. Synonym: R.

              LOG TRANSACTIONS [ filename ]
                     Keeps a record of file transfers.

              FAST   Use fast file‐transfer settings (default).

              CAUTIOUS
                     Use cautious and less fast file‐transfer settings.

              ROBUST Use ultra‐conservative and slow file‐transfer settings.

              STATISTICS [ options ]
                     Gives statistics about the most recent file transfer.

              WHERE  After transfer: "Where did my files go?".

              TRANSMIT [ options ] [ofilename ]
                     Sends file without protocol. Synonym: XMIT.

              LOG SESSION [ filename ]
                     Captures remote text or files without protocol.

              SET PROTOCOL [ name... ]
                     Tells Kermit to use an external file‐transfer protocol.

              FTP { PUT, MPUT, GET, MGET, ... }
                     FTP client commands.

              HTTP { PUT, GET, HEAD, POST, ... }
                     HTTP client commands.

   Kermit Server
              ENABLE, DISABLE
                     Controls which server features can be used by clients.

              SET SERVER
                     Sets parameters prior to entering Server state.

              SERVER Enters Server state.

   Client of Kermit or FTP Server
              [ REMOTE ] LOGIN [ user password ]
                     Logs in to a Kermit server or IKSD that requires it.

              [ REMOTE ] LOGOUT
                     Logs out from a Kermit server or IKSD.

              SEND [ options ] filename [ as‐name ]
                     Sends the given file to the server. Synonyms: S, PUT.

              SEND [ options ] filespec
                     Sends all files that match.

              RESEND [ options ] filespec
                     Resumes an interrupted SEND from the point of failure.

              GET [ options ] remote‐filespec
                     Asks the server to send the given files. Synonym: G.

              REGET [ options ] remote‐filespec
                     Resumes an interrupted GET from the point of failure.

              REMOTE CD [ directory ]
                     Asks server to change its working directory. Synonym: RCD.

              REMOTE PWD [ directory ]
                     Asks server to display its working directory. Synonym: RPWD.

              REMOTE DIRECTORY [ filespec... ]
                     Asks server to send a directory listing. Synonym: RDIR.

              REMOTE DELETE [ filespec... ]
                     Asks server to delete files. Synonym: RDEL.

              REMOTE [ command... ]
                     (Many other commands: "remote ?" for a list).

              MAIL [ options ] filespec
                     Sends file(s) to be delivered as e‐mail (Kermit only).

              FINISH Asks the server to exit server state (Kermit only).

              BYE    Asks the server to log out and close the connection.

   Script Programming
              DEFINE, DECLARE, UNDEFINE, UNDECLARE, ASSIGN, EVALUATE, SEXPRESSION, ARRAY, SORT,
              INPUT, OUTPUT, IF, FOR, WHILE, SWITCH, GOTO, ECHO, ASK, GETC, GETOK, ASSERT, WAIT,
              SLEEP, FOPEN, FREAD, FWRITE, FCLOSE, STOP, END, RETURN, LEARN, SHIFT, TRACE, VOID,
              INCREMENT, DECREMENT, ... For these and many more you'll need to consult the manual
              and supplements, and/or visit the Kermit Script Library, which also includes a
              brief tutorial. Hint: HELP LEARN to find out how to get Kermit to write simple
              scripts for you.

       Many of Kermit's commands have synonyms, variants, relatives, and so on.  For example,
       MSEND is a version of SEND that accepts a list of file specifications to be sent, rather
       than just one file specification, and MPUT is a synonym of MSEND. MOVE means to SEND and
       then DELETE the source file if successful. MMOVE is like MOVE, but accepts a list of
       filespecs, and so on. These are described in the full documentation.

       Use question mark to feel your way through an unfamiliar command, as in this example:

         C-Kermit> remote ? One of the following:
          assign     directory  kermit     print      rmdir
          cd         exit       login      pwd        set
          copy       help       logout     query      space
          delete     host       mkdir      rename     type
         C-Kermit> remote set ? One of the following:
          attributes   file         retry        transfer
          block-check  receive      server       window
         C-Kermit> remote set file ? One of the following:
          character-set  incomplete     record-length
          collision      names          type
         C-Kermit> remote set file names ? One of the following:
          converted  literal
         C-Kermit> remote set file names literal
         C-Kermit>

       This is called menu on demand: you get a menu when you want one, but menus are not forced
       on you even when know what you're doing. Note that you can also abbreviate most keywords,
       and you can complete them with the Tab or Esc key. Also note that ? works for filenames
       too, and that you can use it in the middle of a keyword or filename, not just at the
       beginning. For example, "send x?" lists all the files in the current directory whose names
       start with 'x'.

INITIALIZATION FILE

       In its default configuration, C‐Kermit executes commands from a file called .kermrc in
       your home directory when it starts, unless it is given the -Y or -y command‐line option.
       Custom configurations might substitute a shared system‐wide initialization file. The SHOW
       FILE command tells what initialization file, if any, was used. The standard initialization
       file "chains" to an individual customization file, .mykermc, in the home directory, in
       which each user can establish her/his own preferences, define macros, and so on.

       Since execution of the initialization file (at least the standard one) makes C‐Kermit take
       longer to start, it might be better not to have an initialization file, especially now
       that Kermit's default startup configuration is well attuned to modern computing and
       networking ‐‐ in other words, you no longer have do anything special to make Kermit
       transfers go fast. So instead of having an initialization file that is executed every time
       Kermit starts, you might consider making one or more kerbang scripts (with names other
       that .kermrc) that do NOT include an "exit" command, and invoke those when you need the
       settings, macro definitions, and/or scripted actions they contain, and invoke C‐Kermit
       directly when you don't.

       To put it another way... We still distribute the standard initialization file since it's
       featured in the manual and backwards compatibility is important to us. But there's no harm
       in not using it if you don't need the stuff that's in it (services directory, dialing
       directory, network directory, and associated macro definitions). On the other hand, if
       there are settings or macros you want in effect EVERY time you use Kermit, the
       initialization file (or the customization file it chains to) is the place to put them,
       because that's the only place Kermit looks for them automatically each time you start it.

MODES OF OPERATION

       Kermit is said to be in Local mode if it has made a connection to another computer, e.g.
       by dialing it or establishing a Telnet connection to it. The other computer is remote, so
       if you start another copy of Kermit on the remote computer, it is said to be in Remote
       mode (as long as it has not made any connections of its own). The local Kermit
       communicates over the communications device or network connection, acting as a conduit
       between the the remote computer and your keyboard and screen. The remote Kermit is the
       file‐transfer partner to the local Kermit and communicates only through its standard input
       and output.

       At any moment, a Kermit program can be in any of the following states. It's important to
       know what they are and how to change from one to the other.

       Command state
              In this state, Kermit reads commands from:

              ·    Your keyboard; or:
              ·    A file, or:
              ·    A macro definition.

              You can exit from Command state back to Unix with the EXIT or QUIT command (same
              thing). You can enter Connect state with any of various commands (CONNECT, DIAL,
              TELNET, etc). You can enter file transfer state with commands like SEND, RECEIVE,
              and GET. You can enter Server state with the SERVER command. The TAKE command tells
              Kermit to read and execute commands from a file. The (perhaps implied) DO command
              tells Kermit to read and execute commands from a macro definition.  While in
              Command state, you can interrupt any command, macro, or command file by typing
              Ctrl-C (hold down the Ctrl key and press the C key); this normally brings you back
              to the prompt.

       Shell state
              You can invoke an inferior shell or external command from the Kermit command prompt
              by using the PUSH, RUN (!), EDIT, or BROWSE command.  While the inferior shell or
              command is active, Kermit is suspended and does nothing. Return to Kermit Command
              state by exiting from the inferior shell or application.

       Connect state
              In this state, which can be entered only when in Local mode (i.e. when Kermit has
              made a connection to another computer), Kermit is acting as a terminal to the
              remote computer. Your keystrokes are sent to the remote computer and characters
              that arrive over the communication connection are displayed on your screen. This
              state is entered when you give a CONNECT, DIAL, TELNET, RLOGIN, or IKSD command.
              You can return to command state by logging out of the remote computer, or by
              typing:

                Ctrl-\c

              That is: Hold down the Ctrl key and press the backslash key, then let go of the
              Ctrl key and press the C key. This is called escaping back.  Certain other escape‐
              level commands are also provided; type Ctrl-\?  for a list. For example, you can
              enter Shell state with:

                Ctrl-\!

              To send a Ctrl-\ to the host while in Connect state, type two of them in a row. See
              HELP CONNECT and HELP SET ESCAPE for more info.

       Local file‐transfer state
              In this state, Kermit is sending packets back and forth with the other computer in
              order to transfer a file or accomplish some other file‐related task. And at the
              same time, it is displaying its progress on your screen and watching your keyboard
              for interruptions. In this state, the following single‐keystroke commands are
              accepted:

              X      Interrupt the current file and go on to the next (if any).

              Z      Interrupt the current file and skip all the rest.

              E      Like Z but uses a "stronger" protocol (use if X or Z don't work).

              Ctrl-C Interrupt file‐transfer mode (use if Z or E don't work).

       Kermit returns to its previous state (Command or Connect) when the transfer is complete or
       when interrupted successfully by X, Z, E, or Ctrl-C (hold down the Ctrl key and press the
       C key).

       Remote file‐transfer state
              In this state, Kermit is exchanging file‐transfer packets with its local partner
              over its standard i/o. It leaves this state automatically when the transfer is
              complete. In case you find your local Kermit in Connect state and the remote one in
              File‐transfer state (in which it seems to ignore your keystrokes), you can usually
              return it to command state by typing three Ctrl-C's in a row. If that doesn't work,
              return your local Kermit to Command state (Ctrl-\ C) and type "e‐packet" and then
              press the Return or Enter key; this forces a fatal Kermit protocol error.

       Remote Server state
              This is like Remote File‐transfer state, except it never returns automatically to
              Command state. Rather, it awaits further instructions from the client program; that
              is, from your Local Kermit program. You can return the Remote Server to its
              previous state by issuing a "finish" command to the client, or if you are in
              Connect state, by typing three Ctrl-C's in a row. You can tell the server job to
              log out and break the connection by issuing a "bye" command to the client.

       Local Server state
              Like Remote‐Server state, but in local mode, and therefore with its file‐transfer
              display showing, and listening for single‐key commands, as in Local File‐transfer
              state. Usually this state is entered automatically when a remote Kermit program
              gives a GET command.

              C‐Kermit, Kermit 95, and MS‐DOS Kermit all can switch automatically from Connect
              state to Local File‐transfer state when you initiate a file transfer from the
              remote computer by starting Kermit and telling it to send or get a file, in which
              case, Connect state is automatically resumed after the file transfer is finished.

              Note that C‐Kermit is not a terminal emulator. It is a communications application
              that you run in a terminal window (e.g. console or Xterm). The specific emulation,
              such as VT100, VT220, Linux Console, or Xterm, is provided by the terminal window
              in which you are running C‐Kermit. Kermit 95 and MS‐DOS Kermit, on the other hand,
              are true terminal emulators. Why is C‐Kermit not a terminal emulator? CLICK HERE to
              read about it.

MAKING CONNECTIONS

       Here is how to make different kinds of connections using interactive Kermit commands (as
       noted above, you can also make connections with command‐line options). Note that you don't
       have to make connections with Kermit. It can also be used on the far end of a connection
       as the remote file transfer and management partner of your local communications software.

       Making a Telnet Connection
              At the C‐Kermit command prompt, simply type:

                telnet foo.bar.com

              (substituting desired hostname or address).  You can also include a port number:

                telnet xyzcorp.com 3000 ;

              If the connection is successful, Kermit automically enters Connect state. When you
              logout from the remote host, Kermit automatically returns to its prompt. More info:
              HELP TELNET, HELP SET TELNET, HELP SET TELOPT. Also see the IKSD section below.

       Making an Rlogin connection
              This is just like Telnet, except you have to be root to do it because Rlogin uses a
              privileged TCP port:

                rlogin foo.bar.com

              More info: HELP RLOGIN.

       Making an SSH Connection
              Unlike Telnet and Rlogin, SSH connections are not built‐in, but handled by running
              your external SSH client through a pseudoterminal.  Using C‐Kermit to control the
              SSH client gives you all of Kermit's features (file transfer, character‐set
              conversion, scripting, etc) over SSH.

                ssh foo.bar.com

              More info: HELP SSH, HELP SET SSH.

       Dialing with a Modem
              If it's an external modem, make sure it is connected to a usable serial port on
              your computer with a regular (straight‐through) modem cable, and to the telephone
              jack with a telephone cable, and that it's turned on. Then use these commands:

                set modem type usrobotics  ; Or other supported type
                set line /dev/ttyS0        ; Specify device name
                set speed 57600            ; Or other desired speed
                set flow rts/cts           ; Most modern modems support this
                set dial method tone       ; (or pulse)
                dial 7654321               ; Dial the desired number

              Type "set modem type ?" for a list of supported modem types. If you omit the SET
              MODEM TYPE command, the default type is "generic‐high‐speed", which should work for
              most modern AT‐command‐set modems. If the line is busy, Kermit redials
              automatically. If the call does not succeed, use "set dial display on" and try it
              again to watch what happens. If the call succeeds, Kermit enters Connect state
              automatically and returns to its prompt automatically when you log out from the
              remote computer or the connection is otherwise lost.

              You can also dial from a modem that is accessible by Telnet, e.g. to a reverse
              terminal server. In this case the command sequence is:

                set host ts.xxx.com 2000   ; Terminal‐server and port
                set modem type usrobotics  ; Or other supported type
                set dial method tone       ; (or pulse)
                dial 7654321               ; Dial the desired number

              If the terminal server supports the Telnet Com Port Option, RFC 2217, you can also
              give serial‐port related commands such as SET SPEED, SET PARITY, and so on, and
              Kermit relays them to the terminal server using the protocol specified in the RFC.

              More info: HELP SET MODEM, HELP SET LINE, HELP SET SPEED, HELP SET FLOW, HELP DIAL,
              HELP SET DIAL, HELP SET MODEM, HELP SET CARRIER-WATCH, SHOW COMMUNICATIONS, SHOW
              MODEM, SHOW DIAL.

       Direct Serial Port
              Connect the two computers, A and B, with a null modem cable (or two modem cables
              interconnected with a null‐modem adapter or modem eliminator). From Computer A:

                set modem type none   ; There is no modem
                set line /dev/ttyS0   ; Specify device name
                set carrier-watch off ; If DTR CD are not cross‐connected
                set speed 57600       ; Or other desired speed
                set flow rts/cts      ; If RTS and CTS are cross‐connected
                set parity even       ; (or "mark" or "space", if necessary)
                set stop-bits 2       ; (rarely necessary)
                set flow xon/xoff     ; If you can't use RTS/CTS
                connect               ; Enter Connect (terminal) state

              This assumes Computer B is set up to let you log in. If it isn't, you can run a
              copy of Kermit on Computer B and follow approximately the same directions. More
              info: As above plus HELP CONNECT.

       With modems or direct serial connections, you might also have to "set parity even" (or
       "mark" or "space") if it's a 7‐bit connection.

       Of the connection types listed above, only one can be open at a time.  However, any one of
       these can be open concurrently with an FTP or HTTP session. Each connection type can be
       customized to any desired degree, scripted, logged, you name it. See the manual.

       NOTE: On selected platforms, C‐Kermit also can make X.25 connections. See the manual for
       details.

TRANSFERRING FILES WITH KERMIT

       There is a widespread and persistent belief that Kermit is a slow protocol.  This is
       because, until recently, it used conservative tuning by default to make sure file
       transfers succeeded, rather than failing because they overloaded the connection. Some
       extra commands (or command‐line options, like -Q) were needed to make it go fast, but
       nobody bothered to find out about them. Also, it takes two to tango: most non‐Kermit‐
       Project Kermit protocol implementations really ARE slow. The best file‐transfer partners
       for C‐Kermit are: another copy of C‐Kermit (7.0 or later) and Kermit 95.  These
       combinations work well and they work fast by default. MS‐DOS Kermit is good too, but you
       have to tell it to go fast (by giving it the FAST command).

       Furthermore, all three of these Kermit programs support "autodownload" and "autoupload",
       meaning that when they are in Connect state and a Kermit packet comes in from the remote,
       they automatically switch into file transfer mode.

       And plus, C‐Kermit and K95 also switch automatically between text and binary mode for each
       file, so there is no need to "set file type binary" or "set file type text", or to worry
       about files being corrupted because they were transferred in the wrong mode.

       What all of these words add up to is that now, when you use up‐to‐date Kermit software
       from the Kermit Project, file transfer is not only fast, it's ridiculously easy. You
       barely have to give any commands at all.

       Downloading Files
              Let's say you have Kermit 95, C‐Kermit, or MS‐DOS Kermit on your desktop computer,
              with a connection to a Unix computer that has C‐Kermit installed as "kermit". To
              download a file (send it from Unix to your desktop computer), just type the
              following command at your Unix shell prompt:

                kermit -s oofa.txt

              (where oofa.txt is the filename). If you want to send more than one file, you can
              put as many filenames as you want on the command line, and they can be any
              combination of text and binary:

                kermit -s oofa.txt oofa.zip oofa.html oofa.tar.gz

              and/or you can use wildcards to send groups of files:

                kermit -s oofa.*

              If you want to send a file under an assumed name, use:

                kermit -s friday.txt -a today.txt

              This sends the file friday.txt but tells the receiving Kermit that its name is
              today.txt. In all cases, as noted, when the file transfer is finished, your desktop
              Kermit returns automatically to Connect state.  No worries about escaping back, re‐
              connecting, text/binary mode switching. Almost too easy, right?

       Uploading Files
              To upload files (send them from your desktop computer to the remote Unix computer)
              do the same thing, but use the -g (GET) option instead of -s:

                kermit -g oofa.txt

              This causes your local Kermit to enter server mode; then the remote Kermit program
              requests the named file and the local Kermit sends it and returns automatically to
              Connect state when done.

              If you want to upload multiple files, you have have use shell quoting rules, since
              these aren't local files:

                kermit -g "oofa.txt oofa.zip oofa.html oofa.tar.gz"
                kermit -g "oofa.*"

              If you want to upload a file but store it under a different name, use:

                kermit -g friday.txt -a today.txt

       Kermit Transfers the Old‐Fashioned Way
              If your desktop communications software does not support autoupload or
              autodownload, or it does not include Kermit server mode, the procedure requires
              more steps.

              To download a file, type:

                kermit -s filename

              on the host as before, but if nothing happens automatically in response to this
              command, you have to switch your desktop communications software into Kermit
              Receive state. This might be done by escaping back using keyboard characters or hot
              keys (Alt-x is typical) and/or with a command (like RECEIVE) or a menu. When the
              file transfer is complete, you have to go back to Connect state, Terminal
              emulation, or whatever terminology applies to your desktop communications software.

              To upload a file, type:

                kermit -r

              on the host (rather than "kermit -g"). This tells C‐Kermit to wait passively for a
              file to start arriving. Then regain the attention of your desktop software (Alt-x
              or whatever) and instruct it to send the desired file(s) with Kermit protocol. When
              the transfer is finished, return to the Connect or Terminal screen.

       If File Transfer Fails
              Although every aspect of Kermit's operation can be finely tuned, there are also
              three short and simple "omnibus tuning" commands you can use for troubleshooting:

              FAST   Use fast file‐transfer settings. This has been the default since C‐Kermit
                     7.0 now that most modern computers and connections support it. If transfers
                     fail with fast settings, try . . .

              CAUTIOUS
                     Use cautious but not paranoid settings. File transfers, if they work, will
                     go at medium speed. If not, try . . .

              ROBUST Use the most robust, resilient, conservative, safe, and reliable settings.
                     File transfers will almost certainly work, but they will be quite slow (of
                     course this is a classic tradeoff; ROBUST was C‐Kermit's default tuning in
                     versions 6.0 and earlier, which made everybody think Kermit protocol was
                     slow). If ROBUST doesn't do the trick, try again with SET PARITY SPACE first
                     in case it's not an 8‐bit connection.

       Obviously the success and performance of a file transfer also depends on C‐Kermit's file
       transfer partner. Up‐to‐date, real Kermit Project partners are recommended because they
       contain the best Kermit protocol implementations and because we can support them in case
       of trouble.

       If you still have trouble, consult Chapter 10 of Using C‐Kermit, or send email to kermit‐
       support@columbia.edu.

       Advanced Kermit File‐Transfer Features
              Obviously there is a lot more to Kermit file transfer, including all sorts of
              interactive commands, preferences, options, logging, debugging, troubleshooting,
              and anything else you can imagine but that's what the manual and updates are for.
              Here are a few topics you can explore if you're interested by Typing HELP for the
              listed commands:

              Logging transfers:
                     LOG TRANSACTIONS (HELP LOG)

              Automatic per‐file text/binary mode switching:
                     SET TRANSFER MODE { AUTOMATIC, MANUAL } (HELP SET TRANSFER).

              Cross‐platform recursive directory tree transfer:
                     SEND /RECURSIVE, GET /RECURSIVE (HELP SEND, HELP GET).

              File collision options:
                     SET FILE COLLISION { OVERWRITE, BACKUP, DISCARD, ... } (HELP SET FILE).

              Update: Transfer only files that changed since last time:
                     SET FILE COLLISION UPDATE (HELP SET FILE).

              Filename selection patterns:
                     (HELP WILDCARD).

              Flexible file selection:
                     SEND (or GET) /BEFORE /AFTER /LARGER /SMALLER /TYPE /EXCEPT, ...

              Character‐set conversion:
                     SET { FILE, TRANSFER } CHARACTER-SET, ASSOCIATE, ...

              File/Pathname control:
                     SET { SEND, RECEIVE } PATHNAMES, SET FILE NAMES.

              Atomic file movement:
                     SEND (or GET) /DELETE /RENAME /MOVE-TO

              Transferring to/from standard i/o of other commands:
                     SEND (or GET) /COMMAND

              Recovery of interrupted transfer from point of failure:
                     RESEND, REGET (HELP RESEND, HELP REGET).

       Non‐Kermit File Transfer
              You can also use C‐Kermit to transfer files with FTP or HTTP Internet protocols;
              see below.

              On a regular serial or Telnet connection where the other computer doesn't support
              Kermit protocol at all, you have several options. For example, if your desktop
              communications software supports Zmodem, use "rz" and "sz" on the host rather than
              Kermit. But if Kermit is your desktop software, and you are using it to make calls
              or network connections to other computers that don't support Kermit protocol (or
              that don't have a good implementation of it), then if your computer also has
              external X, Y, or Zmodem programs that are redirectable, Kermit can use them as
              external protocols. HELP SET PROTOCOL for details.

              You can also capture "raw" data streams from the other computer with LOG SESSION
              (HELP LOG and HELP SET SESSION-LOG for details), and you can upload files without
              any protocol at all with TRANSMIT (HELP TRANSMIT, HELP SET TRANSMIT).

KERMIT'S BUILT‐IN FTP AND HTTP CLIENTS

       Kermit's FTP client is like the regular Unix FTP client that you're used to, but with some
       differences:

       ·      It has lots more commands and features.

       ·      Each FTP command must be prefixed with "ftp", for example "ftp open", "ftp get",
              "ftp bye", etc (this is not strictly true, but until you're more familiar with it,
              it's best to follow this rule).

       ·      Commands like "cd", "directory", etc, execute locally, not on the server. Use "ftp
              cd", "ftp dir", etc, to have them act on the server.

       ·      You can have an FTP session and a regular Kermit serial or Telnet session open at
              the same time.

       ·      FTP sessions can be fully automated.

       Pending publication of the next edition of the manual, the Kermit FTP client is thoroughly
       documented at the Kermit Project website:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ftpclient.html

       You also can use HELP FTP and HELP SET FTP to get descriptions of Kermit's FTP‐related
       commands.

       The HTTP client is similar to the FTP one, except you prefix each command with HTTP
       instead of FTP: HTTP OPEN, HTTP GET, HTTP PUT, HTTP CLOSE, etc.  Type HELP HTTP for
       details, or visit the to view the manual supplements.  HTTP connections can be open at the
       same time as regular serial or Telnet connections and FTP connections. So Kermit can
       manage up to three types connections simultaneously.

INTERNET KERMIT SERVICE

       C‐Kermit can be configured and run as an Internet service (called IKSD), similar to an FTP
       server (FTPD) except you can (but need not) interact with it directly, plus it does a lot
       more than an FTP server can do. The TCP port for IKSD is 1649. It uses Telnet protocol. C‐
       Kermit can be an Internet Kermit Server, or it can be a client of an IKSD. You can make
       connections from C‐Kermit to an IKSD with any of the following commands:

         telnet foo.bar.edu 1649
         telnet foo.bar.edu kermit   ; if "kermit" is listed in /etc/services
         iksd foo.bar.edu

       The IKSD command is equivalent to a TELNET command specifying port 1649.  For more
       information about making and using connections to an IKSD, see:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/cuiksd.html

       You can run an Internet Kermit Service on your own computer too (if you are the system
       administrator). For instructions, see:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/iksd.html

SECURITY

       All of C‐Kermit's built‐in TCP/IP networking methods (Telnet, Rlogin, IKSD, FTP, and HTTP)
       can be secured by one or more of the following IETF‐approved methods:

       ·    MIT Kerberos IV
       ·    MIT Kerberos V
       ·    SSL/TLS
       ·    Stanford SRP

       For complete instructions see:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/security.html

       And as noted previously, you can also make SSH connections with C‐Kermit if you already
       have an SSH client installed.

ALTERNATIVE COMMAND‐LINE PERSONALITIES

       When invoked as "kermit" or any other name besides "ftp" or "telnet", C‐Kermit has the
       command‐line options described above in the OPTIONS section. However, if you invoke C‐
       Kermit as "telnet" or "ftp", it changes its command‐line personality to match. This can be
       done (among other ways) with symbolic links (symlinks). For example, if you want C‐Kermit
       to be your regular Telnet client, or the Telnet helper of your Web browser, you can create
       a link like the following in a directory that lies in your PATH ahead of the regular
       telnet program:

         ln -s /usr/local/bin/kermit telnet

       Now when you give a "telnet" command, you are invoking Kermit instead, but with its Telnet
       command‐line personality so, for example:

         telnet xyzcorp.com

       Makes a Telnet connection to xyzcorp.com, and Kermit exits automatically when the
       connection is closed (just like the regular Telnet client). Type "telnet -h" to get a list
       of Kermit's Telnet‐personality command‐line options, which are intended to be as
       compatible as possible with the regular Telnet client.

       Similarly for FTP:

         ln -s /usr/local/bin/kermit ftp

       And now type "ftp -h" to see its command‐line options, and command lines just like you
       would give your regular FTP client:

         ftp xyzcorp.com

       but with additional options allowing an entire session to be specified on the command
       line. Finally, if Kermit's first command‐line option is a Telnet, FTP, IKSD, or HTTP URL,
       Kermit automatically makes the appropriate kind of connection and, if indicated by the
       URL, takes the desired action:

       kermit telnet:xyzcorp.com
              Opens a Telnet session

       kermit telnet://olga@xyzcorp.com
              Ditto for user olga

       kermit ftp://olga@xyzcorp.com/public/oofa.zip
              Downloads a file

       kermit kermit://kermit.columbia.edu/kermit/f/READ.ME
              Ditto for IKSD

       kermit iksd://kermit.columbia.edu/kermit/f/READ.ME
              (This works too)

       kermit http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/index.html
              Grabs a web page

LICENSE

       C‐Kermit has an unusual license, but a fair and sensible one since the Kermit Project must
       support itself out of revenue: it's not a BSD license, not GPL, not Artistic, not
       commercial, not shareware, not freeware. It can be summed up like this: if you want C‐
       Kermit for your own use, you can download and use it without cost or license (but we'd
       appreciate it if you would purchase the manual). But if you want to sell C‐Kermit or
       bundle it with a product or otherwise distribute it in a commercial setting EXCEPT WITH AN
       OPEN‐SOURCE OPERATING SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION such as Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, or OpenBSD, you
       must license it. To see the complete license, give the LICENSE command at the prompt, or
       see the COPYING.TXT file distributed with C‐Kermit 7.0 or later, or download it from

         ftp://kermit.columbia.edu/kermit/c-kermit/COPYING.TXT

       Send licensing inquiries to kermit@columbia.edu.

BUGS

       See the following files for listings of known bugs, limitations, workarounds, hints and
       tips:

       ckcbwr.txt
              General C‐Kermit bugs, hints, tips.

       ckubwr.txt
              Unix‐specific C‐Kermit bugs, hints, tips.

       Report bugs and problems by email to:

          kermit-support@columbia.edu.

       Before requesting technical support, please read the hints here:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/support.html

       and also read the C‐Kermit Frequently Asked Questions:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckfaq.html

OTHER TOPICS

       There's way more to C‐Kermit than we've touched on here ‐‐ troubleshooting, customization,
       character sets, dialing directories, sending pages, script writing, and on and on, all of
       which are covered in the manual and updates and supplements. For the most up‐to‐date
       information on documentation (or updated documentation itself) visit the Kermit Project
       website:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/

       There you will also find Kermit software packages for other platforms: different Unix
       varieties, Windows, DOS, VMS, IBM mainframes, and many others: 20+ years' worth.

DOCUMENTATION AND UPDATES

       The manual for C‐Kermit is:

       Using C‐Kermit
              Frank da Cruz and Christine M. Gianone, Second Edition, Digital Press /
              Butterworth‐Heinemann, Woburn, MA, 1997, 622 pages, ISBN 1-55558-164-1. This is a
              printed book. It covers C‐Kermit 6.0.

       The C‐Kermit 7.0 Supplement
              http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckermit70.html

       The C‐Kermit 8.0 Supplement
              http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckermit80.html

       The C‐Kermit 9.0 Supplement
              http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckermit90.html

       Visit C‐Kermit home page:

         http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckermit.html

       to learn about new versions, Beta tests, and other news; to read case studies and
       tutorials; to download source code, install packages, and prebuilt binaries for many
       platforms. Also visit:

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/scriptlib.html
              The Kermit script library and tutorial

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/newfaq.html
              The Kermit FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions about Kermit)

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckfaq.html
              The C‐Kermit FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions about C‐Kermit)

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/telnet.html
              C‐Kermit Telnet client documentation

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/security.html
              C‐Kermit security documentation (Kerberos, SSL/TLS, etc)

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/cuiksd.html
              Internet Kermit Service user documentation

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/iksd.html
              Internet Kermit Service administrator documentation

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/studies.html
              Case studies.

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/support.html
              Technical support.

       http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/k95tutorial.html
              Kermit 95 tutorial.

       comp.protocols.kermit.misc
              The Kermit newsgroup (unmoderated).

FILES

       COPYING.TXT
              C‐Kermit license.

       ~/.kermrc
              Initialization file.

       ~/.mykermrc
              Customization file.

       ~/.kdd Kermit dialing directory (see manual).

       ~/.knd Kermit network directory (see manual).

       ~/.ksd Kermit services directory (see manual).

       ca_certs.pem
              Certificate Authority certifcates used for SSL connections.

       ckuins.txt
              Installation instructions for Unix.  Also at
              http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ckuins.html.

       ckcbwr.txt
              General C‐Kermit bugs, hints, tips.

       ckubwr.txt
              Unix‐specific C‐Kermit bugs, hints, tips.

       ckcplm.txt
              C‐Kermit program logic manual.

       ckccfg.txt
              C‐Kermit compile‐time configuration options.

       ssh    (in your PATH) SSH connection helper.

       rz, sz, etc.
              (in your PATH) external protocols for XYZmodem.

       /var/spool/locks (or whatever)
              UUCP lockfile for dialing out (see installation instructions).

AUTHORS

       Software
              Frank da Cruz and Jeffrey E Altman,
              1985‐present, with contributions from hundreds of others all over the world.

       Documentation
              Frank da Cruz

       Address
              The Kermit Project ‐ Columbia Univerity
              612 West 115th Street
              New York NY 10025-7799
              USA

       E‐Mail kermit@columbia.edu

       Web    http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/