Provided by: link-grammar_5.5.1-6_amd64 bug


       link-parser - parse natural language sentences using Link Grammar


       link-parser --help
       link-parser --version
       link-parser [language|dict_location] [-<special_"!"_command>...]


       link-parser  is  the  command-line  wrapper  to  the link-grammar natural language parsing
       library.  This library will parse English language  sentences,  generating  linkage  trees
       showing relationships between the subject, the verb, and various adjectives, adverbs, etc.
       in the sentence.



       Starts the parser interactive shell.  Enter any sentence to parse:

       linkparser> Reading a man page is informative.

       Found 12 linkages (12 had no P.P. violations)
            Linkage 1, cost vector = (UNUSED=0 DIS= 0.20 LEN=16)

           +--------------->WV-------------->+                |
           |         +----------Ss*g---------+                |
           |         +--------Os-------+     |                |
           |         |     +---Ds**x---+     |                |
           +----Wd---+     |    +---A--+     +---Pa---+       |
           |         |     |    |      |     |        |       |
       LEFT-WALL reading.g a man.ij page.n is.v informative.a .


       The link-parser command-line tool is useful for general exploration and use,  although  it
       is  presumed  that,  for  the  parsing  of large quantities of text, a custom application,
       making use of the link-grammar library, will be written.  Several  such  applications  are
       described  on  the  Link  Grammar web page (see SEE ALSO below); these include the AbiWord
       grammar checker, and the RelEx semantic relation extractor.

       The theory of Link Grammar is explained in many academic papers.  In the first  of  these,
       Daniel  Sleator  and  Davy  Temperley,  "Parsing  English with a Link Grammar" (1991), the
       authors defined a new formal grammatical system called a "link  grammar".  A  sequence  of
       words is in the language of a link grammar if there is a way to draw "links" between words
       in such a way that the local requirements of each word are satisfied,  the  links  do  not
       cross,  and  the  words  form  a  consistent  connected graph. The authors encoded English
       grammar into such a system, and wrote link-parser to parse English using this grammar.

       The engine that performs the parsing  is  separate  from  the  dictionaries  describing  a
       language.   Currently, the most fully developed, complete dictionaries are for the English
       and Russian languages, although experimental, incomplete dictionaries  exist  for  German,
       and several other languages.


       link-parser,  when  invoked  manually,  starts an interactive shell, taking control of the
       terminal.  Any lines beginning with an exclamation mark  are  assumed  to  be  a  "special
       command";  these  are  described  below.   The  command  !help will provide more info; the
       command !variables will print  all  of  the  special  commands.   These  are  also  called
       "variables",  as  almost  all  commands  have  a  value  associated with them: the command
       typically enable or disable some function, or they alter some multi-valued setting.

       All other input is treated as a single, English-language sentence; it is parsed,  and  the
       result  of  the  parse is printed.  The variables control what is printed:  By default, an
       ASCII-graphics linkage is printed, although post-script  output  is  also  possible.   The
       printing  of  the  constituent tree can also be enabled. Other output controls include the
       printing of disjuncts, complete link data, and word senses.

       In order to analyze sentences, link-parser depends on  a  link-grammar  dictionary.   This
       contains  lists  of  words and associated metadata about their grammatical properties.  An
       English language dictionary is provided by default.  If other  language  dictionaries  are
       installed in the default search locations, these may be explicitly specified by means of a
       2-letter ISO language code: so, for example:

           link-parser de

       will start the parser shell with the German dictionary.

       Alternately, the dictionary location can be specified explicitly with either  an  absolute
       or a relative file path; so, for example:

           link-parser /usr/share/link-grammar/en

       will  run  link-parser  using  the  English  dictionary  located  in  the  typical install

       link-parser can also be used non-interactively, either through its API, or via the  -batch
       option.   When  used  with  the  -batch  option,  link-parser  reads  from standard input,
       generating output to standard out. So, for example:

           cat thesis.txt | link-parser -batch

       Note that using the -batch option disables  the  usual  ASCII-graphics  linkage  printing.
       This  may  be  re-enabled via a special command; special commands may be interspersed with
       the input.

       Alternately, an input file may be specified with  the  !file  special  command,  described


       --help Print usage and exit.

              Print version number and exit.

   Special ! options
       The  special  "!"  options can be specified either on the command-line, on startup, or set
       and toggled within the interactive shell itself.  The full option name does not need to be
       used; only enough letters to make the option unique must be specified.

       Boolean  variables  may  be  toggled  simply  by giving the !varname, for example, !batch.
       Setting other variables  require  using  an  equals  sign:  !varname=value,  for  example,

       The  !help  command  will print general help, and the !variables command will print all of
       the current variable settings.  The !file command will read input from a file.  The  !file
       command is not a variable; it cannot be set.  It can be used repeatedly.

       The !exit command will cause link-parser to exit.

       The  dictionary  entry  for  any  given word (optionally terminated by a subscript) may be
       examined by preceding it with two exclamation marks.  A  wildcard  character  '*'  can  be
       specified as the last character of the word in order to find multiple matches.

       Default values of the options below are shown in parenthesis. Most of them are the default
       ones of the link-grammar library.  Boolean default values are shown as on (1) or off (0).

       -bad (off)
              Enable display of bad linkages.

       -batch (off)
              Enable batch mode.

       -cluster (off)
              Use clusters to loosen parsing.

       -constituents (0)
              Generate constituent output. Its value may be:

              0      Disabled

              1      Treebank-style constituent tree

              2      Flat, bracketed tree [A like [B this B] A]

              3      Flat, treebank-style tree (A like (B this))

       -cost-max (2.7)
              Largest cost to be considered.

       -disjuncts (off)
              Display of disjuncts used.

       -echo (off)
              Echo input sentence.

       -graphics (on)
              Enable graphical display of linkage.  For each linkage,  the  sentence  is  printed
              along with a graphical representation of its linkage above it.

              The following notations are used for words in the sentence:

              [word] A word with no linkage.

                     An unknown word whose POS category x has been found by the parser.

                     An  unknown  word whose link-grammar dictionary entry has been assigned by a
                     RegEx.  (Use !morphology=1 to see the said dictionary entry.)

                     There was an unknown word in this position, and it has got replaced, using a
                     spell guess with this word, that is found in the link-grammar dictionary.

                     This  word  is  a part of an unknown word which has been found to consist of
                     two or more words that are in the link-grammar dictionary.

       -islands-ok (on)
              Use null-linked islands.

       -limit (1000)
              Limit the maximum linkages processed.

       -links (off)
              Enable display of complete link data.

       -null (on)
              Allow null links.

       -morphology (off)
              Display word morphology.  When a word matches a RegEx, show the matching dictionary

       -panic (on)
              Use "panic mode" if a parse cannot be quickly found.

       -postscript (off)
              Generate postscript output.

       -senses (off)
              Display word senses.

       -short (16)
              Maximum length of short links.

       -spell (7)
              If zero, no spell and run-on corrections of unknown words are performed.
              Else,  use up to this many spell-guesses per unknown word. In that case, the number
              of run-on corrections (word split) of unknown words is not limited.

       -timeout (30)
              Abort parsing after this many seconds.

       -use-sat (off)
              Use Boolean SAT-based parser.

       -verbosity (1)
              Level of detail in output.

       -walls (off)
              Display wall words.

       -width (16381)(*)
              The width of the display.
              * When writing to a terminal, this value is set from its width.


       The following files are per-language, when LL is the 2-letter ISO language code.

              The Link Grammar dictionary.

              Values of entities used in tokenization.

              Regular expressions (see regex(7)) that are used to match tokens not found  in  the

              Post-processing definitions.

              Definitions for producing a constituent tree.

       The directory search order for these files is:
              A custom path, as set by the API call dictionary_set_data_dir().


       Information on the link-grammar shared-library API and the link types used in the parse is
       available at the AbiWord website ⟨⟩.

       Peer-reviewed  papers  explaining  Link  Grammar  can  be  found  at  original  CMU   site

       The  source  code  of  link-parser  and  the  link-grammar  library  is  located at GitHub

       The  mailing  list  for  Link  Grammar  discussion  is  at   link-grammar   Google   group


       link-parser    and   the   link-grammar   library   were   written   by   Daniel   Sleator
       <>, Davy Temperley <>, and  John  Lafferty

       This  manual page was written by Ken Bloom <>, for the Debian project, and
       updated by Linas Vepstas <>.