Provided by: gmt-common_5.4.5+dfsg-1_all bug


       mapproject - Do forward and inverse map transformations, datum conversions and geodesy


       mapproject [ tables ]  -Jparameters
        -Rregion  [   -Ab|B|f|F|o|O[lon0/lat0][+v] ] [  -C[dx/dy] ] [  -Dc|i|p ] [  -E[datum] ] [
       -F[unit]    ]    [     -G[lon0/lat0][+a][+i][+u[+|-]unit][+v]    ]    [     -I     ]     [
       -Lline.xy[+u[+|-]unit][+p]  ]  [   -N[a|c|g|m] ] [  -Q[d|e ] [  -S ] [  -T[h]from[/to] ] [
       -V[level] ] [  -W[w|h] ] [  -Z[speed][+a][+i][+f][+tepoch] ] [ -bbinary ] [ -dnodata  ]  [
       -eregexp  ]  [  -fflags  ]  [ -ggaps ] [ -hheaders ] [ -iflags ] [ -oflags ] [ -pflags ] [
       -sflags ] [ -:[i|o] ]

       Note: No space is allowed between the option flag and the associated arguments.


       mapproject reads (longitude, latitude) positions  from  tables  [or  standard  input]  and
       computes  (x,y)  coordinates using the specified map projection and scales. Optionally, it
       can read (x,y) positions and  compute  (longitude,  latitude)  values  doing  the  inverse
       transformation.   This can be used to transform linear (x,y) points obtained by digitizing
       a map of known projection to geographical coordinates. May also calculate distances  along
       track,  to  a  fixed  point, or closest approach to a line.  Alternatively, can be used to
       perform various datum conversions.  Additional data fields are permitted after the first 2
       columns  which  must  have  (longitude,latitude)  or  (x,y).  See option -: on how to read
       (latitude,longitude) files.  Finally, mapproject can compute a variety of auxiliary output
       data  from  input  coordinates  that  make  up  a  track.   Items like azimuth, distances,
       distances to other lines, and travel-times along lines can all be computed by using one or
       more of the options -A, -G, -L, and -Z.


       -Jparameters (more ...)
              Select map projection.

       -Rxmin/xmax/ymin/ymax[+r][+uunit] (more ...)
              Specify  the region of interest. Special case for the UTM projection: If -C is used
              and -R is not given then the region is set to coincide with the given UTM  zone  so
              as   to   preserve  the  full  ellipsoidal  solution  (See  RESTRICTIONS  for  more


       table  One or more ASCII (or binary, see -bi[ncols][type]) data table  file(s)  holding  a
              number of data columns. If no tables are given then we read from standard input.

              Calculate  azimuth  along  track or to the optional fixed point set with lon0/lat0.
              -Af  calculates  the  (forward)  azimuth  to  each  data  point.  Use  -Ab  to  get
              back-azimuth  from data points to fixed point. Use -Ao to get orientations (-90/90)
              rather than azimuths (0/360). Upper case F, B or O will convert  from  geodetic  to
              geocentric  latitudes  and  estimate  azimuth  of  geodesics  (assuming the current
              ellipsoid is not a sphere). If no fixed point is given then we compute the  azimuth
              (or  back-azimuth)  from  the previous point.  Alternatively, append +v to obtain a
              variable 2nd point (lon0/lat0) via columns 3-4 in the input file.

              Set center of projected coordinates to be at  map  projection  center  [Default  is
              lower  left corner]. Optionally, add offsets in the projected units to be added (or
              subtracted when -I is set) to (from)  the  projected  coordinates,  such  as  false
              eastings and northings for particular projection zones [0/0]. The unit used for the
              offsets is the plot distance unit in effect (see  PROJ_LENGTH_UNIT)  unless  -F  is
              used, in which case the offsets are in meters.

              Temporarily  override  PROJ_LENGTH_UNIT  and  use  c  (cm), i (inch), or p (points)
              instead. Cannot be used with -F.

              Convert from geodetic (lon, lat, height)  to  Earth  Centered  Earth  Fixed  (ECEF)
              (x,y,z)  coordinates (add -I for the inverse conversion). Append datum ID (see -Qd)
              or give ellipsoid:dx,dy,dz where ellipsoid may be an  ellipsoid  ID  (see  -Qe)  or
              given  as  a[,inv_f],  where  a  is  the  semi-major  axis and inv_f is the inverse
              flattening (0 if omitted). If datum is - or not given we assume WGS-84.

              Force 1:1 scaling, i.e., output (or input, see -I) data  are  in  actual  projected
              meters.  To  specify  other units, append the desired unit (see UNITS). Without -F,
              the output (or input, see -I) are in the units specified by  PROJ_LENGTH_UNIT  (but
              see -D).

              Calculate   distances  along  track  or  to  the  optional  fixed  point  set  with
              -Glon0/lat0. Append the distance unit with +u (see UNITS for  available  units  and
              how   distances   are  computed),  including  c  (Cartesian  distance  using  input
              coordinates) or C (Cartesian distance using  projected  coordinates).  The  C  unit
              requires  -R  and  -J  to  be  set.  When  no  fixed  point  is  given we calculate
              accumulative distances [or by adding +a] along  the  track  defined  by  the  input
              points.  Append  +i  to  obtain incremental distances between successive points, or
              append both modifiers to get both distance measurements. Alternatively,  append  +v
              to obtain a variable 2nd point (lon0/lat0) via columns 3-4 in the input file.

       -I     Do the Inverse transformation, i.e., get (longitude,latitude) from (x,y) data.

              Determine  the shortest distance from the input data points to the line(s) given in
              the ASCII multisegment file line.xy.  The  distance  and  the  coordinates  of  the
              nearest  point  will  be  appended  to  the output as three new columns. Append the
              distance unit (see UNITS for available  units  and  how  distances  are  computed),
              including  c  (Cartesian distance using input coordinates) or C (Cartesian distance
              using projected coordinates). The C unit requires -R and -J  to  be  set.  Finally,
              append  +p to report the line segment id and the fractional point number instead of
              lon/lat of the nearest point.

              Convert from geodetic latitudes (using the current ellipsoid;  see  PROJ_ELLIPSOID)
              to  one  of  four different auxiliary latitudes (longitudes are unaffected). Choose
              from authalic, conformal, geocentric, and meridional latitudes [geocentric]. Use -I
              to convert from auxiliary latitudes to geodetic latitudes.

       -Q[d|e List  all  projection  parameters.  To  only  list  datums,  use  -Qd. To only list
              ellipsoids, use -Qe.

       -S     Suppress points that fall outside the region.

              Coordinate conversions between datums from and to  using  the  standard  Molodensky
              transformation.  Use  -Th  if  3rd input column has height above ellipsoid [Default
              assumes height = 0, i.e., on the ellipsoid]. Specify datums using the datum ID (see
              -Qd) or give ellipsoid:dx,dy,dz where ellipsoid may be an ellipsoid ID (see -Qe) or
              given as a[,inv_f], where a is  the  semi-major  axis  and  inv_f  is  the  inverse
              flattening  (0  if omitted). If datum is - or not given we assume WGS-84. -T may be
              used in conjunction with -R -J to change the  datum  before  coordinate  projection
              (add -I to apply the datum conversion after the inverse projection). Make sure that
              the PROJ_ELLIPSOID setting is correct for your case.

       -V[level] (more ...)
              Select verbosity level [c].

              Prints map width and height on standard output.  No input files are read.  To  only
              output  the  width  or  the  height, append w or h, respectively.  The units of the
              dimensions may be changed via -D.

              Calculate travel times along track as specified with -G.  Append a  constant  speed
              unit;  if  missing  we expect to read a variable speed from column 3.  The speed is
              expected to be in the distance units  set  via  -G  per  time  unit  controlled  by
              TIME_UNIT  [m/s].   Append +i to output incremental travel times between successive
              points, +a to obtain accumulated travel times, or both to get both  kinds  of  time
              information.   Use  +f to format the accumulated (elapsed) travel time according to
              the ISO 8601 convention.  As for the number of decimals used to  represent  seconds
              we consult the FORMAT_CLOCK_OUT setting. Finally, append +tepoch to report absolute
              times (ETA) for successive points.

       -bi[ncols][t] (more ...)
              Select native binary input. [Default is 2 input columns].

       -bo[ncols][type] (more ...)
              Select native binary output. [Default is same as input].

       -d[i|o]nodata (more ...)
              Replace input columns that equal nodata with NaN and do the reverse on output.

       -e[~]"pattern" | -e[~]/regexp/[i] (more ...)
              Only accept data records that match the given pattern.

       -f[i|o]colinfo (more ...)
              Specify data types of input and/or output columns.

       -g[a]x|y|d|X|Y|D|[col]z[+|-]gap[u] (more ...)
              Determine data gaps and line breaks.

       -h[i|o][n][+c][+d][+rremark][+rtitle] (more ...)
              Skip or produce header record(s).

       -icols[+l][+sscale][+ooffset][,...] (more ...)
              Select input columns and transformations (0 is first column).

       -ocols[,...] (more ...)
              Select output columns (0 is first column).

       -p[x|y|z]azim[/elev[/zlevel]][+wlon0/lat0[/z0]][+vx0/y0] (more ...)
              Select perspective view.

       -s[cols][a|r] (more ...)
              Set handling of NaN records.

       -:[i|o] (more ...)
              Swap 1st and 2nd column on input and/or output.

       -^ or just -
              Print a short message about the syntax of the command, then exits (NOTE: on Windows
              just use -).

       -+ or just +
              Print  an  extensive  usage  (help)  message,  including  the  explanation  of  any
              module-specific option (but not the GMT common options), then exits.

       -? or no arguments
              Print a complete usage (help) message, including the explanation  of  all  options,
              then exits.


       For  map  distance  unit,  append  unit  d for arc degree, m for arc minute, and s for arc
       second, or e for meter [Default], f for foot, k for km, M for statute mile, n for nautical
       mile,  and  u  for  US survey foot. By default we compute such distances using a spherical
       approximation with great circles. Prepend - to a distance (or the unit is no  distance  is
       given)  to  perform  "Flat Earth" calculations (quicker but less accurate) or prepend + to
       perform exact geodesic calculations (slower but more accurate).


       The ASCII output formats of numerical data are controlled by parameters in  your  gmt.conf
       file.  Longitude  and latitude are formatted according to FORMAT_GEO_OUT, absolute time is
       under the control of FORMAT_DATE_OUT and FORMAT_CLOCK_OUT, whereas general floating  point
       values are formatted according to FORMAT_FLOAT_OUT. Be aware that the format in effect can
       lead to loss of precision in ASCII output, which can lead to various problems  downstream.
       If  you find the output is not written with enough precision, consider switching to binary
       output (-bo if available) or specify more decimals using the FORMAT_FLOAT_OUT setting.


       To convert UTM coordinates in meters to geographic locations, given  a  file  utm.txt  and
       knowing the UTM zone (and zone or hemisphere), try

              gmt mapproject utm.txt -Ju+11/1:1 -C -I -F

       To  transform  a  file  with (longitude,latitude) into (x,y) positions in cm on a Mercator
       grid for a given scale of 0.5 cm per degree, run

              gmt mapproject lonlatfile -R20/50/12/25 -Jm0.5c > xyfile

       To transform several 2-column, binary, double precision  files  with  (latitude,longitude)
       into  (x,y)  positions  in  inch on a Transverse Mercator grid (central longitude 75W) for
       scale = 1:500000 and suppress those points that would fall outside the map area, run

              gmt mapproject tracks.* -R-80/-70/20/40 -Jt-75/1:500000 -: -S -Di -bo -bi2 > tmfile.b

       To convert the geodetic coordinates (lon, lat, height) in the file old.dat from the  NAD27
       CONUS datum (Datum ID 131 which uses the Clarke-1866 ellipsoid) to WGS 84, run

              gmt mapproject old.dat -Th131 > new.dat

       To  compute  the  closest distance (in km) between each point in the input file quakes.dat
       and the line segments given in the multisegment ASCII file coastline.xy, run

              gmt mapproject quakes.dat -Lcoastline.xy+uk > quake_dist.dat

       Given a file with  longitude  and  latitude,  compute  both  incremental  and  accumulated
       distance along track, and estimate travel times assuming a fixed speed of 12 knots.  We do
       this with

              gmt mapproject track.txt -Gn+a+i -Z12+a --TIME_UNIT=h > elapsed_time.txt

       where TIME_UNIT is set to hour so that the speed is measured in nm (set by  -G)  per  hour
       (set by TIME_UNIT).  Elapsed times will be reported in hours (unless +f is added to -Z for
       ISO elapsed time).


       The rectangular input region set with -R will in general be mapped into a  non-rectangular
       grid.  Unless  -C  is  set,  the  leftmost  point  on  this grid has xvalue = 0.0, and the
       lowermost point will have yvalue = 0.0. Thus, before you digitize a map, run  the  extreme
       map  coordinates  through mapproject using the appropriate scale and see what (x,y) values
       they are mapped onto. Use these values when setting up for digitizing in order to have the
       inverse  transformation  work  correctly, or alternatively, use awk to scale and shift the
       (x,y) values before transforming.

       For some projection, a spherical solution may be used despite the user having selected  an
       ellipsoid.  This occurs when the users -R setting implies a region that exceeds the domain
       in which the ellipsoidal series expansions  are  valid.  These  are  the  conditions:  (1)
       Lambert  Conformal  Conic (-JL)and Albers Equal-Area (-JB) will use the spherical solution
       when the map scale exceeds 1.0E7. (2) Transverse Mercator (-JT) and UTM  (-JU)  will  will
       use  the spherical solution when either the west or east boundary given in -R is more than
       10 degrees from the central meridian, and (3) same for Cassini (-JC) but with a  limit  of
       only 4 degrees.


       GMT  will  use  ellipsoidal formulae if they are implemented and the user have selected an
       ellipsoid as the reference shape (see PROJ_ELLIPSOID). The user needs to be aware of a few
       potential  pitfalls:  (1)  For  some projections, such as Transverse Mercator, Albers, and
       Lambert's conformal conic we use the ellipsoidal expressions when  the  areas  mapped  are
       small, and switch to the spherical expressions (and substituting the appropriate auxiliary
       latitudes) for larger maps. The ellipsoidal formulae are used as follows:  (a)  Transverse
       Mercator: When all points are within 10 degrees of central meridian, (b) Conic projections
       when longitudinal range is less than 90 degrees, (c) Cassini projection  when  all  points
       are within 4 degrees of central meridian. (2) When you are trying to match some historical
       data (e.g., coordinates obtained  with  a  certain  projection  and  a  certain  reference
       ellipsoid)  you  may  find  that GMT gives results that are slightly different. One likely
       source of this mismatch is that older calculations often used less significant digits. For
       instance,  Snyder's examples often use the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid (defined by him as having
       a flattening f = 1/294.98). From f we get the eccentricity  squared  to  be  0.00676862818
       (this  is what GMT uses), while Snyder rounds off and uses 0.00676866. This difference can
       give discrepancies of several tens of cm. If you need to reproduce  coordinates  projected
       with  this slightly different eccentricity, you should specify your own ellipsoid with the
       same parameters as Clarke 1866, but with f = 1/294.97861076. Also,  be  aware  that  older
       data  may  be referenced to different datums, and unless you know which datum was used and
       convert all data to a common datum you may experience mismatches of tens  to  hundreds  of
       meters.  (3) Finally, be aware that PROJ_SCALE_FACTOR have certain default values for some
       projections so you may have to override the setting in order  to  match  results  produced
       with other settings.


       The production order for the geodetic and temporal columns produced by the options -A, -G,
       -L, and -Z is fixed and follows the alphabetical order of the options.  Hence,  the  order
       these  options  appear  on the command line is irrelevant.  The actual output order can of
       course be modulated via -o.


       gmt, gmt.conf, gmtvector, project


       Bomford, G., 1952, Geodesy, Oxford U. Press.

       Snyder, J. P., 1987, Map Projections - A Working  Manual,  U.S.  Geological  Survey  Prof.
       Paper 1395.

       Vanicek,  P.  and Krakiwsky, E, 1982, Geodesy - The Concepts, North-Holland Publ., ISBN: 0
       444 86149 1.


       2019, P. Wessel, W. H. F. Smith, R. Scharroo, J. Luis, and F. Wobbe