Provided by: mono-runtime-common_5.18.0.240+dfsg-2ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       mono - Mono's ECMA-CLI native code generator (Just-in-Time and Ahead-of-Time)

SYNOPSIS

       mono [options] file [arguments...]

       mono-sgen [options] file [arguments...]

DESCRIPTION

       mono  is a runtime implementation of the ECMA Common Language Infrastructure.  This can be
       used to run ECMA and .NET applications.

       The runtime loads the specified file and optionally passes the arguments to it.  The  file
       is an ECMA assembly.  They typically have a .exe or .dll extension.

       These  executables  can  reference  additionaly  functionality  in  the  form  of assembly
       references.   By  default  those  assembly  references  are  resolved  as   follows:   the
       mscorlib.dll  is  resolved  from  the system profile that is configured by Mono, and other
       assemblies are loaded from the Global Assembly Cache (GAC).

       The runtime contains a native code  generator  that  transforms  the  Common  Intermediate
       Language into native code.

       The  code  generator  can operate in two modes: just in time compilation (JIT) or ahead of
       time compilation (AOT).  Since code can be dynamically loaded, the runtime environment and
       the JIT are always present, even if code is compiled ahead of time.

       The  runtime  provides  a  number  of  configuration options for running applications, for
       developing and debugging, and for testing and debugging the runtime itself.

       The mono command uses the moving and generational SGen garbage collector while  the  mono-
       boehm command uses the conservative Boehm garbage collector.

PORTABILITY

       On Unix-based systems, Mono provides a mechanism to emulate the Windows-style file access,
       this includes providing a case insensitive view of the file  system,  directory  separator
       mapping (from \ to /) and stripping the drive letters.

       This  functionality  is  enabled  by setting the MONO_IOMAP environment variable to one of
       all, drive and case.

       See the description for MONO_IOMAP in the environment variables section for more details.

METHOD DESCRIPTIONS

       A number of diagnostic command line options take as argument  a  method  description.    A
       method  description  is  a  textual representation that can be used to uniquely identify a
       method.   The syntax is as follows:
       [namespace]classname:methodname[(arguments)]

       The values in brackets are optional, like the namespace and the arguments.   The arguments
       themselves  are either empty, or a comma-separated list of arguments.   Both the classname
       and methodname can be set to the special value '*' to match any values (Unix  shell  users
       should escape the argument to avoid the shell interpreting this).

       The  arguments,  if  present  should  be  a  comma  separated  list of types either a full
       typename, or for built-in types it should use the  low-level  ILAsm  type  names  for  the
       built-in types, like 'void', 'char', 'bool', 'byte', 'sbyte', 'uint16', 'int16', 'uint',

       Pointer  types  should  be  the  name of the type, followed by a '*', arrays should be the
       typename followed by '[' one or more commas (to indicate the rank of the array), and ']'.

       Generic values should use '<', one or more type names, separated by both  a  comma  and  a
       space and '>'.

       By-reference arguments should include a "&" after the typename.

       Examples:
       *:ctor(int)         // All constructors that take an int as an argument
       *:Main              // Methods named Main in any class
       *:Main(string[])    // Methods named Main that take a string array in any class

RUNTIME OPTIONS

       The following options are available:

       --aot, --aot[=options]
              This  option is used to precompile the CIL code in the specified assembly to native
              code.  The generated code is stored in a file with the extension  .so.   This  file
              will  be  automatically  picked  up  by  the runtime when the assembly is executed.
              Ahead-of-Time compilation is most useful if you use  it  in  combination  with  the
              -O=all,-shared flag which enables all of the optimizations in the code generator to
              be performed.  Some of those  optimizations  are  not  practical  for  Just-in-Time
              compilation  since  they  might be very time consuming.  Unlike the .NET Framework,
              Ahead-of-Time compilation will not generate domain independent code:  it  generates
              the   same  code  that  the  Just-in-Time  compiler  would  produce.    Since  most
              applications use a single domain, this is fine.    If  you  want  to  optimize  the
              generated  code  for use in multi-domain applications, consider using the -O=shared
              flag.  This pre-compiles the methods, but the original assembly is  still  required
              to execute as this one contains the metadata and exception information which is not
              available on the generated file.  When precompiling code, you might want to compile
              with  all  optimizations (-O=all).  Pre-compiled code is position independent code.
              Precompilation is just a mechanism to reduce startup time,  increase  code  sharing
              across  multiple  mono processes and avoid just-in-time compilation program startup
              costs.  The original assembly must still be present, as the metadata  is  contained
              there.   AOT  code  typically  can  not be moved from one computer to another (CPU-
              specific optimizations that are detected at runtime) so you should not try to  move
              the   pre-generated   assemblies   or  package  the  pre-generated  assemblies  for
              deployment.  A few options are available as a parameter to the --aot  command  line
              option.   The options are separated by commas, and more than one can be specified:

              asmonly
                     Instructs  the  AOT  compiler  to  output assembly code instead of an object
                     file.

              bind-to-runtime-version
                     If specified, forces the generated AOT files to  be  bound  to  the  runtime
                     version  of the compiling Mono.   This will prevent the AOT files from being
                     consumed by a different Mono runtime.

              data-outfile=FILE.dll.aotdata
                     This instructs the AOT code generator to output certain data constructs into
                     a separate file.   This can reduce the executable images some five to twenty
                     percent.   Developers need to then ship the resulting aotdata as a  resource
                     and   register   a   hook   to   load  the  data  on  demand  by  using  the
                     mono_install_load_aot_data_hook method.

              direct-icalls
                     When this option is specified, icalls (internal calls made from the standard
                     library  into  the  mono runtime code) are invoked directly instead of going
                     through the operating system symbol lookup operation.  This requires use  of
                     the static option.

              direct-pinvoke
                     When this option is specified, P/Invoke methods are invoked directly instead
                     of going  through  the  operating  system  symbol  lookup  operation.   This
                     requires use of the static option.

              dwarfdebug
                     Instructs  the  AOT  compiler to emit DWARF debugging information. When used
                     together with the  nodebug  option,  only  DWARF  debugging  information  is
                     emitted, but not the information that can be used at runtime.

              full   This creates binaries which can be used with the --full-aot option.

              hybrid This creates binaries which can be used with the --hybrid-aot option.

              llvm   AOT  will  be  performed  with  the LLVM backend instead of the Mono backend
                     where possible. This will be slower to compile but most likely result  in  a
                     performance improvement.

              llvmonly
                     AOT will be performed with the LLVM backend exclusively and the Mono backend
                     will not be used. The only output in this mode  will  be  the  bitcode  file
                     normally   specified   with   the   llvm-outfile  option.  Use  of  llvmonly
                     automatically  enables  the  full  and  llvm  options.   This   feature   is
                     experimental.

              llvmopts=[options]
                     Use  this  option  to  override the built-in set of flags passed to the LLVM
                     optimizer.   The list of possible flags that can be passed can  be  obtained
                     by calling the bundled opt program that comes with Mono.

              llvm-outfile=[filename]
                     Gives  the  path  for  the  temporary  LLVM bitcode file created during AOT.
                     dedup Each AOT module will typically contain the code for  inflated  methods
                     and  wrappers  that  are  called  by  code in that module. In dedup mode, we
                     identify and skip compiling all of those methods. When using this mode  with
                     fullaot, dedup-include is required or these methods will remain missing.

              dedup-include=[filename]
                     In  dedup-include  mode,  we are in the pass of compilation where we compile
                     the methods that we had previously skipped. All of them are emitted into the
                     assembly  that  is  passed as this option. We consolidate the many duplicate
                     skipped copies of the same method into one.

              info   Print the architecture the AOT in this copy of Mono targets and quit.

              interp Generates all required wrappers, so that it is possible to run --interpreter
                     without  any  code generation at runtime.  This option only makes sense with
                     mscorlib.dll.  Embedders can set

                     mono_jit_set_aot_mode (MONO_AOT_MODE_INTERP);

              ld-flags
                     Additional flags to pass to the C linker (if the current AOT mode calls  for
                     invoking it).

              llvm-path=<PREFIX>
                     Same for the llvm tools 'opt' and 'llc'.

              msym-dir=<PATH>
                     Instructs  the AOT compiler to generate offline sequence points .msym files.
                     The generated .msym files will be stored into a subfolder of <PATH> named as
                     the compilation AOTID.

              mtriple=<TRIPLE>
                     Use  the  GNU style target triple <TRIPLE> to determine some code generation
                     options, i.e.  --mtriple=armv7-linux-gnueabi will generate code that targets
                     ARMv7.  This  is  currently only supported by the ARM backend. In LLVM mode,
                     this triple is passed on to the LLVM llc compiler.

              nimt-trampolines=[number]
                     When compiling in full aot mode, the IMT trampolines must be  precreated  in
                     the  AOT  image.   You  can  add  additional  method  trampolines  with this
                     argument.  Defaults to 512.

              ngsharedvt-trampolines=[number]
                     When compiling in full aot mode, the value type generic sharing  trampolines
                     must  be  precreated  in  the  AOT  image.   You  can  add additional method
                     trampolines with this argument.  Defaults to 512.

              nodebug
                     Instructs the AOT compiler to not output any debugging information.

              no-direct-calls
                     This prevents the AOT compiler from generating a direct calls to  a  method.
                     The  AOT compiler usually generates direct calls for certain methods that do
                     not require going through the PLT (for example, methods that  are  known  to
                     not  require  a hook like a static constructor) or call into simple internal
                     calls.

              nrgctx-trampolines=[number]
                     When compiling in full aot mode, the generic  sharing  trampolines  must  be
                     precreated in the AOT image.  You can add additional method trampolines with
                     this argument.  Defaults to 4096.

              nrgctx-fetch-trampolines=[number]
                     When compiling in full aot mode, the generic sharing fetch trampolines  must
                     be  precreated  in the AOT image.  You can add additional method trampolines
                     with this argument.  Defaults to 128.

              ntrampolines=[number]
                     When compiling in full aot mode, the method trampolines must  be  precreated
                     in  the  AOT  image.   You  can  add additional method trampolines with this
                     argument.  Defaults to 4096.

              outfile=[filename]
                     Instructs the AOT compiler to save the output to the specified file.

              print-skipped-methods
                     If the AOT compiler cannot compile a method for any  reason,  enabling  this
                     flag will output the skipped methods to the console.

              profile=[file]
                     Specify  a file to use for profile-guided optimization. See the AOT profiler
                     sub-section. To specify multiple files, include the profile option  multiple
                     times.

              profile-only
                     AOT  *only*  the  methods  described in the files specified with the profile
                     option. See the AOT profiler sub-section.

              readonly-value=namespace.typename.fieldname=type/value
                     Override  the  value  of  a  static  readonly  field.  Usually,  during  JIT
                     compilation, the static constructor is ran eagerly, so the value of a static
                     readonly field is known at compilation time and the compiler can do a number
                     of  optimizations  based  on it. During AOT, instead, the static constructor
                     can't be ran, so this option can be used to set the value of  such  a  field
                     and enable the same set of optimizations.  Type can be any of i1, i2, i4 for
                     integers of the respective sizes  (in  bytes).   Note  that  signed/unsigned
                     numbers  do  not  matter  here,  just  the storage size.  This option can be
                     specified multiple times and it doesn't prevent the static  constructor  for
                     the  type  defining  the  field  to  execute with the usual rules at runtime
                     (hence possibly computing a different value for the field).

              save-temps,keep-temps
                     Instructs the AOT compiler to keep temporary files.

              soft-debug
                     This instructs the compiler to generate sequence  point  checks  that  allow
                     Mono's  soft  debugger to debug applications even on systems where it is not
                     possible  to  set  breakpoints  or  to   single   step   (certain   hardware
                     configurations like the cell phones and video gaming consoles).

              static Create  an  ELF  object  file (.o) or .s file which can be statically linked
                     into an executable when embedding the mono  runtime.  When  this  option  is
                     used, the object file needs to be registered with the embedded runtime using
                     the mono_aot_register_module  function  which  takes  as  its  argument  the
                     mono_aot_module_<ASSEMBLY NAME>_info global symbol from the object file:

                     extern void *mono_aot_module_hello_info;

                     mono_aot_register_module (mono_aot_module_hello_info);

              stats  Print various stats collected during AOT compilation.

              temp-path=[path]
                     Explicitly  specify  path  to  store  temporary  files  created  during  AOT
                     compilation.

              threads=[number]
                     This is an experimental option for the AOT compiler to use multiple  threads
                     when compiling the methods.

              tool-prefix=<PREFIX>
                     Prepends  <PREFIX>  to  the  name  of  tools  ran  by the AOT compiler, i.e.
                     'as'/'ld'. For example, --tool=prefix=arm-linux-gnueabi- will make  the  AOT
                     compiler run

              verbose
                     Prints additional information about type loading failures.

              write-symbols,no-write-symbols
                     Instructs the AOT compiler to emit (or not emit) debug symbol information.

              For more information about AOT, see: http://www.mono-project.com/docs/advanced/aot/

       --aot-path=PATH
              List of additional directories to search for AOT images.

       --apply-bindings=FILE
              Apply  the assembly bindings from the specified configuration file when running the
              AOT compiler.  This  is  useful  when  compiling  an  auxiliary  assembly  that  is
              referenced  by a main assembly that provides a configuration file.  For example, if
              app.exe  uses  lib.dll  then  in  order  to  make  the   assembly   bindings   from
              app.exe.config available when compiling lib.dll ahead of time, use:
                   mono --apply-bindings=app.exe.config --aot lib.dll

       --assembly-loader=MODE
              If  mode  is strict, Mono will check that the public key token, culture and version
              of a candidate assembly matches the requested strong name.  If mode is  legacy,  as
              long  as  the  name  matches, the candidate will be allowed. strict is the behavior
              consistent with .NET Framework but may break some existing mono-based applications.
              The default is legacy.

       --attach=[options]
              Currently  the only option supported by this command line argument is disable which
              disables the attach functionality.

       --config filename
              Load the specified configuration file instead of the default one(s).   The  default
              files  are  /etc/mono/config  and  ~/.mono/config  or  the  file  specified  in the
              MONO_CONFIG environment variable, if set.  See  the  mono-config(5)  man  page  for
              details on the format of this file.

       --debugger-agent=[options]
              This  instructs the Mono runtime to start a debugging agent inside the Mono runtime
              and connect it to a client user interface will  control  the  Mono  process.   This
              option is typically used by IDEs, like the MonoDevelop or Visual Studio IDEs.
              The configuration is specified using one of more of the following options:

                     address=host:port
                            Use  this option to specify the IP address where your debugger client
                            is listening to.

                     loglevel=LEVEL
                            Specifies the diagnostics log level for

                     logfile=filename
                            Used to specify the file where the log will be stored, it defaults to
                            standard output.

                     server=[y/n]
                            Defaults to no, with the default option Mono will actively connect to
                            the host/port configured with the address option.  If you set  it  to
                            'y', it instructs the Mono runtime to start debugging in server mode,
                            where Mono actively waits for the debugger front end  to  connect  to
                            the  Mono  process.  Mono will print out to stdout the IP address and
                            port where it is listening.

                     setpgid=[y/n]
                            If set to yes, Mono will call  setpgid(0,  0)  on  startup,  if  that
                            function is available on the system. This is useful for ensuring that
                            signals delivered to a process that is executing the debuggee are not
                            propagated  to the debuggee, e.g. when Ctrl-C sends SIGINT to the sdb
                            tool.

                     suspend=[y/n]
                            Defaults to yes, with the default option Mono will suspend the vm  on
                            startup  until  it connects successfully to a debugger front end.  If
                            you set it to 'n', in conjunction with  server=y,  it  instructs  the
                            Mono  runtime to run as normal, while caching metadata to send to the
                            debugger front end on connection..

                     transport=transport_name
                            This is used to specify the transport that the debugger will  use  to
                            communicate.   It must be specified and currently requires this to be
                            'dt_socket'.

              --desktop
                     Configures the virtual machine to be better suited for desktop applications.
                     Currently  this  sets  the  GC system to avoid expanding the heap as much as
                     possible at the expense of slowing down garbage collection a bit.

              --full-aot
                     This flag instructs the Mono runtime to not generate any code at runtime and
                     depend  exclusively  on  the  code  generated  from  using  mono  --aot=full
                     previously.  This is useful for platforms that do not  permit  dynamic  code
                     generation,  or  if you need to run assemblies that have been stripped of IL
                     (for example using mono-cil-strip).  Notice that  this  feature  will  abort
                     execution  at  runtime  if  a  codepath  in  your  program,  or Mono's class
                     libraries attempts to generate  code  dynamically.   You  should  test  your
                     software upfront and make sure that you do not use any dynamic features.

              --full-aot-interp
                     Same as --full-aot with fallback to the interpreter.

              --gc=boehm, --gc=sgen
                     Selects  the  Garbage  Collector  engine  for  Mono  to  use, Boehm or SGen.
                     Currently this merely ensures that you are running either the mono or  mono-
                     sgen  commands.     This flag can be set in the MONO_ENV_OPTIONS environment
                     variable to force all of your child processes to use one particular kind  of
                     GC with the Mono runtime.

              --gc-debug=[options]
                     Command line equivalent of the MONO_GC_DEBUG environment variable.

              --gc-params=[options]
                     Command line equivalent of the MONO_GC_PARAMS environment variable.

              --arch=32, --arch=64
                     (Mac  OS X only): Selects the bitness of the Mono binary used, if available.
                     If the binary used is already for the selected bitness, nothing changes.  If
                     not,  the  execution  switches  to a binary with the selected bitness suffix
                     installed side by side (for example, '/bin/mono --arch=64'  will  switch  to
                     '/bin/mono64' iff '/bin/mono' is a 32-bit build).

              --help, -h
                     Displays usage instructions.

              --interpreter
                     The  Mono runtime will use its interpreter to execute a given assembly.  The
                     interpreter is usually slower  than  the  JIT,  but  it  can  be  useful  on
                     platforms where code generation at runtime is not allowed.

              --hybrid-aot
                     This  flag allows the Mono runtime to run assemblies that have been stripped
                     of IL, for example using mono-cil-strip. For this to work, the assembly must
                     have been AOT compiled with --aot=hybrid.

                     This  flag  is  similar to --full-aot, but it does not disable the JIT. This
                     means you can use dynamic features such as System.Reflection.Emit.

              --llvm If the Mono runtime has been compiled with LLVM support  (not  available  in
                     all configurations), Mono will use the LLVM optimization and code generation
                     engine  to  JIT  or   AOT   compile.    For   more   information,   consult:
                     http://www.mono-project.com/docs/advanced/mono-llvm/

              --nollvm
                     When  using  a Mono that has been compiled with LLVM support, it forces Mono
                     to fallback to its JIT engine and not use the LLVM backend.

              --optimize=MODE, -O=MODE
                     MODE  is  a  comma  separated  list  of  optimizations.   They  also   allow
                     optimizations  to  be  turned  off by prefixing the optimization name with a
                     minus sign.  In general, Mono has been tuned  to  use  the  default  set  of
                     flags,  before using these flags for a deployment setting, you might want to
                     actually measure the benefits of using  them.   The  following  optimization
                     flags are implemented in the core engine:
                                  abcrem     Array bound checks removal
                                  all        Turn on all optimizations
                                  aot        Usage of Ahead Of Time compiled code
                                  branch     Branch optimizations
                                  cfold      Constant folding
                                  cmov       Conditional moves [arch-dependency]
                                  deadce     Dead code elimination
                                  consprop   Constant propagation
                                  copyprop   Copy propagation
                                  fcmov      Fast x86 FP compares [arch-dependency]
                                  float32     Perform 32-bit float arithmetic using 32-bit operations
                                  gshared    Enable generic code sharing.
                                  inline     Inline method calls
                                  intrins    Intrinsic method implementations
                                  linears    Linear scan global reg allocation
                                  leaf       Leaf procedures optimizations
                                  loop       Loop related optimizations
                                  peephole   Peephole postpass
                                  precomp    Precompile all methods before executing Main
                                  sched      Instruction scheduling
                                  shared     Emit per-domain code
                                  sse2       SSE2 instructions on x86 [arch-dependency]
                                  tailc      Tail recursion and tail calls
                     For  example,  to  enable all the optimization but dead code elimination and
                     inlining, you can use:
                          -O=all,-deadce,-inline
                     The flags that are flagged with [arch-dependency] indicate  that  the  given
                     option  if  used  in combination with Ahead of Time compilation (--aot flag)
                     would produce pre-compiled code that will depend  on  the  current  CPU  and
                     might not be safely moved to another computer.

                     The following optimizations are supported

                     float32
                            Requests  that  the runtime performn 32-bit floating point operations
                            using only 32-bits.   By default the Mono runtime tries  to  use  the
                            highest  precision available for floating point operations, but while
                            this might render better results, the code might run  slower.    This
                            options also affects the code generated by the LLVM backend.

                     inline Controls  whether the runtime should attempt to inline (the default),
                            or not inline methods invocations
              --response=FILE Provides a response file, this instructs the Mono command  to  read
              other  command  line  options  from  the specified file, as if the options had been
              specified on the command line.   Useful when you have very long command lines.

              --runtime=VERSION
                     Mono supports different runtime versions. The version used  depends  on  the
                     program   that   is   being   run   or  on  its  configuration  file  (named
                     program.exe.config). This option can be used to override such autodetection,
                     by  forcing  a  different  runtime version to be used. Note that this should
                     only be used to select a later compatible runtime version than the  one  the
                     program  was  compiled against. A typical usage is for running a 1.1 program
                     on a 2.0 version:
                              mono --runtime=v2.0.50727 program.exe

              --security, --security=mode
                     Activate the security manager, a currently experimental feature in Mono  and
                     it  is OFF by default. The new code verifier can be enabled with this option
                     as well.

                     Using security without parameters is equivalent as calling it with the "cas"
                     parameter.

                     The following modes are supported:

                     core-clr
                            Enables   the   core-clr   security   system,   typically   used  for
                            Moonlight/Silverlight  applications.   It  provides  a  much  simpler
                            security      system      than      CAS,     see     http://www.mono-
                            project.com/docs/web/moonlight/ for more details  and  links  to  the
                            descriptions of this new system.

                     validil
                            Enables  the  new  verifier  and performs basic verification for code
                            validity.  In this mode, unsafe code and P/Invoke are  allowed.  This
                            mode  provides a better safety guarantee but it is still possible for
                            managed code to crash Mono.

                     verifiable
                            Enables the new verifier and performs full verification of  the  code
                            being  executed.   It  only  allows  verifiable  code to be executed.
                            Unsafe code is not allowed but P/Invoke is.   This  mode  should  not
                            allow  managed code to crash mono.  The verification is not as strict
                            as ECMA 335 standard in order to stay compatible with the MS runtime.

                     The security system acts on user code: code contained  in  mscorlib  or  the
                     global assembly cache is always trusted.

              --server
                     Configures  the  virtual  machine  to be better suited for server operations
                     (currently, allows a heavier threadpool initialization).

              --verify-all
                     Verifies mscorlib and assemblies in the global assembly cache for valid  IL,
                     and all user code for IL verifiability.

                     This  is  different  from  --security's  verifiable or validil in that these
                     options only check user code and skip mscorlib and assemblies located on the
                     global assembly cache.

              -V, --version
                     Prints  JIT  version  information  (system configuration, release number and
                     branch names if available).

DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS

       The following options are used to help when developing a JITed application.

       --debug, --debug=OPTIONS
              Turns on the debugging mode in the runtime.   If  an  assembly  was  compiled  with
              debugging information, it will produce line number information for stack traces.

              The  optional  OPTIONS  argument  is  a  comma separated list of debugging options.
              These options are turned off by default since they generate much larger and  slower
              code at runtime.

              The following options are supported:

              casts  Produces  a  detailed  error  when  throwing  a InvalidCastException.   This
                     option needs to be enabled as this generates more verbose code at  execution
                     time.

              mdb-optimizations
                     Disable  some JIT optimizations which are usually only disabled when running
                     inside the debugger.  This can be helpful if  you  want  to  attach  to  the
                     running process with mdb.

              gdb    Generate and register debugging information with gdb. This is only supported
                     on some platforms, and only when using gdb 7.0 or later.

       --profile[=profiler[:profiler_args]]
              Loads a profiler module with the given arguments. For  more  information,  see  the
              PROFILING  section.  This option can be used multiple times; each time will load an
              additional profiler module.

       --trace[=expression]
              Shows method names as they are invoked.  By default all methods  are  traced.   The
              trace  can  be  customized to include or exclude methods, classes or assemblies.  A
              trace expression is a comma separated list of targets, each target can be  prefixed
              with  a minus sign to turn off a particular target.  The words `program', `all' and
              `disabled' have special meaning.   `program'  refers  to  the  main  program  being
              executed,  and  `all' means all the method calls.  The `disabled' option is used to
              start up with tracing disabled.  It can be enabled at a later point in time in  the
              program  by sending the SIGUSR2 signal to the runtime.  Assemblies are specified by
              their name, for example, to trace all calls in the System assembly, use:

                   mono --trace=System app.exe

              Classes are specified with the T: prefix.  For example, to trace all calls  to  the
              System.String class, use:

                   mono --trace=T:System.String app.exe

              And  individual  methods are referenced with the M: prefix, and the standard method
              notation:

                   mono --trace=M:System.Console:WriteLine app.exe

              Exceptions can also be traced, it will cause a stack trace to be printed every time
              an  exception of the specified type is thrown.  The exception type can be specified
              with or without the namespace, and to trace all exceptions, specify  'all'  as  the
              type name.

                   mono --trace=E:System.Exception app.exe

              As previously noted, various rules can be specified at once:

                   mono --trace=T:System.String,T:System.Random app.exe

              You  can  exclude pieces, the next example traces calls to System.String except for
              the System.String:Concat method.

                   mono --trace=T:System.String,-M:System.String:Concat

              You can trace managed to unmanaged transitions using the wrapper qualifier:

                   mono --trace=wrapper app.exe

              Finally, namespaces can be specified using the N: prefix:

                   mono --trace=N:System.Xml

       --no-x86-stack-align
              Don't align stack frames on the x86 architecture.  By default,  Mono  aligns  stack
              frames  to  16 bytes on x86, so that local floating point and SIMD variables can be
              properly aligned.  This option turns off the alignment,  which  usually  saves  one
              instruction  per  call,  but might result in significantly lower floating point and
              SIMD performance.

       --jitmap
              Generate a JIT method map in a /tmp/perf-PID.map file. This file is then used,  for
              example,  by the perf tool included in recent Linux kernels.  Each line in the file
              has:

                   HEXADDR HEXSIZE methodname

              Currently this option is only supported on Linux.

JIT MAINTAINER OPTIONS

       The maintainer options are only used by those  developing  the  runtime  itself,  and  not
       typically of interest to runtime users or developers.

       --bisect=optimization:filename
              This  flag  is  used  by  the  automatic  optimization  bug  bisector.  It takes an
              optimization flag and a filename of a file containing a list of full method  names,
              one  per  line.   When  it  compiles one of the methods in the file it will use the
              optimization given, in addition to the optimizations that  are  otherwise  enabled.
              Note  that  if  the  optimization is enabled by default, you should disable it with
              `-O`, otherwise it will just apply to every method, whether it's  in  the  file  or
              not.

       --break method
              Inserts    a    breakpoint    before    the   method   whose   name   is   `method'
              (namespace.class:methodname).  Use `Main' as method name to insert a breakpoint  on
              the  application's  main  method.   You  can use it also with generics, for example
              "System.Collections.Generic.Queue`1:Peek"

       --breakonex
              Inserts a breakpoint on exceptions.  This allows you to debug your application with
              a native debugger when an exception is thrown.

       --compile name
              This  compiles  a  method (namespace.name:methodname), this is used for testing the
              compiler performance or to examine the output of the code generator.

       --compileall
              Compiles all the methods in an  assembly.   This  is  used  to  test  the  compiler
              performance or to examine the output of the code generator

       --graph=TYPE METHOD
              This  generates a postscript file with a graph with the details about the specified
              method (namespace.name:methodname).   This  requires  `dot'  and  ghostview  to  be
              installed  (it  expects  Ghostview  to  be  called "gv").  The following graphs are
              available:
                        cfg        Control Flow Graph (CFG)
                        dtree      Dominator Tree
                        code       CFG showing code
                        ssa        CFG showing code after SSA translation
                        optcode    CFG showing code after IR optimizations
              Some graphs will only be available if certain optimizations are turned on.

       --ncompile
              Instruct the runtime on the number of times that the method specified by  --compile
              (or  all  the  methods  if  --compileall is used) to be compiled.  This is used for
              testing the code generator performance.

       --stats
              Displays information about the work done by the runtime during the execution of  an
              application.

       --wapi=hps|semdel
              Perform  maintenance  of  the  process  shared data.  semdel will delete the global
              semaphore.  hps will list the currently used handles.

       -v, --verbose
              Increases the verbosity level, each time it  is  listed,  increases  the  verbosity
              level  to  include  more  information (including, for example, a disassembly of the
              native code produced, code selector info etc.).

ATTACH SUPPORT

       The Mono runtime allows external processes  to  attach  to  a  running  process  and  load
       assemblies  into  the  running  program.   To attach to the process, a special protocol is
       implemented in the Mono.Management assembly.

       With this support it is possible to load assemblies that have an  entry  point  (they  are
       created with -target:exe or -target:winexe) to be loaded and executed in the Mono process.

       The  code  is  loaded into the root domain, and it starts execution on the special runtime
       attach thread.    The attached program should create its  own  threads  and  return  after
       invocation.

       This  support  allows for example debugging applications by having the csharp shell attach
       to running processes.

PROFILING

       The Mono runtime includes a profiler API that  dynamically  loaded  profiler  modules  and
       embedders  can  use  to  collect  performance-related  data about an application. Profiler
       modules are loaded by passing the --profile command line argument to the Mono runtime.

       Mono ships with a few profiler modules, of which the log profiler  is  the  most  feature-
       rich. It is also the default profiler if the profiler argument is not given, or if default
       is given.  It is possible to write your own profiler modules;  see  the  Custom  profilers
       sub-section.

   Log profiler
       The  log  profiler  can be used to collect a lot of information about a program running in
       the Mono runtime. This data can be used (both while the process is running and  later)  to
       do  analyses of the program behavior, determine resource usage, performance issues or even
       look for particular execution patterns.

       This is accomplished by logging the events  provided  by  the  Mono  runtime  through  the
       profiler API and periodically writing them to a file which can later be inspected with the
       mprof-report(1) tool.

       More information about how to use the log profiler is available on  the  mono-profilers(1)
       page, under the LOG PROFILER section, as well as the mprof-report(1) page.

   Coverage profiler
       The  code  coverage  profiler  can  instrument  a program to help determine which classes,
       methods, code paths, etc are actually executed. This is most useful when  running  a  test
       suite to determine whether the tests actually cover the code they're expected to.

       More   information   about   how  to  use  the  coverage  profiler  is  available  on  the
       mono-profilers(1) page, under the COVERAGE PROFILER section.

   AOT profiler
       The  AOT  profiler  can  help  improve  startup  performance  by  logging  which   generic
       instantiations are used by a program, which the AOT compiler can then use to compile those
       instantiations ahead of time so that they won't have to be JIT compiled at startup.

       More information about how to use the AOT profiler is available on  the  mono-profilers(1)
       page, under the AOT PROFILER section.

   Custom profilers
       Custom profiler modules can be loaded in exactly the same way as the standard modules that
       ship with Mono. They can also access  the  same  profiler  API  to  gather  all  kinds  of
       information about the code being executed.

       For example, to use a third-party profiler called custom, you would load it like this:

              mono --profile=custom program.exe

       You could also pass arguments to it:

              mono --profile=custom:arg1,arg2=arg3 program.exe

       In  the  above  example,  Mono  will  load  the  profiler  from  the shared library called
       libmono-profiler-custom.so     (name     varies     based     on      platform,      e.g.,
       libmono-profiler-custom.dylib  on  OS  X).   This  profiler module must be on your dynamic
       linker library path (LD_LIBRARY_PATH on most systems, DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH on OS X).

       For  a  sample   of   how   to   write   your   own   custom   profiler,   look   at   the
       samples/profiler/sample.c file in the Mono source tree.

DEBUGGING AIDS

       To debug managed applications, you can use the mdb command, a command line debugger.

       It  is  possible  to obtain a stack trace of all the active threads in Mono by sending the
       QUIT signal to Mono, you can do this from the command line, like this:

            kill -QUIT pid

       Where pid is the Process ID of the Mono process you want to  examine.   The  process  will
       continue running afterwards, but its state is not guaranteed.

       Important:  this  is  a last-resort mechanism for debugging applications and should not be
       used to monitor or probe a production application.  The integrity  of  the  runtime  after
       sending  this signal is not guaranteed and the application might crash or terminate at any
       given point afterwards.

       The --debug=casts option can be used to get more detailed  information  for  Invalid  Cast
       operations, it will provide information about the types involved.

       You  can  use  the  MONO_LOG_LEVEL  and MONO_LOG_MASK environment variables to get verbose
       debugging output about the execution of your application within Mono.

       The MONO_LOG_LEVEL environment variable if set, the logging level is changed  to  the  set
       value. Possible values are "error", "critical", "warning", "message", "info", "debug". The
       default value is "error". Messages with a logging level greater then or equal to  the  log
       level will be printed to stdout/stderr.

       Use "info" to track the dynamic loading of assemblies.

       Use the MONO_LOG_MASK environment variable to limit the extent of the messages you get: If
       set, the log mask is changed to  the  set  value.  Possible  values  are  "asm"  (assembly
       loader),  "type",  "dll"  (native library loader), "gc" (garbage collector), "cfg" (config
       file  loader),  "aot"  (precompiler),  "security"  (e.g.   Moonlight   CoreCLR   support),
       "threadpool"  (thread  pool  generic), "io-selector" (async socket operations), "io-layer"
       (I/O layer - processes, files, sockets, events, semaphores,  mutexes  and  handles),  "io-
       layer-process",    "io-layer-file",    "io-layer-socket",   "io-layer-event",   "io-layer-
       semaphore", "io-layer-mutex", "io-layer-handle" and "all".  The default  value  is  "all".
       Changing  the  mask value allows you to display only messages for a certain component. You
       can use multiple masks by comma separating them. For example to see config  file  messages
       and assembly loader messages set you mask to "asm,cfg".

       The following is a common use to track down problems with P/Invoke:

            $ MONO_LOG_LEVEL="debug" MONO_LOG_MASK="dll" mono glue.exe

DEBUGGING WITH LLDB

       If  you  are  using  LLDB,  you  can  use  the  mono.py script to print some internal data
       structures with it.   To use this, add this to your $HOME/.lldbinit file:
       command script import $PREFIX/lib/mono/lldb/mono.py

       Where $PREFIX is the prefix value that you used when you configured Mono (typically /usr).

       Once this is done, then you can inspect some Mono Runtime data structures, for example:
       (lldb) p method

       (MonoMethod *) $0 = 0x05026ac0 [mscorlib]System.OutOfMemoryException:.ctor()

SERIALIZATION

       Mono's XML serialization engine  by  default  will  use  a  reflection-based  approach  to
       serialize  which  might be slow for continuous processing (web service applications).  The
       serialization engine will determine when a class must use a hand-tuned serializer based on
       a  few  parameters and if needed it will produce a customized C# serializer for your types
       at  runtime.   This  customized  serializer  then  gets  dynamically  loaded   into   your
       application.

       You can control this with the MONO_XMLSERIALIZER_THS environment variable.

       The  possible  values  are  `no'  to  disable the use of a C# customized serializer, or an
       integer that is the minimum number of uses  before  the  runtime  will  produce  a  custom
       serializer  (0  will  produce  a  custom serializer on the first access, 50 will produce a
       serializer on the 50th use). Mono will  fallback  to  an  interpreted  serializer  if  the
       serializer  generation  somehow fails. This behavior can be disabled by setting the option
       `nofallback' (for example: MONO_XMLSERIALIZER_THS=0,nofallback).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       GC_DONT_GC
              Turns off the garbage collection in Mono.  This should be only used  for  debugging
              purposes

       HTTP_PROXY
              (Also  http_proxy)  If  set,  web  requests  using  the  Mono Class Library will be
              automatically proxied through the given URL.  Not supported on Windows, Mac OS, iOS
              or Android. See also NO_PROXY.

       LLVM_COUNT
              When  Mono  is compiled with LLVM support, this instructs the runtime to stop using
              LLVM after the specified number of methods are JITed.   This  is  a  tool  used  in
              diagnostics  to help isolate problems in the code generation backend.   For example
              LLVM_COUNT=10 would only compile 10 methods with LLVM and then switch to  the  Mono
              JIT engine.  LLVM_COUNT=0 would disable the LLVM engine altogether.

       MONO_ASPNET_INHIBIT_SETTINGSMAP
              Mono  contains  a  feature  which  allows  modifying  settings in the .config files
              shipped with Mono by using config section mappers.  The  mappers  and  the  mapping
              rules are defined in the $prefix/etc/mono/2.0/settings.map file and, optionally, in
              the settings.map file found in the top-level directory of your ASP.NET application.
              Both  files are read by System.Web on application startup, if they are found at the
              above locations. If you don't want the mapping to be performed  you  can  set  this
              variable  in your environment before starting the application and no action will be
              taken.

       MONO_ASPNET_WEBCONFIG_CACHESIZE
              Mono has a cache of ConfigSection objects for speeding  up  WebConfigurationManager
              queries.  Its  default  size  is  100  items, and when more items are needed, cache
              evictions start  happening.  If  evictions  are  too  frequent  this  could  impose
              unnecessary  overhead, which could be avoided by using this environment variable to
              set up a higher cache size (or to lower memory requirements by decreasing it).

       MONO_CAIRO_DEBUG_DISPOSE
              If set, causes Mono.Cairo to collect stack traces when objects  are  allocated,  so
              that  the  finalization/Dispose  warnings  include information about the instance's
              origin.

       MONO_CFG_DIR
              If  set,  this  variable  overrides  the  default  system  configuration  directory
              ($PREFIX/etc). It's used to locate machine.config file.

       MONO_COM
              Sets the style of COM interop.  If the value of this variable is "MS" Mono will use
              string marhsalling routines from the liboleaut32 for the  BSTR  type  library,  any
              other values will use the mono-builtin BSTR string marshalling.

       MONO_CONFIG
              If   set,   this   variable   overrides  the  default  runtime  configuration  file
              ($PREFIX/etc/mono/config).  The  --config  command  line  options   overrides   the
              environment variable.

       MONO_CPU_ARCH
              Override  the  automatic  cpu detection mechanism. Currently used only on arm.  The
              format of the value is as follows:

                   "armvV [thumb[2]]"

              where V is the architecture number 4, 5, 6, 7 and the options can be  currently  be
              "thumb" or "thumb2". Example:

                   MONO_CPU_ARCH="armv4 thumb" mono ...

       MONO_ARM_FORCE_SOFT_FLOAT
              When  Mono  is  built with a soft float fallback on ARM and this variable is set to
              "1", Mono will always emit soft float code, even if a VFP unit is detected.

       MONO_DARWIN_USE_KQUEUE_FSW
              Fall back on the kqueue FileSystemWatcher implementation in Darwin. The default  is
              the FSEvent implementation.

       MONO_DARWIN_WATCHER_MAXFDS
              This  is  a  debugging  aid  used  to  force limits on the kqueue FileSystemWatcher
              implementation in Darwin.   There is no limit by default.

       MONO_DISABLE_MANAGED_COLLATION
              If this environment variable is `yes', the runtime uses unmanaged collation  (which
              actually  means  no  culture-sensitive  collation).  It internally disables managed
              collation functionality invoked via the members of System.Globalization.CompareInfo
              class. Collation is enabled by default.

       MONO_DISABLE_SHARED_AREA
              Unix  only:  If  set,  disable  usage  of  shared  memory  for exposing performance
              counters. This means it will not be possible to both  externally  read  performance
              counters from this processes or read those of external processes.

       MONO_DNS
              When  set,  enables  the use of a fully managed DNS resolver instead of the regular
              libc functions. This resolver performs much better when multiple queries are run in
              parallel.

              Note that /etc/nsswitch.conf will be ignored.

       MONO_EGD_SOCKET
              For  platforms  that do not otherwise have a way of obtaining random bytes this can
              be set to the name of a file system socket on which  an  egd  or  prngd  daemon  is
              listening.

       MONO_ENABLE_AIO
              If set, tells mono to attempt using native asynchronous I/O services. If not set, a
              default  select/poll  implementation  is  used.  Currently  epoll  and  kqueue  are
              supported.

       MONO_THREADS_SUSPEND
              Selects  a  mechanism  that  Mono  will  use  to  suspend  threads.   May be set to
              "preemptive", "coop", or "hybrid".   Threads  may  need  to  be  suspended  by  the
              debugger,  or  using  some  .NET  threading  APIs,  and most commonly when the SGen
              garbage collector needs to stop all threads during  a  critical  phase  of  garbage
              collection.   Preemptive  mode  is  the mode that Mono has used historically, going
              back to the Boehm days, where the garbage collector would  run  at  any  point  and
              suspend  execution of all threads as required to perform a garbage collection.  The
              cooperative mode on the other hand requires the cooperation of all threads to  stop
              at  a safe point.  This makes for an easier to debug garbage collector.  As of Mono
              4.3.0 it is a work  in  progress,  and  while  it  works,  it  has  not  been  used
              extensively.  This option enables the feature and allows us to find spots that need
              to be tuned for this mode of operation.  Hybrid mode is a combination  of  the  two
              that  retains better compatability with scenarios where Mono is embedded in another
              application: threads that are running managed code or code that comprises the  Mono
              runtime  will  be cooperatively suspended, while threads running embedder code will
              be preemptively suspended.

              Alternatively, coop and hybrid mode can be enabled at compile  time  by  using  the
              --enable-cooperative-suspend  or  --enable-hybrid-suspend flags, respectively, when
              calling configure.  The MONO_THREADS_SUSPEND environment  variable  takes  priority
              over the compiled default.

       MONO_ENABLE_COOP_SUSPEND
              This  environment  variable  is  obsolete, but retained for backward compatibility.
              Use MONO_THREADS_SUSPEND set to "coop" instead.  Note that if configure flags  were
              provided to enable cooperative or hybrid suspend, this variable is ignored.

       MONO_ENV_OPTIONS
              This  environment  variable  allows  you  to  pass command line arguments to a Mono
              process through the environment.   This is useful for example to force all of  your
              Mono processes to use LLVM or SGEN without having to modify any launch scripts.

       MONO_SDB_ENV_OPTIONS
              Used  to  pass  extra  options  to  the debugger agent in the runtime, as they were
              passed using --debugger-agent=.

       MONO_EVENTLOG_TYPE
              Sets the type of event  log  provider  to  use  (for  System.Diagnostics.EventLog).
              Possible values are:

              local[:path]
                     Persists  event logs and entries to the local file system.  The directory in
                     which to persist the event logs, event sources and entries can be  specified
                     as  part  of  the  value.  If the path is not explicitly set, it defaults to
                     "/var/lib/mono/eventlog" on unix and "%APPDATA%no\ventlog" on Windows.

              win32  Uses the native win32 API to write events and registers event logs and event
                     sources  in the registry.   This is only available on Windows.  On Unix, the
                     directory permission for individual event log and event  source  directories
                     is  set  to  777 (with +t bit) allowing everyone to read and write event log
                     entries while only allowing entries  to  be  deleted  by  the  user(s)  that
                     created them.

              null   Silently discards any events.

              The  default  is "null" on Unix (and versions of Windows before NT), and "win32" on
              Windows NT (and higher).

       MONO_EXTERNAL_ENCODINGS
              If set, contains a colon-separated list of  text  encodings  to  try  when  turning
              externally-generated  text (e.g. command-line arguments or filenames) into Unicode.
              The encoding names come from the list provided  by  iconv,  and  the  special  case
              "default_locale" which refers to the current locale's default encoding.

              When  reading externally-generated text strings UTF-8 is tried first, and then this
              list is tried in order with the first  successful  conversion  ending  the  search.
              When  writing  external text (e.g. new filenames or arguments to new processes) the
              first item in this list is used, or UTF-8 if the environment variable is not set.

              The problem with using MONO_EXTERNAL_ENCODINGS to process your  files  is  that  it
              results  in  a  problem: although its possible to get the right file name it is not
              necessarily possible to open the file.   In  general  if  you  have  problems  with
              encodings in your filenames you should use the "convmv" program.

       MONO_GC_PARAMS
              When  using  Mono  with  the  SGen garbage collector this variable controls several
              parameters of the collector.  The variable's value is a  comma  separated  list  of
              words.

              max-heap-size=size
                     Sets  the  maximum size of the heap. The size is specified in bytes and must
                     be a power of two. The suffixes `k', `m' and `g'  can  be  used  to  specify
                     kilo-,  mega-  and  gigabytes,  respectively.  The  limit  is the sum of the
                     nursery, major heap and large object heap. Once the  limit  is  reached  the
                     application will receive OutOfMemoryExceptions when trying to allocate.  Not
                     the full extent of memory set in max-heap-size could be available to satisfy
                     a single allocation due to internal fragmentation. By default heap limits is
                     disabled and the GC will try to use all available memory.

              nursery-size=size
                     Sets the size of the nursery.  The size is specified in bytes and must be  a
                     power  of  two.  The suffixes `k', `m' and `g' can be used to specify kilo-,
                     mega- and gigabytes, respectively.  The nursery is the first generation  (of
                     two).  A larger nursery will usually speed up the program but will obviously
                     use more memory.  The default nursery size 4 MB.

              major=collector
                     Specifies which major collector to use.  Options  are  `marksweep'  for  the
                     Mark&Sweep   collector,   `marksweep-conc'  for  concurrent  Mark&Sweep  and
                     `marksweep-conc-par' for parallel and concurrent Mark&Sweep.  The concurrent
                     Mark&Sweep collector is the default.

              mode=balanced|throughput|pause[:max-pause]
                     Specifies  what  should  be the garbage collector's target. The `throughput'
                     mode aims to  reduce  time  spent  in  the  garbage  collector  and  improve
                     application  speed,  the  `pause' mode aims to keep pause times to a minimum
                     and it receives the argument max-pause which  specifies  the  maximum  pause
                     time  in  milliseconds that is acceptable and the `balanced' mode which is a
                     general purpose optimal mode.

              soft-heap-limit=size
                     Once the heap size gets larger than this size, ignore what the default major
                     collection  trigger  metric says and only allow four nursery size's of major
                     heap growth between major collections.

              evacuation-threshold=threshold
                     Sets the evacuation threshold in percent.  This option is only available  on
                     the  Mark&Sweep major collectors.  The value must be an integer in the range
                     0 to 100.  The default is 66.  If the sweep phase of  the  collection  finds
                     that  the  occupancy  of  a  specific  heap  block  type  is  less than this
                     percentage, it will do a copying collection for that block type in the  next
                     major  collection,  thereby  restoring occupancy to close to 100 percent.  A
                     value of 0 turns evacuation off.

              (no-)lazy-sweep
                     Enables or disables lazy sweep for the Mark&Sweep  collector.   If  enabled,
                     the  sweeping of individual major heap blocks is done piecemeal whenever the
                     need arises, typically during nursery collections.  Lazy sweeping is enabled
                     by default.

              (no-)concurrent-sweep
                     Enables  or  disables  concurrent  sweep  for  the Mark&Sweep collector.  If
                     enabled, the iteration of all major blocks to determine which  ones  can  be
                     freed  and  which  ones have to be kept and swept, is done concurrently with
                     the running program.  Concurrent sweeping is enabled by default.

              stack-mark=mark-mode
                     Specifies how application threads should be scanned. Options  are  `precise`
                     and  `conservative`. Precise marking allow the collector to know what values
                     on stack are references and what are not.  Conservative marking threats  all
                     values  as  potentially references and leave them untouched. Precise marking
                     reduces floating garbage and can speed up nursery collection and  allocation
                     rate,  it  has  the  downside  of  requiring  a significant extra memory per
                     compiled method. The right option, unfortunately, requires experimentation.

              save-target-ratio=ratio
                     Specifies the target save ratio for the major collector. The collector  lets
                     a  given  amount  of  memory  to  be  promoted from the nursery due to minor
                     collections before it triggers a major collection. This amount is  based  on
                     how much memory it expects to free. It is represented as a ratio of the size
                     of the heap after a major collection.  Valid values are between 0.1 and 2.0.
                     The  default  is  0.5.  Smaller values will keep the major heap size smaller
                     but will trigger more major collections. Likewise, bigger  values  will  use
                     more  memory  and result in less frequent major collections.  This option is
                     EXPERIMENTAL, so it might disappear in later versions of mono.

              default-allowance-ratio=ratio
                     Specifies the default allocation allowance when the calculated size  is  too
                     small.  The  allocation  allowance  is  how much memory the collector let be
                     promoted before triggered a major collection.  It is a ratio of the  nursery
                     size.   Valid  values are between 1.0 and 10.0. The default is 4.0.  Smaller
                     values lead to smaller heaps and more frequent major collections.  Likewise,
                     bigger values will allow the heap to grow faster but use more memory when it
                     reaches a stable size.  This option is EXPERIMENTAL, so it  might  disappear
                     in later versions of mono.

              minor=minor-collector
                     Specifies  which minor collector to use. Options are `simple' which promotes
                     all objects from the nursery directly to the  old  generation,  `simple-par'
                     which has same promotion behavior as `simple' but using multiple workers and
                     `split' which lets objects stay longer on the nursery before promoting.

              alloc-ratio=ratio
                     Specifies the ratio of memory from the nursery to be use by the alloc space.
                     This only can only be used with the split minor collector.  Valid values are
                     integers between 1 and 100. Default is 60.

              promotion-age=age
                     Specifies the required age of an object must reach inside the nursery before
                     been  promoted  to  the  old generation. This only can only be used with the
                     split minor collector.  Valid values are integers between 1 and 14.  Default
                     is 2.

              (no-)cementing
                     Enables  or  disables  cementing.   This  can  dramatically  shorten nursery
                     collection times on some benchmarks where pinned  objects  are  referred  to
                     from the major heap.

              allow-synchronous-major
                     This   forbids   the  major  collector  from  performing  synchronous  major
                     collections.  The major collector might want to do a synchronous  collection
                     due  to  excessive  fragmentation.  Disabling this might trigger OutOfMemory
                     error in situations that would otherwise not happen.

       MONO_GC_DEBUG
              When using Mono with the SGen garbage collector this environment  variable  can  be
              used  to  turn  on  various debugging features of the collector.  The value of this
              variable is a comma  separated  list  of  words.   Do  not  use  these  options  in
              production.

              number Sets the debug level to the specified number.

              print-allowance
                     After  each  major collection prints memory consumption for before and after
                     the collection and the allowance for the minor collector, i.e. how much  the
                     heap  is  allowed  to  grow  from  minor  collections  before the next major
                     collection is triggered.

              print-pinning
                     Gathers statistics on the classes whose objects are pinned  in  the  nursery
                     and for which global remset entries are added.  Prints those statistics when
                     shutting down.

              collect-before-allocs

              check-remset-consistency
                     This performs a remset consistency check at various opportunities, and  also
                     clears  the nursery at collection time, instead of the default, when buffers
                     are allocated (clear-at-gc).  The consistency check ensures that  there  are
                     no major to minor references that are not on the remembered sets.

              mod-union-consistency-check
                     Checks  that  the  mod-union  cardtable  is consistent before each finishing
                     major collection pause.  This check is only applicable to  concurrent  major
                     collectors.

              check-mark-bits
                     Checks  that  mark  bits in the major heap are consistent at the end of each
                     major collection.  Consistent mark bits mean that if an  object  is  marked,
                     all objects that it had references to must also be marked.

              check-nursery-pinned
                     After nursery collections, and before starting concurrent collections, check
                     whether all nursery objects  are  pinned,  or  not  pinned  -  depending  on
                     context.  Does nothing when the split nursery collector is used.

              xdomain-checks
                     Performs  a  check  to  make sure that no references are left to an unloaded
                     AppDomain.

              clear-at-tlab-creation
                     Clears the nursery incrementally when the thread  local  allocation  buffers
                     (TLAB)  are  created.   The  default  setting clears the whole nursery at GC
                     time.

              debug-clear-at-tlab-creation
                     Clears the nursery incrementally when the thread  local  allocation  buffers
                     (TLAB)  are  created,  but  at  GC time fills it with the byte `0xff`, which
                     should result in a crash more quickly  if  `clear-at-tlab-creation`  doesn't
                     work properly.

              clear-at-gc
                     This clears the nursery at GC time instead of doing it when the thread local
                     allocation buffer (TLAB) is created.  The default is to clear the nursery at
                     TLAB creation time.

              disable-minor
                     Don't  do  minor collections.  If the nursery is full, a major collection is
                     triggered instead, unless it, too, is disabled.

              disable-major
                     Don't do major collections.

              conservative-stack-mark
                     Forces the GC to scan the stack conservatively, even if precise scanning  is
                     available.

              no-managed-allocator
                     Disables the managed allocator.

              check-scan-starts
                     If  set,  does a plausibility check on the scan_starts before and after each
                     collection

              verify-nursery-at-minor-gc
                     If set, does a complete object walk of the nursery  at  the  start  of  each
                     minor collection.

              dump-nursery-at-minor-gc
                     If  set,  dumps  the  contents  of  the  nursery  at the start of each minor
                     collection. Requires verify-nursery-at-minor-gc to be set.

              heap-dump=file
                     Dumps  the  heap  contents  to  the  specified  file.    To  visualize   the
                     information, use the mono-heapviz tool.

              binary-protocol=file
                     Outputs the debugging output to the specified file.   For this to work, Mono
                     needs to be compiled with the BINARY_PROTOCOL define on sgen-gc.c.   You can
                     then use this command to explore the output
                                     sgen-grep-binprot 0x1234 0x5678 < file

              nursery-canaries
                     If  set, objects allocated in the nursery are suffixed with a canary (guard)
                     word, which is checked on each minor collection. Can be used to detect/debug
                     heap corruption issues.

              do-not-finalize(=classes)
                     If enabled, finalizers will not be run.  Everything else will be unaffected:
                     finalizable objects will still be put into the finalization queue where they
                     survive  until they're scheduled to finalize.  Once they're not in the queue
                     anymore they will be collected regularly.   If  a  list  of  comma-separated
                     class names is given, only objects from those classes will not be finalized.

              log-finalizers
                     Log verbosely around the finalization process to aid debugging.

       MONO_GAC_PREFIX
              Provides a prefix the runtime uses to look for Global Assembly Caches.  Directories
              are separated by the platform path  separator  (colons  on  unix).  MONO_GAC_PREFIX
              should  point  to  the  top  directory  of  a prefixed install. Or to the directory
              provided      in      the       gacutil       /gacdir       command.       Example:
              /home/username/.mono:/usr/local/mono/

       MONO_IOMAP
              Enables  some  filename rewriting support to assist badly-written applications that
              hard-code Windows paths.  Set to a colon-separated list of "drive" to  strip  drive
              letters,  or  "case"  to  do case-insensitive file matching in every directory in a
              path.  "all" enables all rewriting methods.   (Backslashes  are  always  mapped  to
              slashes if this variable is set to a valid option).
              For example, this would work from the shell:

                   MONO_IOMAP=drive:case
                   export MONO_IOMAP

              If  you are using mod_mono to host your web applications, you can use the MonoIOMAP
              directive instead, like this:

                   MonoIOMAP <appalias> all

              See mod_mono(8) for more details.

       MONO_LLVM
              When Mono is using the LLVM code generation backend you can  use  this  environment
              variable to pass code generation options to the LLVM compiler.

       MONO_MANAGED_WATCHER
              If   set  to  "disabled",  System.IO.FileSystemWatcher  will  use  a  file  watcher
              implementation which silently ignores all the watching requests.   If  set  to  any
              other   value,   System.IO.FileSystemWatcher   will   use   the   default   managed
              implementation (slow). If unset, mono will try to use inotify, FAM,  Gamin,  kevent
              under  Unix  systems  and  native API calls on Windows, falling back to the managed
              implementation on error.

       MONO_MESSAGING_PROVIDER
              Mono supports a plugin model for its implementation of System.Messaging  making  it
              possible  to  support a variety of messaging implementations (e.g. AMQP, ActiveMQ).
              To specify which messaging implementation is to be used  the  evironement  variable
              needs  to be set to the full class name for the provider.  E.g. to use the RabbitMQ
              based AMQP implementation the variable should be set to:

              Mono.Messaging.RabbitMQ.RabbitMQMessagingProvider,Mono.Messaging.RabbitMQ

       MONO_NO_SMP
              If set causes the mono process to be bound to a single processor. This may be
              useful when debugging or working around race conditions.

       MONO_NO_TLS
              Disable inlining of thread local accesses. Try setting this if you get a segfault
              early on in the execution of mono.

       MONO_PATH
              Provides a search path to the runtime where to look for library
              files.   This is a tool convenient for debugging applications, but
              should not be used by deployed applications as it breaks the assembly
              loader in subtle ways.
              Directories are separated by the platform path separator (colons on unix). Example:
              /home/username/lib:/usr/local/mono/lib
              Relative paths are resolved based on the launch-time current directory.
              Alternative solutions to MONO_PATH include: installing libraries into
              the Global Assembly Cache (see gacutil(1)) or having the dependent
              libraries side-by-side with the main executable.
              For a complete description of recommended practices for application
              deployment, see
              http://www.mono-project.com/docs/getting-started/application-deployment/

       MONO_SHARED_DIR
              If set its the directory where the ".wapi" handle state is stored.
              This is the directory where the Windows I/O Emulation layer stores its
              shared state data (files, events, mutexes, pipes).  By default Mono
              will store the ".wapi" directory in the users's home directory.

       MONO_SHARED_HOSTNAME
              Uses the string value of this variable as a replacement for the host name when
              creating file names in the ".wapi" directory. This helps if the host name of
              your machine is likely to be changed when a mono application is running or if
              you have a .wapi directory shared among several different computers.
              Mono typically uses the hostname to create the files that are used to
              share state across multiple Mono processes.  This is done to support
              home directories that might be shared over the network.

       MONO_STRICT_IO_EMULATION
              If set, extra checks are made during IO operations.  Currently, this
              includes only advisory locks around file writes.

       MONO_TLS_SESSION_CACHE_TIMEOUT
              The time, in seconds, that the SSL/TLS session cache will keep it's entry to
              avoid a new negotiation between the client and a server. Negotiation are very
              CPU intensive so an application-specific custom value may prove useful for
              small embedded systems.
              The default is 180 seconds.

       MONO_THREADS_PER_CPU
              The minimum number of threads in the general threadpool will be
              MONO_THREADS_PER_CPU * number of CPUs. The default value for this
              variable is 1.

       MONO_XMLSERIALIZER_THS
              Controls the threshold for the XmlSerializer to produce a custom
              serializer for a given class instead of using the Reflection-based
              interpreter.  The possible values are `no' to disable the use of a
              custom serializer or a number to indicate when the XmlSerializer
              should start serializing.   The default value is 50, which means that
              the a custom serializer will be produced on the 50th use.

       MONO_X509_REVOCATION_MODE
              Sets the revocation mode used when validating a X509 certificate chain (https,
              ftps, smtps...).  The default is 'nocheck', which performs no revocation check
              at all. The other possible values are 'offline', which performs CRL check (not
              implemented yet) and 'online' which uses OCSP and CRL to verify the revocation
              status (not implemented yet).

       NO_PROXY
              (Also no_proxy) If both HTTP_PROXY and NO_PROXY are
              set, NO_PROXY will be treated as a comma-separated list of "bypass" domains
              which will not be sent through the proxy. Domains in NO_PROXY may contain
              wildcards, as in "*.mono-project.com" or "build????.local". Not supported on
              Windows, Mac OS, iOS or Android.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES FOR DEBUGGING

       MONO_ASPNET_NODELETE
              If set to any value, temporary source files generated by  ASP.NET  support  classes
              will not be removed. They will be kept in the user's temporary directory.

       MONO_DEBUG
              If  set,  enables some features of the runtime useful for debugging.  This variable
              should contain a  comma  separated  list  of  debugging  options.   Currently,  the
              following options are supported:

              align-small-structs
                     Enables small structs alignment to 4/8 bytes.

              arm-use-fallback-tls
                     When  this  option is set on ARM, a fallback thread local store will be used
                     instead of the default fast thread local storage primitives.

              break-on-unverified
                     If this variable is set, when the Mono VM runs into a verification  problem,
                     instead  of  throwing an exception it will break into the debugger.  This is
                     useful when debugging verifier problems

              casts  This option can be used to get more detailed  information  from  InvalidCast
                     exceptions, it will provide information about the types involved.

              check-pinvoke-callconv
                     This  option  causes  the runtime to check for calling convention mismatches
                     when using pinvoke, i.e. mixing cdecl/stdcall. It only works on windows.  If
                     a mismatch is detected, an ExecutionEngineException is thrown.

              collect-pagefault-stats
                     Collects  information  about  pagefaults.   This is used internally to track
                     the number of page faults  produced  to  load  metadata.   To  display  this
                     information you must use this option with "--stats" command line option.

              debug-domain-unload
                     When  this option is set, the runtime will invalidate the domain memory pool
                     instead of destroying it.

              disable_omit_fp
                     Disables a compiler optimization where the frame pointer is omitted from the
                     stack. This optimization can interact badly with debuggers.

              dont-free-domains
                     This  is  an  Optimization  for  multi-AppDomain applications (most commonly
                     ASP.NET applications).  Due to internal limitations Mono,  Mono  by  default
                     does not use typed allocations on multi-appDomain applications as they could
                     leak memory when a domain is unloaded.  Although this is a fine default, for
                     applications  that  use more than on AppDomain heavily (for example, ASP.NET
                     applications) it is worth trading off the  small  leaks  for  the  increased
                     performance  (additionally,  since ASP.NET applications are not likely going
                     to unload the application domains on production systems, it is  worth  using
                     this feature).

              dyn-runtime-invoke
                     Instructs the runtime to try to use a generic runtime-invoke wrapper instead
                     of creating one invoke wrapper.

              explicit-null-checks
                     Makes the JIT generate an  explicit  NULL  check  on  variable  dereferences
                     instead  of  depending on the operating system to raise a SIGSEGV or another
                     form of trap event when an invalid memory location is accessed.

              gdb    Equivalent to setting the MONO_XDEBUG variable, this emits  symbols  into  a
                     shared  library  as the code is JITed that can be loaded into GDB to inspect
                     symbols.

              gen-seq-points
                     Automatically generates sequence points where the IL stack is empty.   These
                     are places where the debugger can set a breakpoint.

              no-compact-seq-points
                     Unless  the  option is used, the runtime generates sequence points data that
                     maps native offsets to IL offsets. Sequence point data is used to display IL
                     offset in stacktraces. Stacktraces with IL offsets can be symbolicated using
                     mono-symbolicate tool.

              handle-sigint
                     Captures the interrupt signal (Control-C) and displays a  stack  trace  when
                     pressed.   Useful  to  find  out  where  the program is executing at a given
                     point.  This only displays the stack trace of a single thread.

              init-stacks
                     Instructs the runtime to initialize the stack with some known  values  (0x2a
                     on x86-64) at the start of a method to assist in debuggin the JIT engine.

              keep-delegates
                     This  option will leak delegate trampolines that are no longer referenced as
                     to  present  the  user  with  more  information  about  a  delegate  misuse.
                     Basically  a  delegate  instance might be created, passed to unmanaged code,
                     and no references kept in managed code, which will garbage collect the code.
                     With this option it is possible to track down the source of the problems.

              no-gdb-backtrace
                     This  option  will  disable the GDB backtrace emitted by the runtime after a
                     SIGSEGV or SIGABRT in unmanaged code.

              partial-sharing
                     When this option is set,  the  runtime  can  share  generated  code  between
                     generic types effectively reducing the amount of code generated.

              reverse-pinvoke-exceptions
                     This  option will cause mono to abort with a descriptive message when during
                     stack unwinding after an exception it reaches a  native  stack  frame.  This
                     happens  when  a  managed delegate is passed to native code, and the managed
                     delegate throws an exception. Mono will normally try to unwind the stack  to
                     the  first  (managed)  exception  handler, and it will skip any native stack
                     frames in the process. This leads to undefined behaviour (since mono doesn't
                     know how to process native frames), leaks, and possibly crashes too.

              single-imm-size
                     This   guarantees   that  each  time  managed  code  is  compiled  the  same
                     instructions and registers are used, regardless of the size of used values.

              soft-breakpoints
                     This option allows using single-steps and breakpoints in hardware  where  we
                     cannot do it with signals.

              suspend-on-native-crash
                     This  option  will  suspend the program when a native crash occurs (SIGSEGV,
                     SIGILL, ...).  This is useful for debugging  crashes  which  do  not  happen
                     under gdb, since a live process contains more information than a core file.

              suspend-on-sigsegv
                     Same as suspend-on-native-crash.

              suspend-on-exception
                     This option will suspend the program when an exception occurs.

              suspend-on-unhandled
                     This option will suspend the program when an unhandled exception occurs.

              thread-dump-dir=DIR
                     Use DIR for storage thread dumps created by SIGQUIT.

              verbose-gdb
                     Make gdb output on native crashes more verbose.

       MONO_LOG_LEVEL
              The  logging  level, possible values are `error', `critical', `warning', `message',
              `info' and `debug'.  See the DEBUGGING section for more details.

       MONO_LOG_MASK
              Controls the domain of the Mono runtime that logging will apply to.   If  set,  the
              log  mask is changed to the set value. Possible values are "asm" (assembly loader),
              "type", "dll" (native library loader), "gc" (garbage collector), "cfg" (config file
              loader),  "aot"  (precompiler),  "security"  (e.g.  Moonlight  CoreCLR support) and
              "all".  The default value is "all". Changing the mask value allows you  to  display
              only  messages  for  a  certain  component.  You  can  use  multiple masks by comma
              separating them. For example to  see  config  file  messages  and  assembly  loader
              messages set you mask to "asm,cfg".

       MONO_LOG_DEST
              Controls  where  trace log messages are written. If not set then the messages go to
              stdout.  If set, the string either specifies a  path  to  a  file  that  will  have
              messages  appended to it, or the string "syslog" in which case the messages will be
              written to the system log.  Under Windows, this is simulated by writing to  a  file
              called  "mono.log".   MONO_LOG_HEADER  Controls  whether  trace  log  messages  not
              directed to syslog have the id, timestamp,  and  pid  as  the  prefix  to  the  log
              message. To enable a header this environment variable need just be non-null.

       MONO_TRACE
              Used  for  runtime tracing of method calls. The format of the comma separated trace
              options is:

                   [-]M:method name
                   [-]N:namespace
                   [-]T:class name
                   [-]all
                   [-]program
                   disabled       Trace output off upon start.

              You can toggle trace output on/off sending a SIGUSR2 signal to the program.

       MONO_TRACE_LISTENER
              If set, enables the System.Diagnostics.DefaultTraceListener, which will  print  the
              output  of  the  System.Diagnostics  Trace  and  Debug classes.  It can be set to a
              filename, and to Console.Out or Console.Error to display output to standard  output
              or  standard  error,  respectively. If it's set to Console.Out or Console.Error you
              can append an optional prefix that will be used when writing  messages  like  this:
              Console.Error:MyProgramName.    See   the   System.Diagnostics.DefaultTraceListener
              documentation for more information.

       MONO_WCF_TRACE
              This eases WCF diagnostics functionality by simply outputs all  log  messages  from
              WCF  engine  to "stdout", "stderr" or any file passed to this environment variable.
              The log format is the same as usual diagnostic output.

       MONO_XEXCEPTIONS
              This throws an exception when a X11 error is encountered; by default a  message  is
              displayed but execution continues

       MONO_XMLSERIALIZER_DEBUG
              Set  this  value  to  1 to prevent the serializer from removing the temporary files
              that are created for fast serialization;  This might be useful when debugging.

       MONO_XSYNC
              This is used in the System.Windows.Forms implementation when running with  the  X11
              backend.   This  is used to debug problems in Windows.Forms as it forces all of the
              commands send to X11 server  to  be  done  synchronously.    The  default  mode  of
              operation  is  asynchronous  which  makes  it  hard  to isolate the root of certain
              problems.

       MONO_XDEBUG
              When the the MONO_XDEBUG env var is set, debugging info for JITted code is  emitted
              into a shared library, loadable into gdb. This enables, for example, to see managed
              frame names on gdb backtraces.

       MONO_VERBOSE_METHOD
              Enables the maximum JIT verbosity for the specified method. This is  very  helpfull
              to  diagnose  a  miscompilation  problems  of  a  specific  method.   This can be a
              semicolon-separated list of method names to match.  If the  name  is  simple,  this
              applies  to  any  method  with  that  name,  otherwise  you  can  use a mono method
              description (see the section METHOD DESCRIPTIONS).

       MONO_JIT_DUMP_METHOD
              Enables sending of the JITs intermediate representation for a specified  method  to
              the IdealGraphVisualizer tool.

       MONO_VERBOSE_HWCAP
              If  set, makes the JIT output information about detected CPU features (such as SSE,
              CMOV, FCMOV, etc) to stdout.

       MONO_CONSERVATIVE_HWCAP
              If set, the JIT will not perform any hardware capability  detection.  This  may  be
              useful  to pinpoint the cause of JIT issues. This is the default when Mono is built
              as an AOT cross compiler, so that the generated code will run on most hardware.

VALGRIND

       If you want to use Valgrind, you will find the file `mono.supp' useful,  it  contains  the
       suppressions for the GC which trigger incorrect warnings.  Use it like this:
           valgrind --suppressions=mono.supp mono ...

DTRACE

       On  some  platforms,  Mono  can  expose  a  set  of DTrace probes (also known as user-land
       statically defined, USDT Probes).

       They are defined in the file `mono.d'.

       ves-init-begin, ves-init-end
              Begin and end of runtime initialization.

       method-compile-begin, method-compile-end
              Begin and end of method compilation.  The probe arguments are  class  name,  method
              name  and  signature,  and  in  case  of  method-compile-end  success or failure of
              compilation.

       gc-begin, gc-end
              Begin and end of Garbage Collection.

       To verify the availability of the probes, run:
                  dtrace -P mono'$target' -l -c mono

PERMISSIONS

       Mono's Ping implementation for detecting network reachability can create the ICMP  packets
       itself  without  requiring  the system ping command to do the work.  If you want to enable
       this on Linux for non-root users, you need to give the Mono binary special permissions.

       As root, run this command:
          # setcap cap_net_raw=+ep /usr/bin/mono

FILES

       On Unix assemblies are loaded from the installation lib directory.  If you set `prefix' to
       /usr,  the  assemblies will be located in /usr/lib.  On Windows, the assemblies are loaded
       from the directory where mono and mint live.

       ~/.mono/aot-cache
              The directory  for  the  ahead-of-time  compiler  demand  creation  assemblies  are
              located.

       /etc/mono/config, ~/.mono/config
              Mono  runtime  configuration  file.   See  the  mono-config(5) manual page for more
              information.

       ~/.config/.mono/certs, /usr/share/.mono/certs
              Contains Mono certificate stores for users / machine.  See  the  certmgr(1)  manual
              page  for  more information on managing certificate stores and the mozroots(1) page
              for information on how to import  the  Mozilla  root  certificates  into  the  Mono
              certificate store.

       ~/.mono/assemblies/ASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY.config
              Files  in  this  directory  allow a user to customize the configuration for a given
              system assembly, the format is the one described in the mono-config(5) page.

       ~/.config/.mono/keypairs, /usr/share/.mono/keypairs
              Contains Mono cryptographic keypairs for users / machine. They can be  accessed  by
              using     a     CspParameters     object    with    DSACryptoServiceProvider    and
              RSACryptoServiceProvider classes.

       ~/.config/.isolatedstorage, ~/.local/share/.isolatedstorage, /usr/share/.isolatedstorage
              Contains Mono isolated storage for  non-roaming  users,  roaming  users  and  local
              machine.   Isolated   storage   can   be   accessed  using  the  classes  from  the
              System.IO.IsolatedStorage namespace.

       <assembly>.config
              Configuration information for individual assemblies is loaded by the  runtime  from
              side-by-side   files   with   the   .config   files,   see   the   http://www.mono-
              project.com/Config for more information.

       Web.config, web.config
              ASP.NET applications are configured through these files, the configuration is  done
              on   a  per-directory  basis.   For  more  information  on  this  subject  see  the
              http://www.mono-project.com/Config_system.web page.

MAILING LISTS

       Mailing lists are listed at the http://www.mono-project.com/community/help/mailing-lists/

WEB SITE

       http://www.mono-project.com

SEE ALSO

       certmgr(1),  cert-sync(1),  csharp(1),  gacutil(1),  mcs(1),  monodis(1),  mono-config(5),
       mono-profilers(1), mprof-report(1), pdb2mdb(1), xsp(1), mod_mono(8)

       For more information on AOT: http://www.mono-project.com/docs/advanced/aot/

       For ASP.NET-related documentation, see the xsp(1) manual page

                                                                                       Mono(mono)