Provided by: netcdf-bin_4.6.2-1build1_amd64 bug


       ncgen - From a CDL file generate a netCDF-3 file, a netCDF-4 file or a C program


       ncgen  [-format_code]  [-1|3|4|5|6|7]  [-b] [-B buffersize] [-c] [-d] [-D debuglevel] [-f]
              [-h] [-H] [-k format_name] [-l b|c|f77|java]  [-L  loglevel]  [-M  name]  [-n]  [-N
              datasetname] [-o netcdf_filename] [-P] [-x]


       ncgen  generates  either  a  netCDF-3  (i.e.  classic)  binary  .nc file, a netCDF-4 (i.e.
       enhanced) binary .nc file or a file in  some  source  language  that  when  executed  will
       construct  the  corresponding  binary  .nc file.  The input to ncgen is a description of a
       netCDF file in a small  language  known  as  CDL  (network  Common  Data  form  Language),
       described  below.  Input is read from standard input if no input_file is specified.  If no
       options are specified in invoking ncgen, it merely checks the  syntax  of  the  input  CDL
       file,  producing  error  messages  for any violations of CDL syntax.  Other options can be
       used, for example, to create the corresponding netCDF file, or to  generate  a  C  program
       that uses the netCDF C interface to create the netCDF file.

       Note that this version of ncgen was originally called ncgen4.  The older ncgen program has
       been renamed to ncgen3.

       ncgen may be used with the companion program ncdump to perform some simple  operations  on
       netCDF  files.   For  example, to rename a dimension in a netCDF file, use ncdump to get a
       CDL version of the netCDF file, edit the CDL file to change the name  of  the  dimensions,
       and use ncgen to generate the corresponding netCDF file from the edited CDL file.


              Alternate method to specify the format.

                     3 => netcdf classic format

                     4 => netCDF-4 format (enhanced data model)

                     5 => netcdf 5 format

                     6 => netCDF 64-bit format

                     7 => netCDF-4 classic model format (3+4 == 7)
       See the -k flag.

       -b     Create  a  (binary)  netCDF  file.  If the -o option is absent, a default file name
              will be constructed from the basename of the CDL file, with any suffix replaced  by
              the  `.nc' extension.  If a file already exists with the specified name, it will be

       -B buffersize
              Specify the internal iterator buffer size.

       -c     Generate C source  code  that  will  create  a  netCDF  file  matching  the  netCDF
              specification.  The C source code is written to standard output; equivalent to -lc.

       -d     Same as -D1.

       -D debuglevel
              Set the level of debug output.

       -f     Generate  FORTRAN 77 source code that will create a netCDF file matching the netCDF
              specification.  The source code is written to standard output; equivalent to -lf77.

       -h     Output help information.

       -H     Output the header only; ignore the data section.

       -k format_name

              The -k flag specifies the format of the file to be created and, by  inference,  the
              data model accepted by ncgen (i.e. netcdf-3 (classic) versus netcdf-4 vs netcdf-5).
              As a shortcut, a numeric  format_code  may  be  specified  instead.   The  possible
              format_name values for the -k option are:

                     'classic' or 'nc3' => netCDF classic format

                     '64-bit offset' or 'nc6' => netCDF 64-bit format

                     '64-bit data or 'nc5' => netCDF-5 (64-bit data) format

                     'netCDF-4' 0r 'nc4' => netCDF-4 format (enhanced data model)

                     'netCDF-4 classic model' or 'nc7' => netCDF-4 classic model format
       Accepted format_number arguments, just shortcuts for format_names, are:

                     3 => netcdf classic format

                     5 => netcdf 5 format

                     6 => netCDF 64-bit format

                     4 => netCDF-4 format (enhanced data model)

                     7 => netCDF-4 classic model format
       The  numeric  code  "7"  is  used because "7=3+4", a mnemonic for the format that uses the
       netCDF-3 data model for compatibility with the netCDF-4 storage  format  for  performance.
       Credit  is  due  to  NCO  for  use of these numeric codes instead of the old and confusing
       format numbers.

       Note: The old version format numbers '1', '2', '3', '4', equivalent to  the  format  names
       'nc3', 'nc6', 'nc4', or 'nc7' respectively, are also still accepted but deprecated, due to
       easy confusion between format numbers and format names. Various old  format  name  aliases
       are also accepted but deprecated, e.g. 'hdf5', 'enhanced-nc3', etc.  Also, note that -v is
       accepted to mean the same thing as -k for backward compatibility.

       -l b|c|f77|java
              The -l flag specifies the output language to use when generating source  code  that
              will  create or define a netCDF file matching the netCDF specification.  The output
              is written  to  standard  output.   The  currently  supported  languages  have  the
              following flags.

                     c|C' => C language output.

                     f77|fortran77' => FORTRAN 77 language output
                            ; note that currently only the classic model is supported.

                     j|java' => (experimental) Java language output
                            ;  targets the existing Unidata Java interface, which means that only
                            the classic model is supported.

Choosing the output format

       The choice of output format is determined by three flags.

       -k flag.

       _Format attribute (see below).

       Occurrence of CDF-5 (64-bit data) or
              netcdf-4 constructs in the  input  CDL."   The  term  "netCDF-4  constructs"  means
              constructs  from  the  enhanced  data  model,  not just special performance-related
              attributes such as
               _ChunkSizes, _DeflateLevel, _Endianness, etc.  The term "CDF-5  constructs"  means
              extended unsigned integer types allowed in the 64-bit data model.

       Note  that  there  is an ambiguity between the netCDF-4 case and the CDF-5 case is only an
       unsigned type is seen in the input.

       The rules are as follows, in order of application.

       1.     If either Fortran or Java output is specified, then -k flag  value  of  1  (classic
              model) will be used.  Conflicts with the use of enhanced constructs in the CDL will
              report an error.

       2.     If both the -k flag and _Format attribute are specified, the _Format flag  will  be
              ignored.   If  no -k flag is specified, and a _Format attribute value is specified,
              then the -k flag value will be set to that of the _Format attribute.  Otherwise the
              -k flag is undefined.

       3.     If  the  -k  option  is defined and is consistent with the CDL, ncgen will output a
              file in the requested form, else an error will be reported.

       4.     If the -k flag is undefined, and if there are CDF-5 constructs, only, in the CDL, a
              -k  flag  value  of 5 (64-bit data model) will be used.  If there are true netCDF-4
              constructs in the CDL, a -k flag value of 3 (enhanced model) will be used.

       5.     If special performance-related attributes are specified in the CDL, a -k flag value
              of 4 (netCDF-4 classic model) will be used.

       6.     Otherwise ncgen will set the -k flag to 1 (classic model).

       -L loglevel

       -M name
              Specify the name for the main function for C, F77, or Java.


       -N datasetname

       -o netcdf_file
              Name of the file to pass to calls to "nc_create()".  If this option is specified it
              implies (in the absence of any explicit -l flag) the "-b" option.  This  option  is
              necessary because netCDF files cannot be written directly to standard output, since
              standard output is not seekable.

       -P     Use NC_DISKLESS mode to create the file totally in memory before persisting  it  to

       -x     Don't initialize data with fill values.  This can speed up creation of large netCDF
              files greatly, but later attempts to read unwritten data from  the  generated  file
              will not be easily detectable.


       Check the syntax of the CDL file `foo.cdl':

              ncgen foo.cdl

       From the CDL file `foo.cdl', generate an equivalent binary netCDF file named `':

              ncgen -o foo.cdl

       From  the  CDL  file  `foo.cdl',  generate  a  C  program  containing  the netCDF function
       invocations necessary to create an equivalent binary netCDF file named `':

              ncgen -lc foo.cdl >x.c


   CDL Syntax Overview
       Below is an example of CDL syntax, describing a netCDF file with several named  dimensions
       (lat, lon, and time), variables (Z, t, p, rh, lat, lon, time), variable attributes (units,
       long_name, valid_range, _FillValue), and some data.  CDL keywords are in boldface.   (This
       example  is  intended to illustrate the syntax; a real CDL file would have a more complete
       set of attributes so that the data would be more completely self-describing.)
              netcdf foo {  // an example netCDF specification in CDL

                  ubyte enum enum_t {Clear = 0, Cumulonimbus = 1, Stratus = 2};
                  opaque(11) opaque_t;
                  int(*) vlen_t;

                   lat = 10, lon = 5, time = unlimited ;

                   long    lat(lat), lon(lon), time(time);
                   float   Z(time,lat,lon), t(time,lat,lon);
                   double  p(time,lat,lon);
                   long    rh(time,lat,lon);

                   string  country(time,lat,lon);
                   ubyte   tag;

                   // variable attributes
                   lat:long_name = "latitude";
                   lat:units = "degrees_north";
                   lon:long_name = "longitude";
                   lon:units = "degrees_east";
                   time:units = "seconds since 1992-1-1 00:00:00";

                   // typed variable attributes
                   string Z:units = "geopotential meters";
                   float Z:valid_range = 0., 5000.;
                   double p:_FillValue = -9999.;
                   long rh:_FillValue = -1;
                   vlen_t :globalatt = {17, 18, 19};
                   lat   = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90;
                   lon   = -140, -118, -96, -84, -52;
              group: g {
                  compound cmpd_t { vlen_t f1; enum_t f2;};
              } // group g
              group: h {
                   /g/cmpd_t  compoundvar;
                      compoundvar = { {3,4,5}, enum_t.Stratus } ;
              } // group h

       All CDL statements are terminated by a semicolon.  Spaces, tabs, and newlines can be  used
       freely for readability.  Comments may follow the characters `//' on any line.

       A  CDL  description  consists  of five optional parts: types, dimensions, variables, data,
       beginning  with  the  keyword  `types:',   `dimensions:',   `variables:',   and   `data:',
       respectively.   Note several things: (1) the keyword includes the trailing colon, so there
       must not be any space before the colon character, and (2) the keywords are required to  be
       lower case.

       The  variables:  section may contain variable declarations and attribute assignments.  All
       sections may contain global attribute assignments.

       In addition, after the data: section, the user may define a  series  of  groups  (see  the
       example  above).   Groups  themselves  can contain types, dimensions, variables, data, and
       other (nested) groups.

       The netCDF types: section declares the user defined types.  These may be constructed using
       any of the following types: enum, vlen, opaque, or compound.

       A  netCDF  dimension  is  used  to define the shape of one or more of the multidimensional
       variables contained in the netCDF file.  A netCDF dimension has a  name  and  a  size.   A
       dimension  can  have  the  unlimited size, which means a variable using this dimension can
       grow to any length in that dimension.

       A variable represents a multidimensional array of values of the same type.  A variable has
       a  name,  a data type, and a shape described by its list of dimensions.  Each variable may
       also have associated attributes (see below) as well as data values.  The name, data  type,
       and  shape of a variable are specified by its declaration in the variable section of a CDL
       description.  A variable may have the same name as  a  dimension;  by  convention  such  a
       variable   is  one-dimensional  and  contains  coordinates  of  the  dimension  it  names.
       Dimensions need not have corresponding variables.

       A netCDF attribute contains information about a netCDF variable or about the whole  netCDF
       dataset.  Attributes are used to specify such properties as units, special values, maximum
       and minimum valid values, scaling factors, offsets, and parameters.  Attribute information
       is represented by single values or arrays of values.  For example, "units" is an attribute
       represented by a character array such  as  "celsius".   An  attribute  has  an  associated
       variable,  a  name, a data type, a length, and a value.  In contrast to variables that are
       intended for data, attributes  are  intended  for  metadata  (data  about  data).   Unlike
       netCDF-3,  attribute  types  can  be  any  user defined type as well as the usual built-in

       In CDL, an attribute is designated by a a type, a variable, a ':', and then  an  attribute
       name.   The  type is optional and if missing, it will be inferred from the values assigned
       to the attribute.  It is possible to assign global  attributes  not  associated  with  any
       variable  to  the  netCDF  as  a  whole  by  omitting  the  variable name in the attribute
       declaration.  Notice that there is a potential ambiguity in a specification such as
       x : a = ...
       In this situation, x could be either a type for a global attribute, or the  variable  name
       for  an  attribute. Since there could both be a type named x and a variable named x, there
       is an ambiguity.  The rule is that in this situation, x will be interpreted as a  type  if
       possible, and otherwise as a variable.

       If  not  specified,  the  data type of an attribute in CDL is derived from the type of the
       value(s) assigned to it.  The length of an attribute is the number of data values assigned
       to  it,  or  the  number  of  characters in the character string assigned to it.  Multiple
       values are assigned to non-character attributes by separating the values with commas.  All
       values assigned to an attribute must be of the same type.

       The  names  for  CDL  dimensions, variables, attributes, types, and groups may contain any
       non-control utf-8 character except the forward slash character  (`/').   However,  certain
       characters  must  escaped  if  they  are used in a name, where the escape character is the
       backward slash `\'.  In particular, if the leading character  off  the  name  is  a  digit
       (0-9),  then  it  must be preceded by the escape character.  In addition, the characters `
       !"#$%&()*,:;<=>?[]^`ยด{}|~\' must be escaped if they occur anywhere in a name.   Note  also
       that  attribute  names  that  begin  with  an underscore (`_') are reserved for the use of
       Unidata and should not be used in user defined attributes.

       Note also that the words `variable', `dimension', `data', `group', and `types'  are  legal
       CDL  names,  but  be  careful  that  there is a space between them and any following colon
       character when used  as  a  variable  name.   This  is  mostly  an  issue  with  attribute
       declarations.  For example, consider this.

               netcdf ... {
                  int dimensions;
                      dimensions: attribute=0 ; // this will cause an error
                      dimensions : attribute=0 ; // this is ok.

       The  optional  data:  section  of  a  CDL  specification  is where netCDF variables may be
       initialized.  The syntax of an initialization is simple: a variable name, an equals  sign,
       and  a comma-delimited list of constants (possibly separated by spaces, tabs and newlines)
       terminated with a semicolon.  For multi-dimensional  arrays,  the  last  dimension  varies
       fastest.   Thus  row-order rather than column order is used for matrices.  If fewer values
       are supplied than are needed to fill a variable, it  is  extended  with  a  type-dependent
       `fill  value',  which  can be overridden by supplying a value for a distinguished variable
       attribute named `_FillValue'.  The types of constants need not match the type declared for
       a  variable;  coercions  are done to convert integers to floating point, for example.  The
       constant `_' can be used to designate the fill value for a variable.  If the type  of  the
       variable  is explicitly `string', then the special constant `NIL` can be used to represent
       a nil string, which is not the same as a zero length string.

   Primitive Data Types
              char characters
              byte 8-bit data
              short     16-bit signed integers
              int  32-bit signed integers
              long (synonymous with int)
              int64     64-bit signed integers
              float     IEEE single precision floating point (32 bits)
              real (synonymous with float)
              double    IEEE double precision floating point (64 bits)
              ubyte     unsigned 8-bit data
              ushort    16-bit unsigned integers
              uint 32-bit unsigned integers
              uint64    64-bit unsigned integers
              string    arbitrary length strings

       CDL supports a superset of the primitive data types of C.  The  names  for  the  primitive
       data  types  are  reserved  words  in  CDL,  so  the  names  of variables, dimensions, and
       attributes must not be primitive type names.  In declarations, type names may be specified
       in either upper or lower case.

       Bytes  are  intended  to  hold a full eight bits of data, and the zero byte has no special
       significance, as it mays for character data.  ncgen converts  byte  declarations  to  char
       declarations  in  the  output  C  code  and  to the nonstandard BYTE declaration in output
       Fortran code.

       Shorts can hold values between -32768 and 32767.  ncgen  converts  short  declarations  to
       short  declarations  in  the output C code and to the nonstandard INTEGER*2 declaration in
       output Fortran code.

       Ints can hold values between -2147483648 and 2147483647.  ncgen converts int  declarations
       to  int  declarations  in  the output C code and to INTEGER declarations in output Fortran
       code.  long is accepted as a synonym for int in CDL declarations, but is deprecated  since
       there are now platforms with 64-bit representations for C longs.

       Int64  can  hold  values  between  -9223372036854775808  and  9223372036854775807.   ncgen
       converts int64 declarations to longlong declarations in the output C code.

       Floats can hold values between about -3.4+38 and 3.4+38.  Their external representation is
       as  32-bit  IEEE normalized single-precision floating point numbers.  ncgen converts float
       declarations to float declarations in the output C code and to REAL declarations in output
       Fortran code.  real is accepted as a synonym for float in CDL declarations.

       Doubles can hold values between about -1.7+308 and 1.7+308.  Their external representation
       is as 64-bit IEEE standard normalized  double-precision  floating  point  numbers.   ncgen
       converts  double  declarations  to  double declarations in the output C code and to DOUBLE
       PRECISION declarations in output Fortran code.

       The unsigned counterparts of the above integer  types  are  mapped  to  the  corresponding
       unsigned C types.  Their ranges are suitably modified to start at zero.

       The  technical  interpretation of the char type is that it is an unsigned 8-bit value. The
       encoding of the 256 possible values is unspecified by default. A variable of char type may
       be  marked  with  an  "_Encoding"  attribute to indicate the character set to be used: US-
       ASCII, ISO-8859-1, etc.  Note that specifying the  encoding  of  UTF-8  is  equivalent  to
       specifying  US-ASCII  This  is  because multi-byte UTF-8 characters cannot be stored in an
       8-bit character. The only legal single byte UTF-8 values are by definition the  7-bit  US-
       ASCII encoding with the top bit set to zero.

       Strings  are  assumed  by  default  to  be encoded using UTF-8.  Note that this means that
       multi-byte UTF-8 encodings may be present in the string, so it is possible that the number
       of distinct UTF-8 characters in a string is smaller than the number of 8-bit bytes used to
       store the string.

   CDL Constants
       Constants assigned to attributes or variables may be of any of  the  basic  netCDF  types.
       The  syntax  for  constants  is  similar  to  C  syntax, except that type suffixes must be
       appended to shorts and floats to distinguish them from longs and doubles.

       A byte constant is represented by an integer constant with a `b' (or  `B')  appended.   In
       the  old netCDF-2 API, byte constants could also be represented using single characters or
       standard C character escape sequences such as `a' or `0.   This  is  still  supported  for
       backward  compatibility,  but deprecated to make the distinction clear between the numeric
       byte type and the textual char type.  Example byte constants include:
               0b             // a zero byte
               -1b            // -1 as an 8-bit byte
               255b           // also -1 as a signed 8-bit byte

       short integer constants are intended for representing 16-bit signed quantities.  The  form
       of  a  short  constant  is  an  integer  constant with an `s' or `S' appended.  If a short
       constant begins with `0', it is interpreted as octal, except that if it begins with  `0x',
       it is interpreted as a hexadecimal constant.  For example:
              -2s  // a short -2
              0123s     // octal
              0x7ffs  //hexadecimal

       int integer constants are intended for representing 32-bit signed quantities.  The form of
       an int constant is an ordinary integer constant, although it is acceptable  to  optionally
       append  a  single  `l'  or  `L'  (again,  deprecated). Be careful, though, the L suffix is
       interpreted as a 32 bit integer, and never as a 64 bit  integer.  This  can  be  confusing
       since the C long type can ambigously be either 32 bit or 64 bit.

       If  an  int constant begins with `0', it is interpreted as octal, except that if it begins
       with `0x', it is interpreted as a hexadecimal constant (but see opaque  constants  below).
       Examples of valid int constants include:
              0123      // octal
              0x7ff          // hexadecimal

       int64  integer constants are intended for representing 64-bit signed quantities.  The form
       of an int64 constant is an integer constant with an `ll' or `LL' appended.   If  an  int64
       constant  begins with `0', it is interpreted as octal, except that if it begins with `0x',
       it is interpreted as a hexadecimal constant.  For example:
              -2ll // an unsigned -2
              0123LL    // octal
              0x7ffLL  //hexadecimal

       Floating point constants of type float are appropriate  for  representing  floating  point
       data  with  about  seven significant digits of precision.  The form of a float constant is
       the same as a C floating point constant with an `f' or  `F'  appended.   For  example  the
       following are all acceptable float constants:
              3.14159265358979f   // will be truncated to less precision

       Floating  point  constants  of type double are appropriate for representing floating point
       data with about sixteen significant digits of precision.  The form of a double constant is
       the  same  as  a  C floating point constant.  An optional `d' or `D' may be appended.  For
       example the following are all acceptable double constants:

       Unsigned integer constants can be created by appending the character 'U'  or  'u'  between
       the  constant  and  any  trailing  size  specifier,  or immediately at the end of the size
       specifier.  Thus one could say 10U, 100su, 100000ul, or 1000000llu, for example.

       Single character constants may be enclosed in single quotes.  If a sequence of one or more
       characters is enclosed in double quotes, then its interpretation must be inferred from the
       context. If the dataset is created using the netCDF classic model, then all such constants
       are  interpreted as a character array, so each character in the constant is interpreted as
       if it were a single character.  If the dataset is netCDF extended, then the  constant  may
       be  interpreted  as for the classic model or as a true string (see below) depending on the
       type of the attribute or variable into which the string is contained.

       The interpretation of char constants is that those that are in the printable  ASCII  range
       ('  '..'~') are assumed to be encoded as the 1-byte subset ofUTF-8, which is equivalent to
       US-ASCII.  In all cases, the usual C string escape conventions are honored for values from
       0  thru  127.  Values  greater than 127 are allowed, but their encoding is undefined.  For
       netCDF extended, the use of the char type is deprecated in favor of the string type.

       Some character constant examples are as follows.
               'a'      // ASCII `a'
               "a"      // equivalent to 'a'
               "Two\nlines\n"     // a 10-character string with two embedded newlines
               "a bell:\007" // a string containing an ASCII bell
       Note that the netCDF character array "a" would fit in a  one-element  variable,  since  no
       terminating  NULL  character  is  assumed.   However,  a zero byte in a character array is
       interpreted as the end of the significant characters by the ncdump program, following  the
       C  convention.  Therefore, a NULL byte should not be embedded in a character string unless
       at the end: use the byte data type instead for byte arrays that contain the zero byte.

       String constants are, like character constants,  represented  using  double  quotes.  This
       represents  a  potential  ambiguity  since  a  multi-character  string may also indicate a
       dimensioned character value. Disambiguation usually occurs by context, but care should  be
       taken to specify thestring type to ensure the proper choice.  String constants are assumed
       to always be UTF-8 encoded. This specifically means that the string constant may  actually
       contain  multi-byte UTF-8 characters.  The special constant `NIL` can be used to represent
       a nil string, which is not the same as a zero length string.

       Opaque constants are represented as sequences of hexadecimal digits preceded by 0X or  0x:
       0xaa34ffff,  for example.  These constants can still be used as integer constants and will
       be either truncated or extended as necessary.

   Compound Constant Expressions
       In order to assign values to variables (or attributes) whose type  is  user-defined  type,
       the  constant  notation  has  been  extended to include sequences of constants enclosed in
       curly brackets (e.g. "{"..."}").  Such a constant  is  called  a  compound  constant,  and
       compound constants can be nested.

       Given  a type "T(*) vlen_t", where T is some other arbitrary base type, constants for this
       should be specified as follows.
           vlen_t var[2] = {t11,t12,...t1N}, {t21,t22,...t2m};
       The values tij, are assumed to be constants of type T.

       Given a type "compound cmpd_t {T1 f1; T2 f2...Tn fn}", where the Ti  are  other  arbitrary
       base types, constants for this should be specified as follows.
           cmpd_t var[2] = {t11,t12,...t1N}, {t21,t22,...t2n};
       The  values  tij, are assumed to be constants of type Ti.  If the fields are missing, then
       they will be set using any specified or default fill value for the field's base type.

       The general set of rules for using braces are defined in the Specifying Datalists  section

   Scoping Rules
       With  the  addition  of  groups,  the  name  space  for defined objects is no longer flat.
       References (names) of any type, dimension, or variable may be prefixed with  the  absolute
       path specifying a specific declaration.  Thus one might say
               /g1/g2/t1 v1;
       The  type  being  referenced  (t1)  is the one within group g2, which in turn is nested in
       group g1.  The similarity of this notation to Unix file paths is deliberate, and  one  can
       consider groups as a form of directory structure.

       When  name  is  not  prefixed,  then  scope  rules  are  applied  to  locate the specified
       declaration. Currently, there are three rules: one  for  dimensions,  one  for  types  and
       enumeration constants, and one for all others.

       When an unprefixed name of a dimension is used (as in a variable declaration), ncgen first
              looks in the immediately enclosing group for the dimension.  If  it  is  not  found
              there,  then  it  looks  in  the group enclosing this group.  This continues up the
              group hierarchy until the dimension is found,  or  there  are  no  more  groups  to

       2.  When  an  unprefixed name of a type or an enumeration constant is used, ncgen searches
              the group tree using a pre-order depth-first search. This essentially means that it
              will find the matching declaration that precedes the reference textually in the cdl
              file and that is "highest" in the group hierarchy.

       3. For all other names, only the immediately enclosing group is searched.

       One final note. Forward references are not  allowed.   This  means  that  specifying,  for
       example, /g1/g2/t1 will fail if this reference occurs before g1 and/or g2 are defined.

   Specifying Enumeration Constants
       References  to  Enumeration  constants  (in  data  lists)  can be ambiguous since the same
       enumeration constant name can be defined in more than  one  enumeration.  If  a  cdl  file
       specified  an  ambiguous  constant, then ncgen will signal an error. Such constants can be
       disambiguated in two ways.

       1.     Prefix the enumeration constant with the name of the  enumeration  separated  by  a
              dot: enum.econst, for example.

       2.     If  case  one  is not sufficient to disambiguate the enumeration constant, then one
              must specify the precise enumeration type using a group  path:  /g1/g2/enum.econst,
              for example.

   Special Attributes
       Special,  virtual,  attributes can be specified to provide performance-related information
       about the file format and about variable properties.  The file must be a netCDF-4 file for
       these to take effect.

       These  special  virtual  attributes  are  not actually part of the file, they are merely a
       convenient way to set miscellaneous properties of the data in CDL

       The special attributes  currently  supported  are  as  follows:  `_Format',  `_Fletcher32,
       `_ChunkSizes', `_Endianness', `_DeflateLevel', `_Shuffle', and `_Storage'.

       `_Format'  is a global attribute specifying the netCDF format variant. Its value must be a
       single string matching one of `classic', `64-bit offset', `64-bit  data',  `netCDF-4',  or
       `netCDF-4 classic model'.

       The  rest  of the special attributes are all variable attributes.  Essentially all of then
       map to some corresponding `nc_def_var_XXX' function as defined in the netCDF-4  API.   For
       the  attributes  that  are  essentially  boolean (_Fletcher32, _Shuffle, and _NOFILL), the
       value true can be specified by using the strings `true' or `1', or by using the integer 1.
       The  value  false  expects  either `false', `0', or the integer 0.  The actions associated
       with these attributes are as follows.

       1. `_Fletcher32 sets the `fletcher32' property for a variable.

       2. `_Endianness' is either `little' or `big', depending on how the variable is stored when
          first written.

       3. `_DeflateLevel'  is  an  integer  between  0  and  9  inclusive if compression has been
          specified for the variable.

       4. `_Shuffle' specifies if the the shuffle filter should be used.

       5. `_Storage' is `contiguous' or `chunked'.

       6. `_ChunkSizes' is a list of chunk sizes for each dimension of the variable

       Note that attributes such as "add_offset" or "scale_factor" have  no  special  meaning  to
       ncgen.   These  attributes  are  currently conventions, handled above the library layer by
       other utility packages, for example NCO.

   Specifying Datalists
       Specifying datalists for variables in the `data:` section  can  be  somewhat  complicated.
       There  are  some rules that must be followed to ensure that datalists are parsed correctly
       by ncgen.

       First, the top level is automatically assumed to be a list of items, so it should  not  be
       inside  {...}.   That  means that if the variable is a scalar, there will be a single top-
       level element and if the variable is an array, there will be N  top-level  elements.   For
       each element of the top level list, the following rules should be applied.

       1. Instances  of  UNLIMITED dimensions (other than the first dimension) must be surrounded
          by {...} in order to specify the size.

       2. Compound instances must be embedded in {...}

       3. Non-scalar fields of compound instances must be embedded in {...}.

       4. Instances of vlens must be surrounded by {...} in order to specify the size.

       Datalists associated with attributes are implicitly a vector (i.e., a list) of  values  of
       the type of the attribute and the above rules must apply with that in mind.

       7. No other use of braces is allowed.

       Note  that  one  consequence of these rules is that arrays of values cannot have subarrays
       within braces.  Consider, for example, int var(d1)(d2)...(dn), where none of  d2...dn  are
       unlimited.   A  datalist  for  this  variable must be a single list of integers, where the
       number of integers is no more than D=d1*d2*...dn values; note that the list  can  be  less
       than D, in which case fill values will be used to pad the list.

       Rule  6  about  attribute  datalist  has  the  following  consequence.  If the type of the
       attribute is a compound (or vlen) type, and if the number of entries in the list  is  one,
       then the compound instances must be enclosed in braces.

   Specifying Character Datalists
       Specifying datalists for variables of type char also has some complications. consider, for
              dimensions: u=UNLIMITED; d1=1; d2=2; d3=3;
                          d4=4; d5=5; u2=UNLIMITED;
              variables: char var(d4,d5);
              datalist: var="1", "two", "three";

       We have twenty elements of var to fill (d5 X d4) and we have three strings of length 1, 3,
       5.  How do we assign the characters in the strings to the twenty elements?

       This  is  challenging  because  it is desirable to mimic the original ncgen (ncgen3).  The
       core algorithm is notionally as follows.

       1. Assume we have a set of dimensions D1..Dn, where D1  may  optionally  be  an  Unlimited
          dimension.   It  is assumed that the sizes of the Di are all known (including unlimited

       2. Given a sequence of string or character constants C1..Cm, our goal is  to  construct  a
          single  string whose length is the cross product of D1 thru Dn.  Note that for purposes
          of this algorithm, character constants are treated as strings of size 1.

       3. Construct Dx = cross product of D1 thru D(n-1).

       4. For each constant Ci, add fill characters as needed so that its length is a multiple of

       5. Concatenate the modified C1..Cm to produce string S.

       6. Add fill characters to S to make its length be a multiple of Dn.

       8. If S is longer than the Dx * Dn, then truncate and generate a warning.

       There are three other cases of note.

       1. If  there  is  only  a  single,  unlimited  dimension,  then  all  of the constants are
          concatenated and fill characters are added to the end of the resulting string  to  make
          its  length  be  that  of  the  unlimited  dimension.  If the length is larger than the
          unlimited dimension, then it is truncated with a warning.

       2. For the case of  character  typed  vlen,  "char(*)  vlen_t"  for  example.   we  simply
          concatenate all the constants with no filling at all.

       3. For the case of a character typed attribute, we simply concatenate all the constants.

       In  netcdf-4,  dimensions  other  than the first can be unlimited.  Of course by the rules
       above, the interior unlimited instances must be delimited by {...}. For example.
            variables: char var(u,u2);
            datalist: var={"1", "two"}, {"three"};
       In this case u will have the effective length of two.  Within each  instance  of  u2,  the
       rules above will apply, leading to this.
            datalist: var={"1","t","w","o"}, {"t","h","r","e","e"};
       The  effective  size of u2 will be the max of the two instance lengths (five in this case)
       and the shorter will be padded to produce this.
            datalist: var={"1","t","w","o","\0"}, {"t","h","r","e","e"};

       Consider an even more complicated case.
            variables: char var(u,u2,u3);
            datalist: var={{"1", "two"}}, {{"three"},{"four","xy"}};
       In this case u again will have the effective length of two.  The u2 dimensions will have a
       size  =  max(1,2)  = 2; Within each instance of u2, the rules above will apply, leading to
            datalist: var={{"1","t","w","o"}}, {{"t","h","r","e","e"},{"f","o","u","r","x","y"}};
       The  effective  size  of u3 will be the max of the two instance lengths (six in this case)
       and the shorter ones will be padded to produce this.
            datalist: var={{"1","t","w","o"," "," "}}, {{"t","h","r","e","e"," "},{"f","o","u","r","x","y"}};
       Note  however  that the first instance of u2 is less than the max length of u2, so we need
       to add a filler for another instance of u2, producing this.
            datalist: var={{"1","t","w","o"," "," "},{" "," "," "," "," "," "}}, {{"t","h","r","e","e"," "},{"f","o","u","r","x","y"}};


       The programs generated by ncgen when using the -c flag use  initialization  statements  to
       store  data  in  variables, and will fail to produce compilable programs if you try to use
       them for large datasets, since the resulting statements may  exceed  the  line  length  or
       number of continuation statements permitted by the compiler.

       The CDL syntax makes it easy to assign what looks like an array of variable-length strings
       to a netCDF variable, but the strings may simply be concatenated into a  single  array  of
       characters.  Specific use of the string type specifier may solve the problem

CDL Grammar

       The  file  ncgen.y  is  the  definitive  grammar  for  CDL, but a stripped down version is
       included here for completeness.
              ncdesc: NETCDF

              datasetid: DATASETID

              rootgroup: '{'


                   | subgrouplist namedgroup

              namedgroup: GROUP ident '{'

              typesection:    /* empty */
                              | TYPES
                        | TYPES typedecls

                   | typedecls type_or_attr_decl

              typename: ident ;

                   | attrdecl ';'

                     enumdecl optsemicolon
                   | compounddecl optsemicolon
                   | vlendecl optsemicolon
                   | opaquedecl optsemicolon

                   | ';'

              enumdecl: primtype ENUM typename ;

              enumidlist:   enumid
                       | enumidlist ',' enumid

              enumid: ident '=' constint ;

              opaquedecl: OPAQUE '(' INT_CONST ')' typename ;

              vlendecl: typeref '(' '*' ')' typename ;

              compounddecl: COMPOUND typename '{' fields '}' ;

              fields:   field ';'
                   | fields field ';'

              field: typeref fieldlist ;

              primtype:         CHAR_K
                              | BYTE_K
                              | SHORT_K
                              | INT_K
                              | FLOAT_K
                              | DOUBLE_K
                              | UBYTE_K
                              | USHORT_K
                              | UINT_K
                              | INT64_K
                              | UINT64_K

              dimsection:     /* empty */
                              | DIMENSIONS
                        | DIMENSIONS dimdecls

              dimdecls:       dim_or_attr_decl ';'
                              | dimdecls dim_or_attr_decl ';'

              dim_or_attr_decl: dimdeclist  | attrdecl  ;

              dimdeclist:     dimdecl
                              | dimdeclist ',' dimdecl

                     dimd '=' UINT_CONST
                   | dimd '=' INT_CONST
                      | dimd '=' DOUBLE_CONST
                      | dimd '=' NC_UNLIMITED_K

              dimd:           ident ;

              vasection:      /* empty */
                              | VARIABLES
                              | VARIABLES vadecls

              vadecls:        vadecl_or_attr ';'
                              | vadecls vadecl_or_attr ';'

              vadecl_or_attr: vardecl  | attrdecl  ;

              vardecl:        typeref varlist ;

              varlist:      varspec
                          | varlist ',' varspec

              varspec:        ident dimspec ;

              dimspec:        /* empty */
                              | '(' dimlist ')'

              dimlist:        dimref
                              | dimlist ',' dimref

              dimref: path ;

                   | fieldlist ',' fieldspec

              fieldspec: ident fielddimspec ;

              fielddimspec:     /* empty */
                              | '(' fielddimlist ')'

                   | fielddimlist ',' fielddim

                   | INT_CONST

              /* Use this when referencing defined objects */
              varref: type_var_ref ;

              typeref: type_var_ref       ;

                   | primtype

              /* Use this for all attribute decls */
              /* Watch out; this is left recursive */
              attrdecllist: /*empty*/  | attrdecl ';' attrdecllist  ;

                     ':' ident '=' datalist
                   | typeref type_var_ref ':' ident '=' datalist
                   | type_var_ref ':' ident '=' datalist
                   | type_var_ref ':' _FILLVALUE '=' datalist
                   | typeref type_var_ref ':' _FILLVALUE '=' datalist
                   | type_var_ref ':' _STORAGE '=' conststring
                   | type_var_ref ':' _CHUNKSIZES '=' intlist
                   | type_var_ref ':' _FLETCHER32 '=' constbool
                   | type_var_ref ':' _DEFLATELEVEL '=' constint
                   | type_var_ref ':' _SHUFFLE '=' constbool
                   | type_var_ref ':' _ENDIANNESS '=' conststring
                   | type_var_ref ':' _NOFILL '=' constbool
                   | ':' _FORMAT '=' conststring

                   | PATH

              datasection:    /* empty */
                              | DATA
                              | DATA datadecls

                     datadecl ';'
                   | datadecls datadecl ';'

              datadecl: varref '=' datalist ;
                   | datalist1


              /* Must have at least 1 element */
                   | datalist ',' dataitem

                   | '{' datalist '}'

                   | OPAQUESTRING
                   | FILLMARKER
                   | NIL
                   | econstref
                   | function

              econstref: path ;

              function: ident '(' arglist ')' ;

                   | arglist ',' simpleconstant

                     CHAR_CONST /* never used apparently*/
                   | BYTE_CONST
                   | SHORT_CONST
                   | INT_CONST
                   | INT64_CONST
                   | UBYTE_CONST
                   | USHORT_CONST
                   | UINT_CONST
                   | UINT64_CONST
                   | FLOAT_CONST
                   | DOUBLE_CONST
                   | TERMSTRING

                   | intlist ',' constint

                   | UINT_CONST
                   | INT64_CONST
                   | UINT64_CONST

              conststring: TERMSTRING ;

                   | constint

              /* Push all idents thru here for tracking */
              ident: IDENT ;