Provided by: proj-bin_5.2.0-1_amd64 bug


       proj - Cartographic projection filter


          proj [ -beEfiIlmorsStTvVwW ] [ args ] ] [ +args ] file[s]

          invproj [ -beEfiIlmorsStTvVwW ] [ args ] ] [ +args ] file[s]


       proj and invproj perform respective forward and inverse conversion of cartographic data to
       or from cartesian data with a wide range of selectable projection functions.

       invproj may not be available on all platforms; in this case use proj -I instead.

       The following control parameters can appear in any order

       -b     Special option for binary coordinate data input and output through  standard  input
              and  standard  output.  Data  is assumed to be in system type double floating point
              words. This option is to be used when proj is a child process and allows  bypassing
              formatting operations.

       -d <n>

       New in version 5.2.0: Specify the number of decimals in the output.

       -i     Selects binary input only (see -b).

       -I     Alternate method to specify inverse projection. Redundant when used with invproj.

       -o     Selects binary output only (see -b).

       -t<a>  Where  a  specifies a character employed as the first character to denote a control
              line to be passed through without processing. This option applicable to ASCII input
              only. (# is the default value).

       -e <string>
              Where  string  is  an  arbitrary string to be output if an error is detected during
              data transformations. The default value is a three character  string:  *\t*.   Note
              that  if  the  -b,  -i or -o options are employed, an error is returned as HUGE_VAL
              value for both return values.

       -E     Causes the input coordinates to be copied to the output line prior to printing  the
              converted values.

              List  projection  identifiers  that  can  be  selected with +proj. proj -l=id gives
              expanded description of projection id, e.g. proj -l=merc.

       -lp    List of all projection id that can be used with the +proj parameter.  Equivalent to
              proj -l.

       -lP    Expanded description of all projections that can be used with the +proj parameter.

       -le    List of all ellipsoids that can be selected with the +ellps parameters.

       -lu    List of all distance units that can be selected with the +units parameter.

       -ld    List of datums that can be selected with the +datum parameter.

       -r     This  options  reverses  the order of the expected input from longitude-latitude or
              x-y to latitude-longitude or y-x.

       -s     This options reverses the order of the output from x-y or longitude-latitude to y-x
              or latitude-longitude.

       -S     Causes  estimation  of meridional and parallel scale factors, area scale factor and
              angular distortion, and maximum and minimum scale factors to be listed  between  <>
              for  each  input  point.  For  conformal projections meridional and parallel scales
              factors will be equal and angular distortion zero. Equal area projections will have
              an area factor of 1.

       -m <mult>
              The  cartesian  data may be scaled by the mult parameter. When processing data in a
              forward projection  mode  the  cartesian  output  values  are  multiplied  by  mult
              otherwise the input cartesian values are divided by mult before inverse projection.
              If the first two characters of mult are 1/ or 1: then the reciprocal value of  mult
              is employed.

       -f <format>
              Where  format  is  a printf format string to control the form of the output values.
              For inverse projections, the  output  will  be  in  degrees  when  this  option  is
              employed. The default format is "%.2f" for forward projection and DMS for inverse.

       -w<n>  Where n is the number of significant fractional digits to employ for seconds output
              (when the option is not specified, -w3 is assumed).

       -W<n>  Where n is the number of  significant  fractional  digits  to  employ  for  seconds
              output. When -W is employed the fields will be constant width with leading zeroes.

       -v     Causes  a  listing  of  cartographic  control parameters tested for and used by the
              program to be printed prior to input data. Should not be used with the -T option.

       -V     This option causes an expanded annotated listing  of  the  characteristics  of  the
              projected point. -v is implied with this option.

       -T <ulow,uhi,vlow,vhi,res[,umax,vmax]>
              This  option  creates  a  set  of  bivariate Chebyshev polynomial coefficients that
              approximate the selected cartographic projection on stdout. The values low  and  hi
              denote  the  range  of  the  input  where  the  u or v prefixes apply to respective
              longitude-x or latitude-y depending upon whether a forward or inverse projection is
              selected.  The  integer res is a number specifying the power of 10 precision of the
              approximation. For example, a res of -3 specifies an approximation with an accuracy
              better  than  0.001.  Optional  umax,  and  vmax  specify  maximum  degree  of  the
              polynomials (default: 15).

       The +args run-line arguments are  associated  with  cartographic  parameters.   Additional
       projection  control  parameters may be contained in two auxiliary control files: the first
       is optionally referenced with the +init=file:id and the second is always  processed  after
       the  name  of the projection has been established from either the run-line or the contents
       of +init file. The environment parameter PROJ_LIB establishes the default directory for  a
       file reference without an absolute path. This is also used for supporting files like datum
       shift files.

       One or more files (processed in left to right order) specify the  source  of  data  to  be
       converted.  A  -  will  specify the location of processing standard input. If no files are
       specified, the input is assumed to be from stdin.  For  ASCII  input  data  the  two  data
       values  must  be  in  the  first  two white space separated fields and when both input and
       output are ASCII all trailing portions of the input line are appended to the output line.

       Input geographic data (longitude and latitude) must be in DMS format and  input  cartesian
       data  must  be  in  units consistent with the ellipsoid major axis or sphere radius units.
       Output geographic coordinates will be in DMS (if  the  -w  switch  is  not  employed)  and
       precise to 0.001” with trailing, zero-valued minute-second fields deleted.


       The following script

          proj +proj=utm +lon_0=112w +ellps=clrk66 -r <<EOF
          45d15'33.1" 111.5W
          45d15.551666667N -111d30
          +45.25919444444 111d30'000w

       will perform UTM forward projection with a standard UTM central meridian nearest longitude
       112W. The geographic values of this example  are  equivalent  and  meant  as  examples  of
       various forms of DMS input. The x-y output data will appear as three lines of:

          460769.27     5011648.45


       The  proj  program  is  limited to converting between geographic and projected coordinates
       within one datum.

       The cs2cs program operates similarly, but allows translation between any pair of definable
       coordinate reference systems, including support for datum translation.


       cs2cs(1), cct(1), geod(1), gie(1)


       A  list  of know bugs can be found at where new bug
       reports can be submitted to.



       Gerald I. Evenden