Provided by: gmt-common_5.4.5+dfsg-1_all bug

NAME

       pscoast - Plot continents, shorelines, rivers, and borders on maps

SYNOPSIS

       pscoast  -Jparameters
        -Rregion  [   -Aarea  ]  [   -B[p|s]parameters ] [  -C[l|r/]fill ] [  -Dresolution[+] ] [
       -Edcw ] [  -Fbox ] [  -Gfill|c ] [  -Iriver[/pen]  ]  [   -Jz|Zparameters  ]  [   -K  ]  [
       -Lscalebar ] [  -M ] [  -Nborder[/pen] ] [  -O ] [  -P ] [  -Q ] [  -Sfill|c ] [  -Trose ]
       [  -Tmag_rose ] [  -U[stamp] ] [  -V[level]  ]  [   -W[level/]pen  ]  [   -Xx_offset  ]  [
       -Yy_offset ] [ -bobinary ] [ -pflags ] [ -ttransp ]

       Note: No space is allowed between the option flag and the associated arguments.

DESCRIPTION

       pscoast  plots  grayshaded, colored, or textured land-masses [or water-masses] on maps and
       [optionally] draws coastlines, rivers, and political boundaries. Alternatively, it can (1)
       issue clip paths that will contain all land or all water areas, or (2) dump the data to an
       ASCII  table.  The  data  files  come  in  5  different   resolutions:   (f)ull,   (h)igh,
       (i)ntermediate, (l)ow, and (c)rude. The full resolution files amount to more than 55 Mb of
       data and provide great  detail;  for  maps  of  larger  geographical  extent  it  is  more
       economical  to  use  one  of  the  other  resolutions.  If  the  user selects to paint the
       land-areas and does not specify fill of water-areas then the latter  will  be  transparent
       (i.e.,  earlier  graphics drawn in those areas will not be overwritten).  Likewise, if the
       water-areas are painted and no land fill is set then the land-areas will be transparent. A
       map projection must be supplied.  The PostScript code is written to standard output.

REQUIRED ARGUMENTS

       -Jparameters (more ...)
              Select map projection.

       -Rwest/east/south/north[/zmin/zmax][+r][+uunit]
              west,  east,  south,  and north specify the region of interest, and you may specify
              them in decimal degrees or in [±]dd:mm[:ss.xxx][W|E|S|N] format Append +r if  lower
              left  and  upper  right  map  coordinates  are  given  instead  of w/e/s/n. The two
              shorthands -Rg and -Rd stand for global domain (0/360 and  -180/+180  in  longitude
              respectively,  with  -90/+90  in  latitude).  Alternatively for grid creation, give
              Rcodelon/lat/nx/ny, where code is a 2-character combination of L, C, R  (for  left,
              center,  or right) and T, M, B for top, middle, or bottom. e.g., BL for lower left.
              This indicates which point on a rectangular region the  lon/lat  coordinate  refers
              to,  and  the grid dimensions nx and ny with grid spacings via -I is used to create
              the corresponding region.  Alternatively, specify the name of an existing grid file
              and  the  -R  settings  (and grid spacing, if applicable) are copied from the grid.
              Appending +uunit expects projected (Cartesian) coordinates compatible  with  chosen
              -J and we inversely project to determine actual rectangular geographic region.  For
              perspective view (-p), optionally append /zmin/zmax.  In case of  perspective  view
              (-p),  a z-range (zmin, zmax) can be appended to indicate the third dimension. This
              needs to be done only when using the -Jz option, not when using only the -p option.
              In  the  latter  case  a  perspective  view  of the plane is plotted, with no third
              dimension.

       For perspective view p, optionally append /zmin/zmax. (more ...)

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

       -Amin_area[/min_level/max_level][+ag|i|s|S][+r|l][+ppercent]
              Features with an area smaller than min_area in km^2 or of hierarchical  level  that
              is  lower  than  min_level or higher than max_level will not be plotted [Default is
              0/0/4 (all features)].  Level 2 (lakes)  contains  regular  lakes  and  wide  river
              bodies  which we normally include as lakes; append +r to just get river-lakes or +l
              to just get regular lakes.  By default (+ai) we select the ice  shelf  boundary  as
              the  coastline  for Antarctica; append +ag to instead select the ice grounding line
              as coastline.  For expert users who wish to print their  own  Antarctica  coastline
              and islands via psxy you can use +as to skip all GSHHG features below 60S or +aS to
              instead skip all features north of  60S.   Finally,  append  +ppercent  to  exclude
              polygons whose percentage area of the corresponding full-resolution feature is less
              than percent. See GSHHG INFORMATION below for more details.

       -B[p|s]parameters (more ...)
              Set map boundary frame and axes attributes.

       -C[l|r/]fill
              Set the shade, color, or pattern for lakes and river-lakes  [Default  is  the  fill
              chosen  for  "wet" areas (-S)]. Optionally, specify separate fills by prepending l/
              for lakes and r/ for river-lakes, repeating the -C option as needed.

       -Dresolution[+]
              Selects the resolution of the data set  to  use  ((f)ull,  (h)igh,  (i)ntermediate,
              (l)ow,  and (c)rude). The resolution drops off by 80% between data sets [Default is
              l].  Append + to automatically select a lower resolution should the  one  requested
              not   be   available  [abort  if  not  found].   Alternatively,  choose  (a)uto  to
              automatically select the best resolution given the chosen map scale.

       -Ecode1,code2,...[+l|L][+gfill][+ppen][+r|R[incs]]
              Select painting or dumping country polygons from the Digital Chart  of  the  World.
              This is another dataset independent of GSHHG and hence the -A and -D options do not
              apply.  Append one or more comma-separated  countries  using  the  2-character  ISO
              3166-1  alpha-2  convention.  To select a state of a country (if available), append
              .state, e.g, US.TX for Texas.  To specify a whole continent, prepend =  to  any  of
              the  continent  codes  AF  (Africa),  AN  (Antarctica),  AS (Asia), EU (Europe), OC
              (Oceania), NA (North America), or SA (South America).  Append +l to just  list  the
              countries  and their codes [no data extraction or plotting takes place].  Use +L to
              see states/territories for Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, and the  US.   Use
              +r  to  obtain  the  bounding  box  coordinates  from  the polygon(s).  Append inc,
              xinc/yinc, or winc/einc/sinc/ninc to adjust the region to be a  multiple  of  these
              steps  [no  adjustment].  Use  +R  to  extend  the  region  outward by adding these
              increments instead [no extension].  Append  +ppen  to  draw  polygon  outlines  [no
              outline]  and  +gfill to fill them [no fill].  One of +p|g must be specified unless
              +r, +R, or -M is in effect, and only one -E option can be given.  You may repeat -E
              to  give  different groups of items separate pen/fill settings.  If modifiers +r or
              +R are used and neither -J nor -M is set then we just print the -Rwesn string.

       -F[+cclearances][+gfill][+i[[gap/]pen]][+p[pen]][+r[radius]][+s[[dx/dy/][shade]]]
              Without further options, draws a rectangular border around the map  scale  or  rose
              using  MAP_FRAME_PEN;  specify  a different pen with +ppen.  Add +gfill to fill the
              logo box [no fill].  Append +cclearance where clearance is either  gap,  xgap/ygap,
              or   lgap/rgap/bgap/tgap  where  these  items  are  uniform,  separate  in  x-  and
              y-direction, or individual side spacings between logo and  border.   Append  +i  to
              draw  a secondary, inner border as well. We use a uniform gap between borders of 2p
              and the MAP_DEFAULT_PEN unless other  values  are  specified.  Append  +r  to  draw
              rounded rectangular borders instead, with a 6p corner radius. You can override this
              radius by appending another value. Finally, append +s to draw an offset  background
              shaded  region.  Here,  dx/dy  indicates the shift relative to the foreground frame
              [4p/-4p] and shade sets the fill style to use for shading [gray50].  Requires -L or
              -T.  If both -L or -T, you may repeat -F after each of these.

       -Gfill|c
              Select  filling or clipping of "dry" areas. Append the shade, color, or pattern; or
              use -Gc for clipping [Default is no fill].

       -Iriver[/pen]
              Draw rivers. Specify the type of rivers  and  [optionally]  append  pen  attributes
              [Default pen: width = default, color = black, style = solid].

              Choose from the list of river types below; repeat option -I as often as necessary.

              0 = Double-lined rivers (river-lakes)

              1 = Permanent major rivers

              2 = Additional major rivers

              3 = Additional rivers

              4 = Minor rivers

              5 = Intermittent rivers - major

              6 = Intermittent rivers - additional

              7 = Intermittent rivers - minor

              8 = Major canals

              9 = Minor canals

              10 = Irrigation canals

              You can also choose from several preconfigured river groups:

              a = All rivers and canals (0-10)

              A = All rivers and canals except river-lakes (1-10)

              r = All permanent rivers (0-4)

              R = All permanent rivers except river-lakes (1-4)

              i = All intermittent rivers (5-7)

              c = All canals (8-10)

       -Jz|Zparameters (more ...)
              Set z-axis scaling; same syntax as -Jx.

       -K (more ...)
              Do not finalize the PostScript plot.

       -L[g|j|J|n|x]refpoint+c[slon/]slat+wlength[e|f|k|M|n|u][+aalign][+f][+jjustify][+l[label]][+odx[/dy]][+u]
              Draws a simple map scale centered on the reference point  specified  using  one  of
              four coordinate systems: (1) Use -Lg for map (user) coordinates, (2) use -Lj or -LJ
              for setting refpoint via a 2-char justification code that refers to the (invisible)
              map  domain rectangle, (3) use -Ln for normalized (0-1) coordinates, or (4) use -Lx
              for plot coordinates (inches, cm, etc.).  Scale is  calculated  for  latitude  slat
              (optionally  supply  longitude  slon  for  oblique  projections [Default is central
              meridian]), length is in km, or append unit from  e|f|k|M|n|u.   Change  the  label
              alignment with +aalign (choose among l(eft), r(ight), t(op), and b(ottom)).  Append
              +f to get a "fancy" scale [Default is plain].  By default, the anchor point on  the
              map scale is assumed to be the center of the scale (MC), but this can be changed by
              appending +j followed by a 2-char justification code justify (see pstext  for  list
              and explanation of codes).  Append +l to select the default label, which equals the
              distance unit (meter, foot, km,  mile,  nautical  mile,  US  survey  foot)  and  is
              justified  on  top  of  the scale [t]. Change this by giving your own label (append
              +llabel).  Add +o to offset the map scale by dx/dy away from the  refpoint  in  the
              direction  implied  by justify (or the direction implied by -Dj or -DJ).  Select +u
              to append the unit to all distance annotations  along  the  scale  (for  the  plain
              scale,  +u  will  instead  select  the unit to be appended to the distance length).
              Note: Use FONT_LABEL to change the label font and FONT_ANNOT_PRIMARY to change  the
              annotation  font.   The  height of the map scale is controlled by MAP_SCALE_HEIGHT,
              and the pen thickness is set by MAP_TICK_PEN_PRIMARY.  See -F on  how  to  place  a
              panel behind the scale.

       -M     Dumps  a single multisegment ASCII (or binary, see -bo) file to standard output. No
              plotting occurs. Specify one of -E, -I, -N or -W.  Note: if -M is used with -E then
              -R  or  the  +r  modifier  to -E are not required as we automatically determine the
              region given the selected geographic entities.

       -Nborder[/pen]
              Draw political boundaries. Specify the type of boundary and [optionally] append pen
              attributes [Default pen: width = default, color = black, style = solid].

              Choose from the list of boundaries below. Repeat option -N as often as necessary.

              1 = National boundaries

              2 = State boundaries within the Americas

              3 = Marine boundaries

              a = All boundaries (1-3)

       -O (more ...)
              Append to existing PostScript plot.

       -P (more ...)
              Select "Portrait" plot orientation.

       -Q     Mark  end  of existing clip path. No projection information is needed.  Also supply
              -X and -Y settings if you have moved since the clip started.

       -Sfill|c
              Select filling or clipping of "wet" areas. Append the shade, color, or pattern;  or
              use -Sc for clipping [Default is no fill].

       -Td[g|j|J|n|x]refpoint+wwidth[+f[level]][+jjustify][+lw,e,s,n][+odx[/dy]]
              -Td  draws  a  map  directional  rose  on  the  map  at the location defined by the
              reference and anchor points: Give the reference point on the map for the rose using
              one of four coordinate systems: (1) Use g for map (user) coordinates, (2) use j for
              setting refpoint via a 2-char justification code that refers to the (invisible) map
              domain rectangle, (3) use n for normalized (0-1) coordinates, or (4) use x for plot
              coordinates (inches, cm, etc.) [Default].  You can offset the  reference  point  by
              dx/dy  in  the  direction  implied by justify.  By default, the anchor point on the
              scale is assumed to be the center of the rose (MC), but  this  can  be  changed  by
              appending  +j  followed by a 2-char justification code justify (see pstext for list
              and explanation of codes).  Note: If -Dj is used then justify defaults to the  same
              as  refpoint,  if  -DJ  is  used  then  justify  defaults to the mirror opposite of
              refpoint.  Add +o to offset the color scale by dx/dy away from the refpoint in  the
              direction  implied  by  justify  (or  the direction implied by -Dj or -DJ).  Append
              +wwidth to set the width of the  rose  in  plot  coordinates  (in  inches,  cm,  or
              points).   Add  +f to get a "fancy" rose, and specify in level what you want drawn.
              The default [1] draws the two principal E-W,  N-S  orientations,  2  adds  the  two
              intermediate   NW-SE   and  NE-SW  orientations,  while  3  adds  the  eight  minor
              orientations WNW-ESE, NNW-SSE, NNE-SSW, and ENE-WSW.   Label  the  cardinal  points
              W,E,S,N  by  adding +l and append your own four comma-separated strings to override
              the default.  Skip a specific label by leaving it blank.  See Placing-dir-map-roses
              and -F on how to place a panel behind the scale.

       -Tm[g|j|J|n|x]refpoint+wwidth[+ddec[/dlabel]]][+ipen][+jjustify][+lw,e,s,n][+ppen][+tints][+odx[/dy]]
          -Tm draws a map magnetic rose on the map at the location defined by the  reference  and
          anchor  points:  Give  the  reference  point  on the map for the rose using one of four
          coordinate systems: (1) Use g for  map  (user)  coordinates,  (2)  use  j  for  setting
          refpoint  via  a  2-char  justification  code that refers to the (invisible) map domain
          rectangle, (3) use  n  for  normalized  (0-1)  coordinates,  or  (4)  use  x  for  plot
          coordinates  (inches,  cm, etc.) [Default]. You can offset the reference point by dx/dy
          in the direction implied by justify.  By default, the anchor  point  on  the  scale  is
          assumed  to  be  the  center  of the rose (MC), but this can be changed by appending +j
          followed by a 2-char justification code justify (see pstext for list and explanation of
          codes).   Note: If -Dj is used then justify defaults to the same as refpoint, if -DJ is
          used then justify defaults to the mirror opposite of refpoint.  Add +o  to  offset  the
          color scale by dx/dy away from the refpoint in the direction implied by justify (or the
          direction implied by -Dj or -DJ).  Append +wwidth to set the width of the rose in  plot
          coordinates  (in inches, cm, or points).  Use +d to assign the magnetic declination and
          set dlabel, which is a label for the magnetic compass needle (Leave empty to  format  a
          label  from  dec, or give - to bypass labeling). With +d, both directions to geographic
          and magnetic north are plotted [Default is geographic only]. If the north  label  is  *
          then  a  north star is plotted instead of the north label. Annotation and two levels of
          tick intervals for both geographic and magnetic directions default to  30/5/1  degrees;
          override  these  settings by appending +tints, and append six slash-separated intervals
          to set both the geographic (first three) and magnetic (last  three)  intervals.   Label
          the  cardinal  points  W,E,S,N  by  adding  +l and append your own four comma-separated
          strings to override the default.  Skip a specific label by leaving  it  blank.   Number
          GMT  default  parameters control pens, fonts, and color.  See Placing-dir-map-roses and
          -F on how to place a panel behind the scale.

       -U[[just]/dx/dy/][c|label] (more ...)
              Draw GMT time stamp logo on plot.

       -V[level] (more ...)
              Select verbosity level [c].

       -W[level/]pen (more ...)
              Draw shorelines [Default is no shorelines]. Append pen attributes [Defaults:  width
              = default, color = black, style = solid] which apply to all four levels. To set the
              pen for each level differently, prepend level/, where level is  1-4  and  represent
              coastline,  lakeshore,  island-in-lake  shore,  and  lake-in-island-in-lake  shore.
              Repeat -W as needed. When specific level pens are set, those not listed will not be
              drawn [Default draws all levels; but see -A].

       -X[a|c|f|r][x-shift[u]]

       -Y[a|c|f|r][y-shift[u]] (more ...)
              Shift plot origin.

       -bo[ncols][type] (more ...)
              Select native binary output.

       -p[x|y|z]azim[/elev[/zlevel]][+wlon0/lat0[/z0]][+vx0/y0] (more ...)
              Select perspective view.

       -t[transp] (more ...)
              Set PDF transparency level in percent.

       -^ or just -
              Print a short message about the syntax of the command, then exits (NOTE: on Windows
              just use -).

       -+ or just +
              Print  an  extensive  usage  (help)  message,  including  the  explanation  of  any
              module-specific option (but not the GMT common options), then exits.

       -? or no arguments
              Print  a  complete  usage (help) message, including the explanation of all options,
              then exits.

EXAMPLES

       To plot a green Africa with white outline on blue background, with permanent major  rivers
       in  thick  blue  pen,  additional  major  rivers in thin blue pen, and national borders as
       dashed lines on a Mercator map at scale 0.1 inch/degree, use

              gmt pscoast -R-30/30/-40/40 -Jm0.1i -B5 -I1/1p,blue -N1/0.25p,- \
                          -I2/0.25p,blue -W0.25p,white -Ggreen -Sblue -P > africa.ps

       To plot Iceland using the lava pattern (# 28) at 100 dots per inch, on a Mercator  map  at
       scale 1 cm/degree, run

              gmt pscoast -R-30/-10/60/65 -Jm1c -B5 -Gp28+r100 > iceland.ps

       To initiate a clip path for Africa so that the subsequent colorimage of gridded topography
       is only seen over land, using a Mercator map at scale 0.1 inch/degree, use

              gmt pscoast  -R-30/30/-40/40 -Jm0.1i -B5 -Gc -P -K > africa.ps
              gmt grdimage -Jm0.1i etopo5.nc -Ccolors.cpt -O -K >> africa.ps
              gmt pscoast  -Q -O >> africa.ps

       To plot Great Britain, Italy, and France in blue with a red outline  and  Spain,  Portugal
       and  Greece  in yellow (no outline), and pick up the plot domain form the extents of these
       countries, use

              gmt pscoast  -JM6i -P -Baf -EGB,IT,FR+gblue+p0.25p,red+r -EES,PT,GR+gyellow > map.ps

       To extract a high-resolution coastline data table for Iceland to be used in your analysis,
       try

              gmt pscoast -R-26/-12/62/68 -Dh -W -M > iceland.txt

       pscoast  will  first  look  for  coastline  files  in directory $GMT_SHAREDIR/coast If the
       desired file is not found, it will look for the  file  $GMT_SHAREDIR/coastline.conf.  This
       file may contain any number of records that each holds the full pathname of an alternative
       directory. Comment lines (#) and blank lines are allowed.  The desired file is then sought
       for in the alternate directories.

GSHHS INFORMATION

       The  coastline  database  is  GSHHG (formerly GSHHS) which is compiled from three sources:
       World Vector Shorelines (WVS), CIA World Data Bank II (WDBII), and Atlas of the Cryosphere
       (AC,  for  Antarctica  only).   Apart  from  Antarctica,  all level-1 polygons (ocean-land
       boundary) are derived from the more accurate WVS while all higher  level  polygons  (level
       2-4,           representing          land/lake,          lake/island-in-lake,          and
       island-in-lake/lake-in-island-in-lake boundaries) are taken from  WDBII.   The  Antarctica
       coastlines come in two flavors: ice-front or grounding line, selectable via the -A option.
       Much processing has taken place to convert WVS, WDBII, and AC data into  usable  form  for
       GMT:  assembling  closed  polygons  from  line  segments,  checking  for  duplicates,  and
       correcting for crossings between polygons.  The area of each polygon has  been  determined
       so that the user may choose not to draw features smaller than a minimum area (see -A); one
       may also limit the highest hierarchical level  of  polygons  to  be  included  (4  is  the
       maximum).  The 4 lower-resolution databases were derived from the full resolution database
       using the Douglas-Peucker line-simplification algorithm. The classification of rivers  and
       borders  follow that of the WDBII. See the GMT Cookbook and Technical Reference Appendix K
       for further details.

BUGS

       The options to fill (-C -G -S) may not always work if the Azimuthal equidistant projection
       is  chosen (-Je|E). If the antipole of the projection is in the oceans it will most likely
       work. If not, try to avoid using projection center coordinates that are even multiples  of
       the coastline bin size (1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 degrees for f, h, i, l, c, respectively). This
       projection is not supported for clipping.

       The political borders are for the most part 1970s-style but have been updated  to  reflect
       more  recent  border  rearrangements  in  Europe  and  elsewhere.  Let us know if you find
       something out of date.

       The full-resolution coastlines are also from a digitizing effort in the 1970-80s and it is
       difficult  to  assess the accuracy. Users who zoom in close enough may find that the GSHHG
       coastline is not matching other data, e.g., satellite images, more recent coastline  data,
       etc.  We  are  aware  of such mismatches but cannot undertake band-aid solutions each time
       this occurs.

       Some users of pscoast will not  be  satisfied  with  what  they  find  for  the  Antarctic
       shoreline.  In  Antarctica,  the  boundary  between  ice  and  ocean varies seasonally and
       inter-annually. There are some  areas  of  permanent  shelf  ice.  In  addition  to  these
       time-varying ice-ocean boundaries, there are also shelf ice grounding lines where ice goes
       from floating on the sea to sitting on land, and lines delimiting areas of  rock  outcrop.
       For  consistency's  sake,  we have used the World Vector Shoreline throughout the world in
       pscoast, as described in the GMT Cookbook Appendix K. Users who need  specific  boundaries
       in Antarctica should get the Antarctic Digital Database, prepared by the British Antarctic
       Survey, Scott Polar Research Institute, World Conservation Monitoring  Centre,  under  the
       auspices  of  the  Scientific  Committee  on  Antarctic  Research. This data base contains
       various kinds of limiting lines for Antarctica and is available on CD-ROM. It is published
       by  the  Scientific  Committee  on  Antarctic  Research,  Scott  Polar Research Institute,
       Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1ER, United Kingdom.

SEE ALSO

       gmt, gmt.conf, gmtcolors, grdlandmask, psbasemap

COPYRIGHT

       2019, P. Wessel, W. H. F. Smith, R. Scharroo, J. Luis, and F. Wobbe