Provided by: python-pytest_3.10.1-2_all bug

NAME

       pytest - pytest usage

CALLING PYTEST THROUGH PYTHON -M PYTEST

       New in version 2.0.

       You can invoke testing through the Python interpreter from the command line:

          python -m pytest [...]

       This  is  almost  equivalent  to  invoking the command line script pytest [...]  directly,
       except that calling via python will also add the current directory to sys.path.

POSSIBLE EXIT CODES

       Running pytest can result in six different exit codes:

       Exit code 0
              All tests were collected and passed successfully

       Exit code 1
              Tests were collected and run but some of the tests failed

       Exit code 2
              Test execution was interrupted by the user

       Exit code 3
              Internal error happened while executing tests

       Exit code 4
              pytest command line usage error

       Exit code 5
              No tests were collected

GETTING HELP ON VERSION, OPTION NAMES, ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

          pytest --version   # shows where pytest was imported from
          pytest --fixtures  # show available builtin function arguments
          pytest -h | --help # show help on command line and config file options

STOPPING AFTER THE FIRST (OR N) FAILURES

       To stop the testing process after the first (N) failures:

          pytest -x            # stop after first failure
          pytest --maxfail=2    # stop after two failures

SPECIFYING TESTS / SELECTING TESTS

       Pytest supports several ways to run and select tests from the command-line.

       Run tests in a module

          pytest test_mod.py

       Run tests in a directory

          pytest testing/

       Run tests by keyword expressions

          pytest -k "MyClass and not method"

       This will run tests which contain names that match the given string expression, which  can
       include  Python operators that use filenames, class names and function names as variables.
       The     example     above     will     run     TestMyClass.test_something      but     not
       TestMyClass.test_method_simple.

       Run tests by node ids

       Each  collected  test  is  assigned  a  unique nodeid which consist of the module filename
       followed  by  specifiers  like  class  names,   function   names   and   parameters   from
       parametrization, separated by :: characters.

       To run a specific test within a module:

          pytest test_mod.py::test_func

       Another example specifying a test method in the command line:

          pytest test_mod.py::TestClass::test_method

       Run tests by marker expressions

          pytest -m slow

       Will run all tests which are decorated with the @pytest.mark.slow decorator.

       For more information see marks.

       Run tests from packages

          pytest --pyargs pkg.testing

       This will import pkg.testing and use its filesystem location to find and run tests from.

MODIFYING PYTHON TRACEBACK PRINTING

       Examples for modifying traceback printing:

          pytest --showlocals # show local variables in tracebacks
          pytest -l           # show local variables (shortcut)

          pytest --tb=auto    # (default) 'long' tracebacks for the first and last
                               # entry, but 'short' style for the other entries
          pytest --tb=long    # exhaustive, informative traceback formatting
          pytest --tb=short   # shorter traceback format
          pytest --tb=line    # only one line per failure
          pytest --tb=native  # Python standard library formatting
          pytest --tb=no      # no traceback at all

       The  --full-trace  causes very long traces to be printed on error (longer than --tb=long).
       It also ensures that a stack trace is printed on KeyboardInterrupt (Ctrl+C).  This is very
       useful  if  the  tests  are taking too long and you interrupt them with Ctrl+C to find out
       where the tests are hanging. By default no output will be shown (because KeyboardInterrupt
       is caught by pytest). By using this option you make sure a trace is shown.

DETAILED SUMMARY REPORT

       New in version 2.9.

       The  -r  flag  can be used to display test results summary at the end of the test session,
       making it easy in large test suites to get a clear picture of all failures, skips, xfails,
       etc.

       Example:

          $ pytest -ra
          =========================== test session starts ============================
          platform linux -- Python 3.x.y, pytest-3.x.y, py-1.x.y, pluggy-0.x.y
          rootdir: $REGENDOC_TMPDIR, inifile:
          collected 0 items

          ======================= no tests ran in 0.12 seconds =======================

       The  -r  options  accepts  a number of characters after it, with a used above meaning "all
       except passes".

       Here is the full list of available characters that can be used:

          · f - failed

          · E - error

          · s - skipped

          · x - xfailed

          · X - xpassed

          · p - passed

          · P - passed with output

          · a - all except pP

       More than one character can be used, so for example to only see failed and skipped  tests,
       you can execute:

          $ pytest -rfs
          =========================== test session starts ============================
          platform linux -- Python 3.x.y, pytest-3.x.y, py-1.x.y, pluggy-0.x.y
          rootdir: $REGENDOC_TMPDIR, inifile:
          collected 0 items

          ======================= no tests ran in 0.12 seconds =======================

DROPPING TO PDB (PYTHON DEBUGGER) ON FAILURES

       Python  comes  with  a builtin Python debugger called PDB.  pytest allows one to drop into
       the PDB prompt via a command line option:

          pytest --pdb

       This will invoke the Python debugger on every failure (or KeyboardInterrupt).   Often  you
       might  only  want  to  do  this for the first failing test to understand a certain failure
       situation:

          pytest -x --pdb   # drop to PDB on first failure, then end test session
          pytest --pdb --maxfail=3  # drop to PDB for first three failures

       Note  that  on  any  failure  the  exception  information  is  stored  on  sys.last_value,
       sys.last_type  and  sys.last_traceback.  In  interactive use, this allows one to drop into
       postmortem debugging with any debug tool. One  can  also  manually  access  the  exception
       information, for example:

          >>> import sys
          >>> sys.last_traceback.tb_lineno
          42
          >>> sys.last_value
          AssertionError('assert result == "ok"',)

DROPPING TO PDB (PYTHON DEBUGGER) AT THE START OF A TEST

       pytest  allows one to drop into the PDB prompt immediately at the start of each test via a
       command line option:

          pytest --trace

       This will invoke the Python debugger at the start of every test.

SETTING BREAKPOINTS

       To set a breakpoint in your code use the native Python import pdb;pdb.set_trace() call  in
       your code and pytest automatically disables its output capture for that test:

       · Output capture in other tests is not affected.

       · Any prior test output that has already been captured and will be processed as such.

       · Any later output produced within the same test will not be captured and will instead get
         sent directly to sys.stdout. Note that this holds true even for  test  output  occurring
         after  you  exit  the interactive PDB tracing session and continue with the regular test
         run.

USING THE BUILTIN BREAKPOINT FUNCTION

       Python 3.7 introduces a  builtin  breakpoint()  function.   Pytest  supports  the  use  of
       breakpoint() with the following behaviours:

          · When  breakpoint() is called and PYTHONBREAKPOINT is set to the default value, pytest
            will use the custom internal PDB trace UI instead of the system default Pdb.

          · When tests are complete, the system will default back to the system Pdb trace UI.

          · With --pdb passed to pytest, the custom internal Pdb  trace  UI  is  used  with  both
            breakpoint() and failed tests/unhandled exceptions.

          · --pdbcls can be used to specify a custom debugger class.

PROFILING TEST EXECUTION DURATION

       To get a list of the slowest 10 test durations:

          pytest --durations=10

       By  default, pytest will not show test durations that are too small (<0.01s) unless -vv is
       passed on the command-line.

CREATING JUNITXML FORMAT FILES

       To create result files which can be  read  by  Jenkins  or  other  Continuous  integration
       servers, use this invocation:

          pytest --junitxml=path

       to create an XML file at path.

       New in version 3.1.

       To  set  the  name of the root test suite xml item, you can configure the junit_suite_name
       option in your config file:

          [pytest]
          junit_suite_name = my_suite

   record_property
       New in version 2.8.

       Changed in version 3.5: Fixture renamed from  record_xml_property  to  record_property  as
       user   properties  are  now  available  to  all  reporters.   record_xml_property  is  now
       deprecated.

       If you want to log additional information for a test,  you  can  use  the  record_property
       fixture:

          def test_function(record_property):
              record_property("example_key", 1)
              assert True

       This will add an extra property example_key="1" to the generated testcase tag:

          <testcase classname="test_function" file="test_function.py" line="0" name="test_function" time="0.0009">
            <properties>
              <property name="example_key" value="1" />
            </properties>
          </testcase>

       Alternatively, you can integrate this functionality with custom markers:

          # content of conftest.py

          def pytest_collection_modifyitems(session, config, items):
              for item in items:
                  for marker in item.iter_markers(name="test_id"):
                      test_id = marker.args[0]
                      item.user_properties.append(("test_id", test_id))

       And in your tests:

          # content of test_function.py
          import pytest

          @pytest.mark.test_id(1501)
          def test_function():
              assert True

       Will result in:

          <testcase classname="test_function" file="test_function.py" line="0" name="test_function" time="0.0009">
            <properties>
              <property name="test_id" value="1501" />
            </properties>
          </testcase>

       WARNING:
          record_property is an experimental feature and may change in the future.

          Also  please  note  that  using  this feature will break any schema verification.  This
          might be a problem when used with some CI servers.

   record_xml_attribute
       New in version 3.4.

       To add an additional xml attribute to a testcase element, you can use record_xml_attribute
       fixture. This can also be used to override existing values:

          def test_function(record_xml_attribute):
              record_xml_attribute("assertions", "REQ-1234")
              record_xml_attribute("classname", "custom_classname")
              print("hello world")
              assert True

       Unlike  record_property, this will not add a new child element.  Instead, this will add an
       attribute assertions="REQ-1234" inside the generated testcase tag and override the default
       classname with "classname=custom_classname":

          <testcase classname="custom_classname" file="test_function.py" line="0" name="test_function" time="0.003" assertions="REQ-1234">
              <system-out>
                  hello world
              </system-out>
          </testcase>

       WARNING:
          record_xml_attribute is an experimental feature, and its interface might be replaced by
          something more powerful and general in future versions. The functionality  per-se  will
          be kept, however.

          Using  this  over  record_xml_property  can  help  when using ci tools to parse the xml
          report.  However, some parsers are quite strict about the elements and attributes  that
          are  allowed.   Many  tools  use  an  xsd  schema  (like the example below) to validate
          incoming xml.  Make sure you are using attribute names that are allowed by your parser.

          Below is the Scheme used by Jenkins to validate the XML report:

              <xs:element name="testcase">
                  <xs:complexType>
                      <xs:sequence>
                          <xs:element ref="skipped" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
                          <xs:element ref="error" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                          <xs:element ref="failure" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                          <xs:element ref="system-out" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                          <xs:element ref="system-err" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
                      </xs:sequence>
                      <xs:attribute name="name" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
                      <xs:attribute name="assertions" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
                      <xs:attribute name="time" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
                      <xs:attribute name="classname" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
                      <xs:attribute name="status" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
                  </xs:complexType>
              </xs:element>

   LogXML: add_global_property
       New in version 3.0.

       If you want to add a properties node in the testsuite level, which may contains properties
       that are relevant to all testcases you can use LogXML.add_global_properties

          import pytest

          @pytest.fixture(scope="session")
          def log_global_env_facts(f):

              if pytest.config.pluginmanager.hasplugin("junitxml"):
                  my_junit = getattr(pytest.config, "_xml", None)

              my_junit.add_global_property("ARCH", "PPC")
              my_junit.add_global_property("STORAGE_TYPE", "CEPH")

          @pytest.mark.usefixtures(log_global_env_facts.__name__)
          def start_and_prepare_env():
              pass

          class TestMe(object):
              def test_foo(self):
                  assert True

       This will add a property node below the testsuite node to the generated xml:

          <testsuite errors="0" failures="0" name="pytest" skips="0" tests="1" time="0.006">
            <properties>
              <property name="ARCH" value="PPC"/>
              <property name="STORAGE_TYPE" value="CEPH"/>
            </properties>
            <testcase classname="test_me.TestMe" file="test_me.py" line="16" name="test_foo" time="0.000243663787842"/>
          </testsuite>

       WARNING:
          This  is an experimental feature, and its interface might be replaced by something more
          powerful and general in future versions. The functionality per-se will be kept.

CREATING RESULTLOG FORMAT FILES

       Deprecated since version 3.0: This option is rarely used and is scheduled for  removal  in
       4.0.

       An  alternative  for users which still need similar functionality is to use the pytest-tap
       plugin which provides a stream of test data.

       If you have any concerns, please don't hesitate to open an issue.

       To create plain-text machine-readable result files you can issue:

          pytest --resultlog=path

       and look at the content at the path location.  Such files are used e.g.  by the  PyPy-test
       web page to show test results over several revisions.

SENDING TEST REPORT TO ONLINE PASTEBIN SERVICE

       Creating a URL for each test failure:

          pytest --pastebin=failed

       This will submit test run information to a remote Paste service and provide a URL for each
       failure.  You may select tests as usual or add for example -x if you only want to send one
       particular failure.

       Creating a URL for a whole test session log:

          pytest --pastebin=all

       Currently only pasting to the http://bpaste.net service is implemented.

DISABLING PLUGINS

       To  disable  loading  specific plugins at invocation time, use the -p option together with
       the prefix no:.

       Example: to disable loading the plugin doctest, which is responsible for executing doctest
       tests from text files, invoke pytest like this:

          pytest -p no:doctest

CALLING PYTEST FROM PYTHON CODE

       New in version 2.0.

       You can invoke pytest from Python code directly:

          pytest.main()

       this  acts  as  if  you  would  call  "pytest"  from  the command line.  It will not raise
       SystemExit but return the exitcode instead.  You can pass in options and arguments:

          pytest.main(['-x', 'mytestdir'])

       You can specify additional plugins to pytest.main:

          # content of myinvoke.py
          import pytest
          class MyPlugin(object):
              def pytest_sessionfinish(self):
                  print("*** test run reporting finishing")

          pytest.main(["-qq"], plugins=[MyPlugin()])

       Running it will show that MyPlugin was added and its hook was invoked:

          $ python myinvoke.py
          .                                                                    [100%]*** test run reporting finishing

       NOTE:
          Calling pytest.main() will result in importing your tests and  any  modules  that  they
          import. Due to the caching mechanism of python's import system, making subsequent calls
          to pytest.main() from the same process will not reflect changes to those files  between
          the  calls.  For  this  reason,  making  multiple  calls to pytest.main() from the same
          process (in order to re-run tests, for example) is not recommended.

AUTHOR

       holger krekel at merlinux eu

COPYRIGHT

       2015–2018 , holger krekel and pytest-dev team