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       r.series.accumulate   -  Makes each output cell value a accumulationfunction of the values
       assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.


       raster, series, accumulation


       r.series.accumulate --help
       r.series.accumulate   [-nzf]    [basemap=name]     [input=name[,name,...]]     [file=name]
       output=name  [scale=float]   [shift=float]   [lower=name]   [upper=name]   [range=min,max]
       [limits=lower,upper]   [method=string]   [--overwrite]  [--help]   [--verbose]   [--quiet]

           Propagate NULLs

           Do not keep files open

           Create a FCELL map (floating point single precision) as output

           Allow output files to overwrite existing files

           Print usage summary

           Verbose module output

           Quiet module output

           Force launching GUI dialog

           Existing map to be added to output

           Name of input raster map(s)

           Input file with raster map names, one per line

       output=name [required]
           Name for output raster map

           Scale factor for input
           Default: 1.0

           Shift factor for input
           Default: 0.0

           The raster map specifying the lower accumulation limit, also called baseline

           The  raster  map  specifying  the  upper  accumulation limit, also called cutoff. Only
           applied to BEDD computation.

           Ignore values outside this range

           Use these limits in case lower and/or upper input maps are not defined
           Default: 10,30

           This method will be applied to compute the accumulative values from the input maps
           Options: gdd, bedd, huglin, mean
           Default: gdd
           gdd: Growing Degree Days or Winkler indices
           bedd: Biologically Effective Degree Days
           huglin: Huglin Heliothermal index
           mean: Mean: sum(input maps)/(number of input maps)


       r.series.accumulate calculates  (accumulated)  raster  value  using  growing  degree  days
       (GDDs)/Winkler  indices’s,  Biologically Effective Degree Days (BEDD), Huglin heliothermal
       indices or an average approach from several input maps for a given  day.  Accumulation  of
       e.g.   degree-days  to  growing degree days (GDDs) can be done by providing a basemap with
       GDDs of the previous day.

       The flag -a determines the average computation of the input raster maps.  In case the flag
       is not set, the average calculation is:
           average = (min + max) / 2
       In case the flag was set, the calculation changes to arithmetic mean
           average = sum(input maps) / (number of input maps)

       GDD Growing Degree Days are calculated as
           gdd = average - lower

       In  case  the  -a  is  set,  the  Winkler  indices  are calculated instead of GDD, usually
       accumulated for the period April 1st to October 31st (northern hemisphere) or  the  period
       October 1st to April 30th (southern hemisphere).

       BEDDs Biologically Effective Degree Days are calculated as
           bedd = average - lower
       with an optional upper cutoff applied to the average instead of the temperature values.

       The Huglin heliothermal index is calculated as
           huglin = (average + max) / 2 - lower
       usually  accumulated  for  the period April 1st to September 30th (northern hemisphere) or
       the period September 1st to April 30th (southern hemisphere).

       Mean raster values are calculated as
           mean = average

       For all the formulas min is the minimum value, max  the  maximum  value  and  average  the
       average  value.   The  min,  max  and average values are automatically calculated from the
       input maps.

       The shift and scale values are applied directly to the input values. The lower  and  upper
       maps,  as well as the range options are applied to constrain the accumulation. In case the
       lower and upper maps are not provided the  limits  option  with  default  values  will  be

       If  an  existing map is provided with the basemap option, the values of this map are added
       to the output.


       The scale and shift parameters are used to transform input values with
           new = old * scale + shift

       With the -n flag, any cell for which any of the corresponding  input  cells  are  NULL  is
       automatically set to NULL (NULL propagation) and the accumulated value is not calculated.

       Negative results are set to 0 (zero).

       Without the -n flag, all non-NULL cells are used for calculation.

       If the range= option is given, any values which fall outside that range will be treated as
       if they were NULL. Note that the range is applied to the scaled and  shifted  input  data.
       The  range  parameter  can be set to low,high thresholds: values outside of this range are
       treated as NULL (i.e., they will be ignored by most aggregates, or will cause  the  result
       to be NULL if -n is given). The low,high thresholds are floating point, so use -inf or inf
       for a single threshold (e.g., range=0,inf to ignore negative values, or  range=-inf,-200.4
       to ignore values above -200.4).

       The  maximum  number  of  raster  maps that can be processed is given by the user-specific
       limit of the operating system. For example, the soft limits for users are  typically  1024
       files.  The  soft  limit  can  be  changed with e.g.  ulimit -n 4096 (UNIX-based operating
       systems) but it cannot be higher than the hard limit. If the latter is too low, you can as
       superuser add an entry in:
       # <domain>      <type>  <item>         <value>
       your_username  hard    nofile          4096
       This will raise the hard limit to 4096 files. Also have a look at the overall limit of the
       operating system
       cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
       which on modern Linux systems is several 100,000 files.

       Use the -z flag to analyze large amounts of raster maps without hitting open  files  limit
       and  the file option to avoid hitting the size limit of command line arguments.  Note that
       the computation using the file option is slower than with the  input  option.   For  every
       single  row  in  the output map(s) all input maps are opened and closed. The amount of RAM
       will rise linearly with the number of specified input maps. The input and file options are
       mutually  exclusive:  the  former  is  a  comma separated list of raster map names and the
       latter is a text file with a new line separated list of raster map names.


       Example with MODIS Land Surface Temperature, transforming  values  from  Kelvin  *  50  to
       degrees Celsius:
       r.series.accumulate in=MOD11A1.Day,MOD11A1.Night,MYD11A1.Day,MYD11A1.Night out=MCD11A1.GDD \
             scale=0.02 shift=-273.15 limits=10,30


        g.list, g.region, r.series, r.series.interp

       Hints for large raster data processing


           ·   Jones, G.V., Duff, A.A., Hall, A., Myers, J.W., 2010.  Spatial analysis of climate
               in winegrape growing regions in the Western United States. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 61,


       Markus Metz and Soeren Gebbert (based on r.series)

       Last changed: $Date: 2018-02-11 22:29:12 +0100 (Sun, 11 Feb 2018) $


       Available at: r.series.accumulate source code (history)

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