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NAME

       r.topmodel  - Simulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.

KEYWORDS

       raster, hydrology, model

SYNOPSIS

       r.topmodel
       r.topmodel --help
       r.topmodel     [-p]     parameters=name     topidxstats=name     input=name    output=name
       [timestep=integer]    [topidxclass=integer]     [topidx=name]     [ntopidxclasses=integer]
       [outtopidxstats=name]   [--overwrite]  [--help]  [--verbose]  [--quiet]  [--ui]

   Flags:
       -p
           Preprocess only and stop after generating outtopidxstats

       --overwrite
           Allow output files to overwrite existing files

       --help
           Print usage summary

       --verbose
           Verbose module output

       --quiet
           Quiet module output

       --ui
           Force launching GUI dialog

   Parameters:
       parameters=name [required]
           Name of input TOPMODEL parameters file

       topidxstats=name [required]
           Name of input topographic index statistics file

       input=name [required]
           Name of input rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data file

       output=name [required]
           Name for output file

       timestep=integer
           Time step
           Generate output for this time step

       topidxclass=integer
           Topographic index class
           Generate output for this topographic index class

       topidx=name
           Name of input topographic index raster map
           Must be clipped to the catchment boundary. Used for generating outtopidxstats

       ntopidxclasses=integer
           Number of topographic index classes
           Used for generating outtopidxstats
           Default: 30

       outtopidxstats=name
           Name for output topographic index statistics file
           Requires topidx and ntopidxclasses

DESCRIPTION

       r.topmodel simulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.

   Parameters description
       parameters
           This  file  contains  TOPMODEL  parameters  that  describe  the  study area. Any lines
           starting with a # sign or empty lines are ignored.
           # Subcatchment name
           Subcatchment 1
           ################################################################################
           # A [m^2]: Total subcatchment area
           3.31697E+07
           ################################################################################
           # qs0 [m/h]: Initial subsurface flow per unit area
           #         "The first streamflow input is assumed to represent
           #          only the subsurface flow contribution in the watershed."
           #                                       - Liaw (1988)
           0.000075
           # lnTe [ln(m^2/h)]: Areal average of the soil surface transmissivity
           4.
           # m [m]: Parameter controlling the decline rate of transmissivity
           # See Beven and Kirkby (1979)
           0.0125
           # Sr0 [m]: Initial root zone storage deficit
           0.0025
           # Srmax [m]: Maximum root zone storage deficit
           0.041
           # td [h]: Unsaturated zone time delay per unit storage deficit if greater than 0
           #  OR
           # -alpha: Effective vertical hydraulic gradient if not greater than 0.
           #
           # For example, -10 means alpha=10.
           60.
           # vch [m/h]: Main channel routing velocity
           20000.
           # vr [m/h]: Internal subcatchment routing velocity
           10000.
           ################################################################################
           # infex: Calculate infiltration excess if not zero (integer)
           0
           # K0 [m/h]: Surface hydraulic conductivity
           2.
           # psi [m]: Wetting front suction
           0.1
           # dtheta: Water content change across the wetting front
           0.1
           ################################################################################
           # d [m]: Distance from the catchment outlet
           #         The first value should be the mainstream distance from
           #         the subcatchment outlet to the catchment outlet.
           # Ad_r:  Cumulative area ratio of subcatchment (0.0 to 1.0)
           #         The first and last values should be 0 and 1, respectively.
           #   d  Ad_r
               0   0.0
            1000   0.2
            2000   0.4
            3000   0.6
            4000   0.8
            5000   1.0

       input

           This file contains observed weather data.
           # dt [h]: Time step
           24
           ################################################################################
           # R [m/dt]:  Rainfall
           # Ep [m/dt]: Potential evapotranspiration
           # R             Ep
           0.000033        0.000000
           0.000053        0.011938
           0.004821        0.000000
           .
           .
           .

       timestep
           If a time step is specified, output will be generated for the specific  time  step  in
           addition  to the summary and total flows at the outlet. This parameter can be combined
           with topidxclass to specify a time step and topographic index class at the same  time.
           If  no  topidxclass  is  given, output will be generated for all the topographic index
           classes.

       toptopidxclass
           If a topographic index class is specified, output will  be  generated  for  the  given
           topographic  index class. This parameter can be combined with timestep. If no timestep
           is given, output will be generated for all the time steps.

       topidx, ntoptopidxclasses, outtoptopidxstats
           The topidx map can optionally be used for creating a new topographic index  statistics
           file.  This  map has to be already clipped to the catchment boundary. The entire range
           of topographic index values will be divided into ntoptopidxclasses and the area  ratio
           of  each  class will be reported in the outtoptopidxstats file. These three parameters
           can be omitted unless a new topidxstats file needs to be created.

REFERENCES

           ·   Beven, K. J., 1984. Infiltration into a class  of  vertically  non-uniform  soils.
               Hydrological Sciences Journal 29 (4), 425-434.

           ·   Beven,  K. J., Kirkby, M. J., 1979. A physically based, variable contributing area
               model of basin hydrology. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin 24 (1), 43-69.

           ·   Beven K. J., R. Lamb, P. Quinn, R. Romanowicz, and J. Freer, 1995.   TOPMODEL,  in
               V.P.  Singh  (Ed.).  Computer  Models  of  Watershed  Hydrology.  Water  Resources
               Publications.

           ·   Cho, H., 2000. GIS Hydrological Modeling System by Using Programming Interface  of
               GRASS.  Master’s  Thesis,  Department  of  Civil  Engineering,  Kyungpook National
               University, Korea.

           ·   Liaw, S. C., 1988. Streamflow Simulation Using a Physically Based Hydrologic Model
               in Humid Forested Watersheds. Dissertation, Colorado State University, CO. p163.

           ·   Morel-Seytoux, H. J., Khanji, J., 1974. Derivation of an equation of infiltration.
               Water Resources Research 10 (4), 795-800.

SEE ALSO

        r.fill.dir, r.mapcalc, r.topidx
       How to run r.topmodel

AUTHORS

       Huidae Cho, Hydro Laboratory, Kyungpook National University, South Korea

       Based on TMOD9502.FOR by Keith Beven.

       Last changed: $Date: 2017-03-18 15:48:37 +0100 (Sat, 18 Mar 2017) $

SOURCE CODE

       Available at: r.topmodel source code (history)

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