Provided by: ranger_1.9.2-4_all bug

NAME

       ranger - visual file manager

SYNOPSIS

       ranger [--version] [--help] [--debug] [--clean] [--cachedir=directory]
       [--confdir=directory] [--datadir=directory] [--copy-config=which] [--choosefile=target]
       [--choosefiles=target] [--choosedir=target] [--selectfile=filepath] [--show-only-dirs]
       [--list-unused-keys] [--list-tagged-files=tag] [--profile] [--cmd=command] [path ...]

DESCRIPTION

       ranger is a console file manager with VI key bindings.

RESOURCES

       This manual contains instructions on how to use and configure ranger.

       Inside ranger, you can press ? for a list of key bindings, commands or settings.

       The file README.md contains install instructions.

       The file HACKING.md contains guidelines for code modification.

       The directory doc/configs contains configuration files.  They are usually installed to
       /etc/ranger/config and can be obtained with ranger's --copy-config option.

       The directory examples contains reference implementations for ranger plugins, sample
       configuration files and some programs for integrating ranger with other software.  They
       are usually installed to /usr/share/doc/ranger/examples.

       The man page of rifle(1) describes the functions of the file opener

       The section LINKS of this man page contains further resources.

POSITIONAL ARGUMENTS

       path ...      Each path will be opened in a tab and if the path is a file it will be
                     selected.  Omitting this is equivalent to providing the current directory.

OPTIONS

       -d, --debug   Activate the debug mode: Whenever an error occurs, ranger will exit and
                     print a full traceback.  The default behavior is to merely print the name of
                     the exception in the statusbar/log and try to keep running.

       -c, --clean   Activate the clean mode:  ranger will not access or create any configuration
                     files nor will it leave any traces on your system.  This is useful when your
                     configuration is broken, when you want to avoid clutter, etc.

       --cachedir=dir
                     Change the cache directory of ranger from $XDG_CACHE_HOME or ~/.cache/ranger
                     to "dir".

       -r dir, --confdir=dir
                     Change the configuration directory of ranger from $XDG_CONFIG_HOME or
                     ~/.config/ranger to "dir".

       --datadir=dir Change the data directory of ranger from $XDG_DATA_HOME or
                     ~/.local/share/ranger to "dir".

       --copy-config=file
                     Create copies of the default configuration files in your local configuration
                     directory.  Existing ones will not be overwritten.  Possible values: all,
                     commands, commands_full, rc, rifle, scope.

                     Note: You may want to disable loading of the global configuration files by
                     exporting RANGER_LOAD_DEFAULT_RC=FALSE in your environment.  See also:
                     FILES, ENVIRONMENT

                     --copy-config=commands will copy only a small sample configuration file with
                     a thoroughly commented example.  It is recommended to keep this file tidy to
                     avoid getting defunct commands on ranger upgrades.  The full default
                     commands.py can be copied with --copy-config=commands_full, but that file
                     will be ignored by ranger and serves only as a reference for making your own
                     commands.

       --choosefile=targetfile
                     Allows you to pick a file with ranger.  This changes the behavior so that
                     when you open a file, ranger will exit and write the absolute path of that
                     file into targetfile.

       --choosefiles=targetfile
                     Allows you to pick multiple files with ranger.  This changes the behavior so
                     that when you open a file, ranger will exit and write the absolute paths of
                     all selected files into targetfile, adding one newline after each filename.

       --choosedir=targetfile
                     Allows you to pick a directory with ranger.  When you exit ranger, it will
                     write the last visited directory into targetfile.

       --selectfile=targetfile
                     Open ranger with targetfile selected. This is a legacy option, superseded by
                     the behavior for the POSITIONAL ARGUMENTS.

       --show-only-dirs
                     Display only the directories. May be used in conjunction with
                     --choosedir=targetfile.

       --list-unused-keys
                     List common keys which are not bound to any action in the "browser" context.
                     This list is not complete, you can bind any key that is supported by curses:
                     use the key code returned by "getch()".

       --list-tagged-files=tag
                     List all files which are tagged with the given tag.  Note: Tags are single
                     characters.  The default tag is "*"

       --profile     Print statistics of CPU usage on exit.

       --cmd=command Execute the command after the configuration has been read.  Use this option
                     multiple times to run multiple commands.

       --version     Print the version and exit.

       -h, --help    Print a list of options and exit.

CONCEPTS

       This part explains how certain parts of ranger work and how they can be used efficiently.

   TAGS
       Tags are single characters which are displayed left of a filename.  You can use tags
       however you want.  Press "t" to toggle tags and "ut" to remove any tags of the selection.
       The default tag is an Asterisk ("*"), but you can use any tag by typing "<tagname>.

   PREVIEWS
       By default, only text files are previewed, but you can enable external preview scripts by
       setting the option "use_preview_script" and "preview_files" to true.

       This default script is %rangerdir/data/scope.sh. It contains more documentation and calls
       to the programs lynx and elinks for html, highlight for text/code, img2txt for images,
       atool for archives, pdftotext or mutool for PDFs and mediainfo for video and audio files.

       Install these programs (just the ones you need) and scope.sh will automatically use them.

       Independently of the preview script, there is a feature to preview images by drawing them
       directly into the terminal. To enable this feature, set the option "preview_images" to
       true and enable one of the image preview modes:

       w3m

       This does not work over ssh, requires certain terminals (tested on "xterm" and "urxvt")
       and is incompatible with tmux, although it works with screen.

       To enable this feature, install the program "w3m" and set the option
       "preview_images_method" to w3m.

       iTerm2

       This only works in iTerm2 compiled with image preview support, but works over ssh.

       To enable this feature, set the option "preview_images_method" to iterm2.

       This feature relies on the dimensions of the terminal's font.  By default, a width of 8
       and height of 11 are used.  To use other values, set the options "iterm2_font_width" and
       "iterm2_font_height" to the desired values.

       terminology

       This only works in terminology. It can render vector graphics, but works only locally.

       To enable this feature, set the option "preview_images_method" to terminology.

       urxvt

       This only works in urxvt compiled with pixbuf support. Does not work over ssh.

       Essentially this mode sets an image as a terminal background temporarily, so it will break
       any previously set image background.

       To enable this feature, set the option "preview_images_method" to urxvt.

       urxvt-full

       The same as urxvt but utilizing not only the preview pane but the whole terminal window.

       To enable this feature, set the option "preview_images_method" to urxvt-full.

       kitty

       This only works on Kitty. It requires PIL (or pillow) to work.  Allows remote image
       previews, for example in an ssh session.

       To enable this feature, set the option "preview_images_method" to kitty.

   SELECTION
       The selection is defined as "All marked files IF THERE ARE ANY, otherwise the current
       file."  Be aware of this when using the :delete command, which deletes all files in the
       selection.

       You can mark files by pressing <Space>, v, etc.  A yellow Mrk symbol at the bottom right
       indicates that there are marked files in this directory.

   MACROS
       Macros can be used in commands to abbreviate things.

        %f   the highlighted file
        %d   the path of the current directory
        %s   the selected files in the current directory
        %t   all tagged files in the current directory
        %c   the full paths of the currently copied/cut files
        %p   the full paths of selected files

       The macros %f, %d, %p, and %s also have upper case variants, %F, %D, %P, and %S, which
       refer to the next tab.  To refer to specific tabs, add a number in between.  (%7s =
       selection of the seventh tab.)

       %c is the only macro which ranges out of the current directory. So you may "abuse" the
       copying function for other purposes, like diffing two files which are in different
       directories:

        Yank the file A (type yy), move to the file B, then type
        @diff %c %f

       Macros for file paths are generally shell-escaped so they can be used in the "shell"
       command.

       Additionally, if you create a key binding that uses <any>, a special statement which
       accepts any key, then the macro %any (or %any0, %any1, %any2, ...) can be used in the
       command to get the key that was pressed.

       The macro %rangerdir expands to the directory of ranger's python library, you can use it
       for something like this command:
         alias show_commands shell less %rangerdir/config/commands.py

       %confdir expands to the directory given by --confdir.

       %datadir expands to the directory given by --datadir.

       The macro %space expands to a space character. You can use it to add spaces to the end of
       a command when needed, while preventing editors to strip spaces off the end of the line
       automatically.

       To write a literal %, you need to escape it by writing %%.

   BOOKMARKS
       Type m<key> to bookmark the current directory. You can re-enter this directory by typing
       `<key>. <key> can be any letter or digit.  Unlike vim, both lowercase and uppercase
       bookmarks are persistent.

       Each time you jump to a bookmark, the special bookmark at key ` will be set to the last
       directory. So typing "``" gets you back to where you were before.

       Bookmarks are selectable when tabbing in the :cd command.

       Note: The bookmarks ' (Apostrophe) and ` (Backtick) are the same.

   RIFLE
       Rifle is the file opener of ranger.  It can be used as a standalone program or a python
       module.  It is located at ranger/ext/rifle.py.  In contrast to other, more simple file
       openers, rifle can automatically find installed programs so it can be used effectively out
       of the box on a variety of systems.

       It's configured in rifle.conf through a list of conditions and commands.  For each line
       the conditions are checked and if they are met, the respective command is taken into
       consideration.  By default, simply the first matching rule is used.  In ranger, you can
       list and choose rules by typing "r" or simply by typing "<rulenumber><enter>".  If you use
       rifle standalone, you can list all rules with the "-l" option and pick a rule with "-p
       <number>".

       The rules, along with further documentation, are contained in ranger/config/rifle.conf.

   FLAGS
       Flags give you a way to modify the behavior of the spawned process.  They are used in the
       commands ":open_with" (key "r") and ":shell" (key "!").

        f   Fork the process.  (Run in background)
        c   Run the current file only, instead of the selection
        r   Run application with root privilege (requires sudo)
        t   Run application in a new terminal window

       There are some additional flags that can currently be used only in the "shell" command:
       (for example ":shell -w df")

        p   Redirect output to the pager
        s   Silent mode.  Output will be discarded.
        w   Wait for an Enter-press when the process is done

       By default, all the flags are off unless specified otherwise in the rifle.conf
       configuration file.  You can specify as many flags as you want.  An uppercase flag negates
       the effect: "ffcccFsf" is equivalent to "cs".

       The terminal program name for the "t" flag is taken from the environment variable
       $TERMCMD.  If it doesn't exist, it tries to extract it from $TERM, uses "x-terminal-
       emulator" as a fallback, and then "xterm" if that fails.

       Examples: ":open_with c" will open the file that you currently point at, even if you have
       selected other files.  ":shell -w df" will run "df" and wait for you to press Enter before
       switching back to ranger.

   PLUGINS
       ranger's plugin system consists of python files which are located in
       ~/.config/ranger/plugins/ and are imported in alphabetical order when starting ranger.  A
       plugin changes rangers behavior by overwriting or extending a function that ranger uses.
       This allows you to change pretty much every part of ranger, but there is no guarantee that
       things will continue to work in future versions as the source code evolves.

       Adding new commands via a plugin as simple as specifying them like you would do in the
       commands.py.

       There are some hooks that are specifically made for the use in plugins.  They are
       functions that start with hook_ and can be found throughout the code.

        grep 'def hook_' -r /path/to/rangers/source

       Also try:

        pydoc ranger.api

       Note that you should NOT simply overwrite a function unless you know what you're doing.
       Instead, save the existing function and call it from your new one.  This way, multiple
       plugins can use the same hook.  There are several sample plugins in the
       /usr/share/doc/ranger/examples/ directory, including a hello-world plugin that describes
       this procedure.

KEY BINDINGS

       Key bindings are defined in the file %rangerdir/config/rc.conf.  Check this file for a
       list of all key bindings.  You can copy it to your local configuration directory with the
       --copy-config=rc option.

       Many key bindings take an additional numeric argument.  Type 5j to move down 5 lines, 2l
       to open a file in mode 2, 10<Space> to mark 10 files.

       This list contains the most useful bindings:

   MAIN BINDINGS
       h, j, k, l    Move left, down, up or right

       ^D or J, ^U or K
                     Move a half page down, up

       H, L          Move back and forward in the history

       gg            Move to the top

       G             Move to the bottom

       [, ]          Move up and down in the parent directory.

       ^R            Reload everything

       F             Toggle freeze_files setting.  When active (indicated by a cyan FROZEN
                     message in the status bar), directories and files will not be loaded,
                     improving performance when all the files you need are already loaded.  This
                     does not affect file previews, which can be toggled with zI.  Also try
                     disabling the preview of directories with zP.

       ^L            Redraw the screen

       i             Inspect the current file in a bigger window.

       E             Edit the current file in $VISUAL otherwise $EDITOR otherwise "vim"

       S             Open a shell in the current directory

       ?             Opens this man page

       W             Opens the log window where you can review messages that pop up at the
                     bottom.

       w             Opens the task window where you can view and modify background processes
                     that currently run in ranger.  In there, you can type "dd" to abort a
                     process and "J" or "K" to change the priority of a process.  Only one
                     process is run at a time.

       ^C            Stop the currently running background process that ranger has started, like
                     copying files, loading directories or file previews.

       <octal>=, +<who><what>, -<who><what>
                     Change the permissions of the selection.  For example, "777=" is equivalent
                     to "chmod 777 %s", "+ar" does "chmod a+r %s", "-ow" does "chmod o-w %s" etc.

       yy            Copy (yank) the selection, like pressing Ctrl+C in modern GUI programs.
                     (You can also type "ya" to add files to the copy buffer, "yr" to remove
                     files again, or "yt" for toggling.)

       dd            Cut the selection, like pressing Ctrl+X in modern GUI programs.  (There are
                     also "da", "dr" and "dt" shortcuts equivalent to "ya", "yr" and "yt".)

       pp            Paste the files which were previously copied or cut, like pressing Ctrl+V in
                     modern GUI programs.

       po            Paste the copied/cut files, overwriting existing files.

       pP, pO        Like pp and po, but queues the operation so that it will be executed after
                     any other operations.  Reminder: type "w" to open the task window.

       pl, pL        Create symlinks (absolute or relative) to the copied files

       phl           Create hardlinks to the copied files

       pht           Duplicate the subdirectory tree of the copied directory, then create
                     hardlinks for each contained file into the new directory tree.

       mX            Create a bookmark with the name X

       `X            Move to the bookmark with the name X

       n             Find the next file.  By default, this gets you to the newest file in the
                     directory, but if you search something using the keys /, cm, ct, ..., it
                     will get you to the next found entry.

       N             Find the previous file.

       oX            Change the sort method (like in mutt)

       zX            Change settings.  See the settings section for a list of settings and their
                     hotkey.

       u?            Universal undo-key.  Depending on the key that you press after "u", it
                     either restores closed tabs (uq), removes tags (ut), clears the copy/cut
                     buffer (ud), starts the reversed visual mode (uV) or clears the selection
                     (uv).

       f             Quickly navigate by entering a part of the filename.

       Space         Mark a file.

       v             Toggle the mark-status of all files

       V             Starts the visual mode, which selects all files between the starting point
                     and the cursor until you press ESC.  To unselect files in the same way, use
                     "uV".

       /             Search for files in the current directory.

       :             Open the console.

       !             Open the console with the content "shell " so you can quickly run commands

       @             Open the console with the content "shell  %s", placing the cursor before the
                     " %s" so you can quickly run commands with the current selection as the
                     argument.

       r             Open the console with the content "open with " so you can decide which
                     program to use to open the current file selection.

       cd            Open the console with the content "cd "

       ^P            Open the console with the most recent command.

       Alt-N         Open a tab. N has to be a number from 0 to 9. If the tab doesn't exist yet,
                     it will be created.

       gn, ^N        Create a new tab.

       gt, gT        Go to the next or previous tab. You can also use TAB and SHIFT+TAB instead.

       gc, ^W        Close the current tab.  The last tab cannot be closed this way.

       M             A key chain that allows you to quickly change the line mode of all the files
                     of the current directory.  For a more permanent solution, use the command
                     "default_linemode" in your rc.conf.

       .n            Apply a new filename filter.

       .m            Apply a new mimetype filter.

       .d            Apply the typefilter "directory".

       .f            Apply the typefilter "file".

       .l            Apply the typefilter "symlink".

       .|            Combine the two topmost filters from the filter stack in the "OR"
                     relationship, instead of the "AND" used implicitly.

       .&            Explicitly combine the two topmost filters in the "AND" relationship.
                     Usually not needed though might be useful in more complicated scenarios.

       .!            Negate the topmost filter.

       .r            Rotate the filter stack by N elements. Just confirm with enter to rotate by
                     1, i.e. move the topmost element to the bottom of the stack.

       .c            Clear the filter stack.

       .*            Decompose the topmost filter combinator (e.g. ".!", ".|").

       .p            Pop the topmost filter from the filter stack.

       ..            Show the current filter stack state.

   READLINE-LIKE BINDINGS IN THE CONSOLE
       ^B, ^F        Move left and right (B for back, F for forward)

       ^P, ^N        Move up and down (P for previous, N for Next)

       ^A, ^E        Move to the start or to the end

       Alt-B, Alt-LEFT
                     Move backwards by words.

       Alt-F, Alt-RIGHT
                     Move forwards by words.

       ^D            Delete the current character.

       ^H            Backspace.

MOUSE BUTTONS

       Left Mouse Button
           Click on something and you'll move there.  To run a file, "enter" it, like a
           directory, by clicking on the preview.

       Right Mouse Button
           Enter a directory or run a file.

       Scroll Wheel
           Scrolls up or down.  You can point at the column of the parent directory while
           scrolling to switch directories.

SETTINGS

       This section lists all built-in settings of ranger.  The valid types for the value are in
       [brackets].  The hotkey to toggle the setting is in <brakets>, if a hotkey exists.

       Settings can be changed in the file ~/.config/ranger/rc.conf or on the fly with the
       command :set option value.  Examples:

        set column_ratios 1,2,3
        set show_hidden true

       Toggling options can be done with:

        set show_hidden!

       The different types of settings and an example for each type:

        setting type   | example values
        ---------------+----------------------------
        bool           | true, false
        integer        | 1, 23, 1337
        string         | foo, hello world
        list           | 1,2,3,4
        none           | none

       You can view a list of all settings and their current values by pressing "3?"  in ranger.

       automatically_count_files [bool]
           Should ranger count and display the number of files in each directory as soon as it's
           visible?  This gets slow with remote file systems.  Turning it off will still allow
           you to see the number of files after entering the directory.

       autosave_bookmarks [bool]
           Save bookmarks (used with mX and `X) instantly?  This helps to synchronize bookmarks
           between multiple ranger instances but leads to *slight* performance loss.  When false,
           bookmarks are saved when ranger is exited.

       autoupdate_cumulative_size [bool]
           You can display the "real" cumulative size of directories by using the command
           :get_cumulative_size or typing "dc".  The size is expensive to calculate and will not
           be updated automatically.  You can choose to update it automatically though by turning
           on this option.

       cd_bookmarks [bool]
           Specify whether bookmarks should be included in the tab completion of the "cd"
           command.

       cd_tab_case [string]
           Changes case sensitivity for the "cd" command tab completion. Possible values are:

            sensitive
            insensitive
            smart

       cd_tab_fuzzy [bool]
           Use fuzzy tab completion with the "cd" command. For example, :cd /u/lo/b<TAB> expands
           to :cd /usr/local/bin.

       clear_filters_on_dir_change [bool]
           If set to 'true', persistent filters would be cleared upon leaving the directory

       collapse_preview [bool] <zc>
           When no preview is visible, should the last column be squeezed to make use of the
           whitespace?

       colorscheme [string]
           Which colorscheme to use?  These colorschemes are available by default: default,
           jungle, snow.  Snow is a monochrome scheme, jungle replaces blue directories with
           green ones for better visibility on certain terminals.

       column_ratios [list]
           How many columns are there, and what are their relative widths?  For example, a value
           of 1,1,1 would mean 3 evenly sized columns. 1,1,1,1,4 means 5 columns with the preview
           column being as large as the other columns combined.

       confirm_on_delete [string]
           Ask for a confirmation when running the "delete" command?  Valid values are "always"
           (default), "never", "multiple". With "multiple", ranger will ask only if you delete
           multiple files at once.

       dirname_in_tabs [bool]
           Display the directory name in tabs?

       display_size_in_main_column [bool]
           Display the file size in the main column?

       display_size_in_status_bar [bool]
           Display the file size in the status bar?

       display_free_space_in_status_bar [bool]
           Display the free disk space in the status bar?

       display_tags_in_all_columns [bool]
           Display tags in all columns?

       draw_borders [string]
           Draw borders around or between the columns? Possible values are:

            none           no borders of any sort
            outline        draw an outline around all the columns
            separators     draw only vertical lines between columns
            both           both of the above

       draw_progress_bar_in_status_bar [bool]
           Draw a progress bar in the status bar which displays the average state of all
           currently running tasks which support progress bars?

       flushinput [bool] <zi>
           Flush the input after each key hit?  One advantage is that when scrolling down with
           "j", ranger stops scrolling instantly when you release the key.  One disadvantage is
           that when you type commands blindly, some keys might get lost.

       freeze_files [bool] <F>
           When active, directories and files will not be loaded, improving performance when all
           the files you need are already loaded.  This does not affect file previews.

       global_inode_type_filter [string]
           Like filter_inode_type, but globally for all directories.  Useful in combination with
           --choosedir:

            ranger --choosedir=/tmp/x --cmd='set global_inode_type_filter d'

       hidden_filter [string]
           A regular expression pattern for files which should be hidden.  For example, this
           pattern will hide all files that start with a dot or end with a tilde.

            set hidden_filter ^\.|~$

       hint_collapse_threshold [int]
           The key hint lists up to this size have their sublists expanded.  Otherwise the
           submaps are replaced with "...".

       hostname_in_titlebar [bool]
           Show hostname in titlebar?

       idle_delay [integer]
           The delay that ranger idly waits for user input, in milliseconds, with a resolution of
           100ms.  Lower delay reduces lag between directory updates but increases CPU load.

       iterm2_font_height [integer]
           Change the assumed font height in iTerm2, which may help with iTerm image previews

       iterm2_font_width [integer]
           Change the assumed font width in iTerm2, which may help with iTerm image previews

       line_numbers [string]
           Show line numbers in main column.  Possible values are:

            false      turn the feature off
            absolute   absolute line numbers for use with "<N>gg"
            relative   relative line numbers for "<N>k" or "<N>j"

       max_console_history_size [integer, none]
           How many console commands should be kept in history?  "none" will disable the limit.

       max_history_size [integer, none]
           How many directory changes should be kept in history?

       metadata_deep_search [bool]
           When the metadata manager module looks for metadata, should it only look for a
           ".metadata.json" file in the current directory, or do a deep search and check all
           directories above the current one as well?

       mouse_enabled [bool] <zm>
           Enable mouse input?

       one_indexed [bool]
           Start line numbers from 1.  Possible values are:

            false      start line numbers from 0
            true       start line numbers from 1

       open_all_images [bool]
           Open all images in this directory when running certain image viewers like feh or sxiv?
           You can still open selected files by marking them.

       padding_right [bool]
           When collapse_preview is on and there is no preview, should there remain a little
           padding on the right?  This allows you to click into that space to run the file.

       preview_directories [bool] <zP>
           Preview directories in the preview column?

       preview_files [bool] <zp>
           Preview files in the preview column?

       preview_images [bool]
           Draw images inside the console with the external program w3mimgpreview?

       preview_images_method [string]
           Set the preview image method. Supported methods: w3m, iterm2, urxvt, urxvt-full,
           terminology.  See PREVIEWS section.

       preview_max_size [int]
           Avoid previewing files that exceed a certain size, in bytes.  Use a value of 0 to
           disable this feature.

       preview_script [string, none]
           Which script should handle generating previews?  If the file doesn't exist, or
           use_preview_script is off, ranger will handle previews itself by just printing the
           content.

       relative_current_zero [bool]
           When line_numbers is set to relative, show 0 on the current line if true or show the
           absolute number of the current line when false.

       save_backtick_bookmark [bool]
           Save the "`" bookmark to disk.  This bookmark is used to switch to the last directory
           by typing "``".

       save_console_history [bool]
           Should the console history be saved on exit?  If disabled, the console history is
           reset when you restart ranger.

       save_tabs_on_exit [bool]
           Save all tabs, except the active, on exit? The last saved tabs are restored once when
           starting the next session. Multiple sessions are stored in a stack and the oldest
           saved tabs are restored first.

       scroll_offset [integer]
           Try to keep this much space between the top/bottom border when scrolling.

       shorten_title [integer]
           Trim the title of the window if it gets long?  The number defines how many directories
           are displayed at once. A value of 0 turns off this feature.

       show_cursor [bool]
           Always show the terminal cursor?

       show_hidden_bookmarks [bool]
           Show dotfiles in the bookmark preview window? (Type ')

       show_hidden [bool] <zh>, <^H>
           Show hidden files?

       show_selection_in_titlebar [bool]
           Add the highlighted file to the path in the titlebar

       sort_case_insensitive [bool] <zc>
           Sort case-insensitively?  If true, "a" will be listed before "B" even though its ASCII
           value is higher.

       sort_directories_first [bool] <zd>
           Sort directories first?

       sort_reverse [bool] <or>
           Reverse the order of files?

       sort_unicode [bool]
           When sorting according to some string, should the unicode characters be compared,
           instead of looking at the raw character values to save time?

       sort [string] <oa>, <ob>, <oc>, <oe>, <om>, <on>, <ot>, <os>, <oz>
           Which sorting mechanism should be used?  Choose one of atime, basename, ctime,
           extension, mtime, natural, type, size, random

           Note: You can reverse the order by typing an uppercase second letter in the key
           combination, e.g. "oN" to sort from Z to A.

       status_bar_on_top [bool]
           Put the status bar at the top of the window?

       tilde_in_titlebar [bool]
           Abbreviate $HOME with ~ in the titlebar (first line) of ranger?

       unicode_ellipsis [bool]
           Use a unicode "..." character instead of "~" to mark cut-off filenames?

       bidi_support [bool]
           Try to properly display file names in RTL languages (Hebrew, Arabic) by using a BIDI
           algorithm to reverse the relevant parts of the text.  Requires the python-bidi pip
           package.

       update_title [bool]
           Set a window title?

       update_tmux_title [bool]
           Set the title to "ranger" in the tmux program?

       use_preview_script [bool] <zv>
           Use the preview script defined in the setting preview_script?

       vcs_aware [bool]
           Gather and display data about version control systems. Supported vcs: git, hg.

       vcs_backend_git, vcs_backend_hg, vcs_backend_bzr, vcs_backend_svn [string]
           Sets the state for the version control backend. The possible values are:

            disabled   don't display any information.
            local      display only local state.
            enabled    display both, local and remote state. May be slow for hg and bzr.

       viewmode [string]
           Sets the view mode, which can be miller to display the files in the traditional miller
           column view that shows multiple levels of the hierarchy, or multipane to use multiple
           panes (one per tab) similar to midnight-commander.

       w3m_delay [float]
           Delay in seconds before displaying an image with the w3m method.  Increase it in case
           of experiencing display corruption.

       wrap_scroll [bool]
           Enable scroll wrapping - moving down while on the last item will wrap around to the
           top and vice versa.

       xterm_alt_key [bool]
           Enable this if key combinations with the Alt Key don't work for you.  (Especially on
           xterm)

COMMANDS

       You can enter the commands in the console which is opened by pressing ":".

       You can always get a list of the currently existing commands by typing "2?" in ranger.
       For your convenience, this is a list of the "public" commands including their parameters,
       excluding descriptions:

        alias [newcommand] [oldcommand]
        bulkrename
        cd [path]
        chain command1[; command2[; command3...]]
        chmod octal_number
        cmap key command
        console [-pSTARTPOSITION] command
        copycmap key newkey [newkey2...]
        copymap key newkey [newkey2...]
        copypmap key newkey [newkey2...]
        copytmap key newkey [newkey2...]
        cunmap keys...
        default_linemode [path=regexp | tag=tags] linemodename
        delete
        echo [text]
        edit [filename]
        eval [-q] python_code
        filter [string]
        filter_inode_type [dfl]
        find pattern
        flat level
        grep pattern
        help
        jump_non [-FLAGS...]
        linemode linemodename
        load_copy_buffer
        map key command
        mark pattern
        mark_tag [tags]
        meta key value
        mkdir dirname
        open_with [application] [flags] [mode]
        pmap key command
        prompt_metadata [key1 [key2 [...]]]
        punmap keys...
        quit
        quit!
        quitall
        quitall!
        relink newpath
        rename_append [-FLAGS...]
        rename newname
        save_copy_buffer
        scout [-FLAGS...] pattern
        search pattern
        search_inc pattern
        set option value
        setintag tags option value
        setlocal [path=<path>] option value
        shell [-FLAGS...] command
        source filename
        terminal
        tmap key command
        touch filename
        travel pattern
        tunmap keys...
        unmap keys...
        unmark pattern
        unmark_tag [tags]

       There are additional commands which are directly translated to python functions, one for
       every method in the ranger.core.actions.Actions class.  They are not documented here,
       since they are mostly for key bindings, not to be typed in by a user.  Read the source if
       you are interested in them.

       These are the public commands including their descriptions:

       alias [newcommand] [oldcommand]
         Copies the oldcommand as newcommand.

       bulkrename
         This command opens a list of selected files in an external editor.  After you edit and
         save the file, it will generate a shell script which does bulk renaming according to the
         changes you did in the file.

         This shell script is opened in an editor for you to review.  After you close it, it will
         be executed.

       cd [path]
         The cd command changes the directory.  If path is a file, selects that file.  The
         command ":cd -" is equivalent to typing ``.

       chain command1[; command2[; command3...]]
         Combines multiple commands into one, separated by semicolons.

       chmod octal_number
         Sets the permissions of the selection to the octal number.

         The octal number is between 000 and 777. The digits specify the permissions for the
         user, the group and others.  A 1 permits execution, a 2 permits writing, a 4 permits
         reading.  Add those numbers to combine them. So a 7 permits everything.

         Key bindings in the form of [-+]<who><what> and <octal>= also exist.  For example, +ar
         allows reading for everyone, -ow forbids others to write and 777= allows everything.

         See also: man 1 chmod

       cmap key command
         Binds keys for the console. Works like the "map" command.

       console [-pN] command
         Opens the console with the command already typed in.  The cursor is placed at N.

       copycmap key newkey [newkey2 ...]
         See "copymap"

       copymap key newkey [newkey2 ...]
         Copies the keybinding key to newkey in the "browser" context.  This is a deep copy, so
         if you change the new binding (or parts of it) later, the old one is not modified.

         To copy key bindings of the console, taskview, or pager use "copycmap", "copytmap" or
         "copypmap".

       copypmap key newkey [newkey2 ...]
         See "copymap"

       copytmap key newkey [newkey2 ...]
         See "copymap"

       cunmap [keys...]
         Removes key mappings of the console. Works like the "unmap" command.

       default_linemode [path=regexp | tag=tags] linemodename
         Sets the default linemode.  See linemode command.

         Examples:

         Set the global default linemode to "permissions":
          :default_linemode permissions

         Set the default linemode to "permissions" for all files tagged with "p" or "P":
          :default_linemode tag=pP permissions

         Set the default linemode for all files in ~/books/ to "metatitle":
          :default_linemode path=/home/.*?/books/.* metatitle

       delete
         Destroy all files in the selection with a roundhouse kick.  ranger will ask for a
         confirmation if you attempt to delete multiple (marked) files or non-empty directories.
         This can be changed by modifying the setting "confirm_on_delete".

       echo text
         Display the text in the statusbar.

       edit [filename]
         Edit the current file or the file in the argument.

       eval [-q] python_code
         Evaluates the python code.  `fm' is a reference to the FM instance.  To display text,
         use the function `p'.  The result is displayed on the screen unless you use the "-q"
         option.

         Examples:
          :eval fm
          :eval len(fm.tabs)
          :eval p("Hello World!")

       filter [string]
         Displays only the files which contain the string in their basename.  Running this
         command without any parameter will reset the filter.

         This command is based on the scout command and supports all of its options.

       filter_inode_type [dfl]
         Displays only the files of specified inode type. To display only directories, use the
         'd' parameter. To display only files, use the 'f' parameter. To display only links, use
         the 'l' parameter. Parameters can be combined. To remove this filter, use no parameter.

       find pattern
         Search files in the current directory that contain the given (case-insensitive) string
         in their name as you type.  Once there is an unambiguous result, it will be run
         immediately. (Or entered, if it's a directory.)

         This command is based on the scout command and supports all of its options.

       flat level
         Flattens the directory view up to the specified level. Level -1 means infinite level.
         Level 0 means standard view without flattened directory view. Level values -2 and less
         are invalid.

       grep pattern
         Looks for a string in all marked files or directories.

       help
         Provides a quick way to view ranger documentations.

       jump_non [-flags...]
         Jumps to first non-directory if highlighted file is a directory and vice versa.

         Flags:
          -r    Jump in reverse order
          -w    Wrap around if reaching end of filelist

       linemode linemodename
         Sets the linemode of all files in the current directory.  The linemode may be:

          "filename": display each line as "<basename>...<size>"
          "fileinfo": display each line as "<basename>...<file(1) output>"
          "permissions": display each line as "<permissions> <owner> <group> <basename>"
          "metatitle": display metadata from .metadata.json files if
              available, fall back to the "filename" linemode if no
              metadata was found.  See :meta command.

         The custom linemodes may be added by subclassing the LinemodeBase class.  See the
         ranger.core.linemode module for some examples.

       load_copy_buffer
         Load the copy buffer from ~/.config/ranger/copy_buffer.  This can be used to pass the
         list of copied files to another ranger instance.

       map key command
         Assign the key combination to the given command.  Whenever you type the key/keys, the
         command will be executed.  Additionally, if you use a quantifier when typing the key,
         like 5j, it will be passed to the command as the attribute "self.quantifier".

         The keys you bind with this command are accessible in the file browser only, not in the
         console, task view or pager.  To bind keys there, use the commands "cmap", "tmap" or
         "pmap".

       mark pattern
         Mark all files matching the regular expression pattern.

         This command is based on the scout command and supports all of its options.

       mark_tag [tags]
         Mark all tags that are tagged with either of the given tags.  When leaving out the tag
         argument, all tagged files are marked.

       meta key value
         Set the metadata of the currently highlighted file.  Example:

          :meta title The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
          :meta year 1979

         This metadata can be displayed by, for example, using the "metatitle" line mode by
         typing Mt.

       mkdir dirname
         Creates a directory with the name dirname.

       open_with [application] [flags] [mode]
         Open the selected files with the given application, unless it is omitted, in which case
         the default application is used.  flags change the way the application is executed and
         are described in their own section in this man page.  The mode is a number that
         specifies which application to use.  The list of applications is generated by the
         external file opener "rifle" and can be displayed when pressing "r" in ranger.

         Note that if you specify an application, the mode is ignored.

       pmap key command
         Binds keys for the pager. Works like the "map" command.

       prompt_metadata [keys ...]
         Prompt the user to input metadata with the "meta" command for multiple keys in a row.

       punmap [keys ...]
         Removes key mappings of the pager. Works like the "unmap" command.

       quit
         Closes the current tab, if there's only one tab. Otherwise quits if there are no tasks
         in progress.  The current directory will be bookmarked as ' so you can re-enter it by
         typing `` or '' the next time you start ranger.

       quit!
         Like "quit", except will force quit even if tasks are in progress.

       quitall
         Like "quit", except will quit even if multiple tabs are open.

       quitall!
         Like "quitall", except will force quit even if tasks are in progress.

       relink newpath
         Change the link destination of the current symlink file to <newpath>. First <tab> will
         load the original link.

       rename newname
         Rename the current file.  If a file with that name already exists, the renaming will
         fail.  Also try the key binding A for appending something to a file name.

       rename_append [-flags...]
         Opens the console with ":rename <current file>" with the cursor positioned before the
         file extension.

         Flags:
          -a    Position before all extensions
          -r    Remove everything before extensions

       save_copy_buffer
         Save the copy buffer to ~/.config/ranger/copy_buffer.  This can be used to pass the list
         of copied files to another ranger instance.

       scout [-flags...] [--] pattern
         Swiss army knife command for searching, traveling and filtering files.

         Flags:
          -a    Automatically open a file on unambiguous match
          -e    Open the selected file when pressing enter
          -f    Filter files that match the current search pattern
          -g    Interpret pattern as a glob pattern
          -i    Ignore the letter case of the files
          -k    Keep the console open when changing a directory with the command
          -l    Letter skipping; e.g. allow "rdme" to match the file "readme"
          -m    Mark the matching files after pressing enter
          -M    Unmark the matching files after pressing enter
          -p    Permanent filter: hide non-matching files after pressing enter
          -r    Interpret pattern as a regular expression pattern
          -s    Smart case; like -i unless pattern contains upper case letters
          -t    Apply filter and search pattern as you type
          -v    Inverts the match

         Multiple flags can be combined.  For example, ":scout -gpt" would create a :filter-like
         command using globbing.

       search pattern
         Search files in the current directory that match the given (case insensitive) regular
         expression pattern.

         This command is based on the scout command and supports all of its options.

       search_inc pattern
         Search files in the current directory that match the given (case insensitive) regular
         expression pattern.  This command gets you to matching files as you type.

         This command is based on the scout command and supports all of its options.

       set option value
         Assigns a new value to an option.  Valid options are listed in the settings section.
         Use tab completion to get the current value of an option, though this doesn't work for
         functions and regular expressions. Valid values are:

          setting type   | example values
          ---------------+----------------------------
          bool           | true, false
          integer        | 1, 23, 1337
          string         | foo, hello world
          list           | 1,2,3,4
          none           | none

       setintag tags option value
         Assigns a new value to an option, but locally for the directories that are marked with
         tag.  This means, that this option only takes effect when visiting that directory.

         For example, to change the sorting order in your downloads directory, tag it with the v
         tag by typing "v, then use this command:

          setintag v sort ctime

       setlocal [path=path] option value
         Assigns a new value to an option, but locally for the directory given by path. This
         means, that this option only takes effect when visiting that directory. If no path is
         given, uses the current directory.

         path is a regular expression.  This means that "path=~/dl" applies to all paths that
         start with ~/dl, e.g. ~/dl2 and ~/dl/foo. To avoid this, use "path=~/dl$".

         path can be quoted with either single or double quotes to prevent unwanted splitting.
         path='~/dl dl$' or path="~/dl dl$"

       shell [-flags] command
         Run a shell command.  flags are discussed in their own section.

       source filename
         Reads commands from a file and executes them in the ranger console.

         This can be used to re-evaluate the rc.conf file after changing it:

          map X chain shell vim -p %confdir/rc.conf %rangerdir/config/rc.conf; source %confdir/rc.conf

       terminal
         Spawns the x-terminal-emulator starting in the current directory.

       tmap key command
         Binds keys for the taskview. Works like the "map" command.

       touch filename
         Creates an empty file with the name filename, unless it already exists.

       travel pattern
         Filters the current directory for files containing the letters in the string, possibly
         with other letters in between.  The filter is applied as you type.  When only one
         directory is left, it is entered and the console is automatically reopened, allowing for
         fast travel.  To close the console, press ESC or execute a file.

         This command is based on the scout command and supports all of its options.

       tunmap [keys ...]
         Removes key mappings of the taskview. Works like the "unmap" command.

       unmap [keys ...]
         Removes the given key mappings in the "browser" context.  To unmap key bindings in the
         console, taskview, or pager use "cunmap", "tunmap" or "punmap".

       unmark pattern
         Unmark all files matching a regular expression pattern.

         This command is based on the scout command and supports all of its options.

       unmark_tag [tags]
         Unmark all tags that are tagged with either of the given tags.  When leaving out the tag
         argument, all tagged files are unmarked.

FILES

       ranger reads several configuration files which are located in $HOME/.config/ranger or
       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/ranger if $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is defined.  You can use the --copy-config
       option to obtain the default configuration files.  The files contain further
       documentation.

       rc.conf, commands.py and colorschemes do not need to be copied fully as they will only be
       adding to the default configuration files except if explicitly overridden. This may lead
       to some confusing situations, for example when a key is being bound despite the
       corresponding line being removed from the user's copy of the configuration file. This
       behavior may be disabled with an environment variable (see also: ENVIRONMENT). Note: All
       other configuration files only read from one source; i.e. default OR user, not both.
       rc.conf and commands.py are additionally read from /etc/ranger if they exist for system-
       wide configuration, user configuration overrides system configuration which overrides the
       default configuration.

       When starting ranger with the --clean option, it will not access or create any of these
       files.

   CONFIGURATION
       rc.conf   Contains a list of commands which are executed on startup.  Mostly key bindings
                 and settings are defined here.

       commands.py
                 A python module that defines commands which can be used in ranger's console by
                 typing ":" or in the rc.conf file.  Note that you can define commands in the
                 same manner within plugins.

       commands_full.py
                 This file is copied by --copy-config=commands_full and serves as a reference for
                 custom commands.  It is entirely ignored by ranger.

       rifle.conf
                 This is the configuration file for the built-in file launcher called "rifle".

       scope.sh  This is a script that handles file previews.  When the options
                 use_preview_script and preview_files are set, the program specified in the
                 option preview_script is run and its output and/or exit code determines rangers
                 reaction.

       colorschemes/
                 Colorschemes can be placed here.

       plugins/  Plugins can be placed here.

   STORAGE
       bookmarks This file contains a list of bookmarks.  The syntax is /^(.):(.*)$/. The first
                 character is the bookmark key and the rest after the colon is the path to the
                 file.  In ranger, bookmarks can be set by typing m<key>, accessed by typing
                 '<key> and deleted by typing um<key>.

       copy_buffer
                 When running the command :save_copy_buffer, the paths of all currently copied
                 files are saved in this file.  You can later run :load_copy_buffer to copy the
                 same files again, pass them to another ranger instance or process them in a
                 script.

       history   Contains a list of commands that have been previously typed in.

       tagged    Contains a list of tagged files. The syntax is /^(.:)?(.*)$/ where the first
                 letter is the optional name of the tag and the rest after the optional colon is
                 the path to the file.  In ranger, tags can be set by pressing t and removed with
                 T.  To assign a named tag, type "<tagname>.

ENVIRONMENT

       These environment variables have an effect on ranger:

       RANGER_LEVEL
               ranger sets this environment variable to "1" or increments it if it already
               exists.  External programs can determine whether they were spawned from ranger by
               checking for this variable.

       RANGER_LOAD_DEFAULT_RC
               If this variable is set to FALSE, ranger will not load the default rc.conf.  This
               can save time if you copied the whole rc.conf to ~/.config/ranger/ and don't need
               the default one at all.

       VISUAL  Defines the editor to be used for the "E" key.  Falls back to EDITOR if undefined
               or empty.

       EDITOR  Defines the editor to be used for the "E" key if VISUAL is undefined or empty.
               Defaults to "vim".

       SHELL   Defines the shell that ranger is going to use with the :shell command and the "S"
               key.  Defaults to "/bin/sh".

       TERMCMD Defines the terminal emulator command that ranger is going to use with the
               :terminal command and the "t" run flag.  Defaults to "xterm".

       XDG_CONFIG_HOME
               Specifies the directory for configuration files. Defaults to $HOME/.config.

       PYTHONOPTIMIZE
               This variable determines the optimize level of python.

               Using PYTHONOPTIMIZE=1 (like python -O) will make python discard assertion
               statements.  You will gain efficiency at the cost of losing some debug info.

               Using PYTHONOPTIMIZE=2 (like python -OO) will additionally discard any docstrings.
               Using this will disable the <F1> key on commands.

       W3MIMGDISPLAY_PATH
               By changing this variable, you can change the path of the executable file for
               image previews.  By default, it is set to /usr/lib/w3m/w3mimgdisplay.

EXAMPLES

       There are various examples on how to extend ranger with plugins or combine ranger with
       other programs.  These can be found in the /usr/share/doc/ranger/examples/ directory, or
       the doc/ranger/ that is provided along with the source code.

LICENSE

       GNU General Public License 3 or (at your option) any later version.

LINKS

       Download: <https://ranger.github.io/ranger-stable.tar.gz>
       The project page: <https://ranger.github.io/>
       The mailing list: <https://savannah.nongnu.org/mail/?group=ranger>
       IRC channel: #ranger on freenode.net

       ranger is maintained with the git version control system.  To fetch a fresh copy, run:

        git clone git://git.savannah.nongnu.org/ranger.git

SEE ALSO

       rifle(1)

BUGS

       Report bugs here: <https://github.com/ranger/ranger/issues>

       Please include as much relevant information as possible.  For the most diagnostic output,
       run ranger like this: "PYTHONOPTIMIZE= ranger --debug"