Provided by: rdfind_1.4.1-1_amd64 bug


       rdfind - finds duplicate files


       rdfind [ options ] directory1 | file1 [ directory2 | file2 ] ...


       rdfind  finds  duplicate  files  across  and/or  within several directories. It calculates
       checksum only if necessary.  rdfind runs in O(Nlog(N)) time with N  being  the  number  of

       If  two (or more) equal files are found, the program decides which of them is the original
       and the rest are considered duplicates. This is done by ranking the files  to  each  other
       and deciding which has the highest rank. See section RANKING for details.

       By default, no action is taken besides creating a file with the detected files and showing
       the possible amount of saved space.

       If you need better control over the ranking than given,  you  can  use  some  preprocessor
       which  sorts  the  file  names  in desired order and then run the program using xargs. See
       examples below for how to use find and xargs in conjunction with rdfind.

       To include files or directories that have names starting with -, use  rdfind  ./-  to  not
       confuse them with options.


       Given  two  or  more  equal  files,  the  one  with the highest rank is selected to be the
       original and the rest are duplicates. The rules of ranking  are  given  below,  where  the
       rules  are  executed  from start until an original has been found. Given two files A and B
       which have equal size and content, the ranking is as follows:

       If A was found while scanning an input argument earlier than than B, A is higher ranked.

       If A was found at a directory depth lower than B, A is higher ranked (A is closer  to  the

       if  A  and  B  are  found  during  scanning  of the same input argument and share the same
       directory depth, the one that ranks highest  depends  on  if  deterministic  operation  is
       enabled.  This  is  on by default, see option -deterministic). If enabled, which one ranks
       highest is unspecified but deterministic. If disabled, the one  that  was  reported  first
       from the file system is highest ranked.


       Searching options etc:

       -ignoreempty true|false
              Ignore empty files. Setting this to true (the default) is equivalent to -minsize 1,
              false is equivalent to -minsize 0.

       -minsize N
              Ignores files with less than N  bytes.  Default  is  1,  meaning  empty  files  are

       -followsymlinks true|false
              Follow symlinks. Default is false.

       -removeidentinode true|false
              Removes items found which have identical inode and device ID. Default is true.

       -checksum md5|sha1|sha256
              What  type  of  checksum to be used: md5, sha1 or sha256. The default is sha1 since
              version 1.4.0.

       -deterministic true|false
              If set (the default), sort files of equal rank in an unspecified but  deterministic
              order. This makes the behaviour independent of in which order files are listed when
              querying the file system.

       Action options:

       -makesymlinks true|false
              Replace duplicate files with symbolic links. Default is false.

       -makehardlinks true|false
              Replace duplicate files with hard links. Default is false.

       -makeresultsfile true|false
              Make a results file in the current directory. Default is true. If the file  exists,
              it is overwritten.

       -outputname name
              Make the results file name to be "name" instead of the default results.txt.

       -deleteduplicates true|false
              Delete (unlink) files. Default is false.

       General options:

       -sleep Xms
              Sleeps  X  milliseconds between reading each file, to reduce load. Default is 0 (no
              sleep). Note that only a few values are supported  at  present:  0,1-5,10,25,50,100

       -n, -dryrun true|false
              Displays  what  should  have  been  done,  don't  actually delete or link anything.
              Default is false.

       -h, -help, --help
              Displays a brief help message.

       -v, -version, --version
              Displays the version number.


       Search for duplicate files in the home directory and a backup directory:
              rdfind ~ /mnt/backup

       Delete duplicates in a backup directory:
              rdfind -deleteduplicates true /mnt/backup

       Search for duplicate files in directories called foo:
              find . -type d -name foo -print0 |xargs -0 rdfind


       results.txt (the default name is results.txt and can be changed  with  option  outputname,
       see  above)  The  results  file results.txt will contain one row per duplicate file found,
       along with a header row explaining  the  columns.   A  text  describes  why  the  file  is
       considered a duplicate:

       DUPTYPE_UNKNOWN some internal error

       DUPTYPE_FIRST_OCCURRENCE the file that is considered to be the original.

       DUPTYPE_WITHIN_SAME_TREE  files  in  the same tree (found when processing the directory in
       the same input argument as the original)

       DUPTYPE_OUTSIDE_TREE the file is found during processing another input argument  than  the




       0 on success, nonzero otherwise.


       When  specifying  the  same  directory  twice,  it keeps the first encountered as the most
       important (original), and the rest as duplicates. This might not be what you want.

       The symlink creates absolute links. This might not be what you want.  To  create  relative
       links  instead,  you  may  use the symlinks (2) command, which is able to convert absolute
       links to relative links.

       Older versions unfortunately contained a misspelling on the word occurrence. This  is  now
       corrected  (since 1.3), which might affect user scripts parsing the output file written by


       Avoid manipulating the directories while rdfind is reading.  rdfind is  quite  brittle  in
       that  case.  Especially, when deleting or making links, rdfind can be subject to a symlink
       attack.  Use with care!


       Paul  Dreik  2006-2018,  reachable  at  Rdfind  can   be   found   at

       Do  you  find  rdfind  useful?  Drop  me  a line! It is always fun to hear from people who
       actually use it and what data collections they run it on.


       Several persons have helped with suggestions and improvements: Niels  Möller,  Carl  Payne
       and Salvatore Ansani. Thanks also to you who tested the program and sent me feedback.


       1.4.1 (release date 2018-11-12)


       This program is distributed under GPLv2 or later, at your option.


       md5sum(1), sha1sum(1), find(1), symlinks(2)