Provided by: rdup_1.1.15-1_amd64 bug


       rdup - generate a file list suitable for making backups


       rdup [-N timestamp] -[-P CMD]...  [OPTION]...  FILELIST [DIR/FILE]...


       rdup  is  a utility inspired by rsync and the Plan9 way of doing backups. rdup itself does
       not backup anything. It only prints a list of files that are changed, or all files in case
       of  a null dump.  It also handles files that are removed, allowing for correct incremental
       backups. All paths printed are absolute. rdup uses  the  change  time  (ctime)  to  decide
       whether a file is altered.

       It works as follows, for a full dump

       1.     Crawl  all  directories,  and  print  all the names found to standard output.  Also
              check for ._rdup_. files to restore the original ownership (see the -u flag).

       2.     Write a filelist with all  the  names  found  when  crawling.   Use  this  list  to
              calculate the correct incremental dump.

       And for incremental dumps

       1.     Read in the filelist that was written when doing a full dump.

       2.     Touch the time stamp file.

       3.     Crawl all the directories again.

       4.     Diff  1.  and  2.  to get two lists; one of removed items and one of added/modified

       5.     Write the removed items to standard output

       6.     Write the modified/new items to standard output.

       7.     Write a new filelist.

       The FILELIST is a internal list rdup writes to, to keep track of  which  files  are  in  a
       backup.  If  you  don't  want this (i.e. make a full backup), use /dev/null here. The file
       /dev/null is handled specially by rdup: if detected no new file list is written.

       The DIRS/FILES can be specified multiple times. These are the directories  and  files  you
       want to backup. If omitted it defaults to the current directory "." .

       If  the  -N  timestamp  option  is  not given, all paths found are printed. Only when a -N
       timestamp file is given, times can be compared and an incremental output can be generated.

       rdup prints a filelist to standard output.  Subsequent programs in a pipe line can be used
       to actually implement to backup scheme.  After a run a new FILELIST is written. No warning
       is given when FILELIST is an existing file, it just gets overwritten  by  rdup.  New  runs
       will  print  out only those files that have actually changed or are removed since the last
       run, thereby making incremental backups possible.

       Files are checked for changes by comparing the c-time (change time), if this time is NEWER
       than  the  c-time of timestamp file the pathname is printed to standard output. When files
       are removed they are also printed to standard output, but they are prefixed  with  a  '-'.
       See FORMAT below. The default format rdup uses is: "%p%T %b %t %u %U %g %G %l %s\n%n%C"

       Note,  that rdup also supports hashing of files, this makes it possible to check the local
       hash with the hash of the backed up file.

       All errors are written to standard error.  If the directory or file does not  exist,  they
       are skipped and a warning is emitted.

       The  general idea is to be very UNIX like and create a bunch of simple programs which each
       do a their specific thing very well. With rdup and a small shell script (50 lines) one can
       implement encrypted and compressed backups.

       As  rdup  doesn't backup anything, the backup policy; what you backup, how you backup, how
       often and how you restore; is all left to the scripts and your imagination. To kick  start
       your imagination see rdup-tr(1), rdup-up(1) and maybe rdup-backups.


       -P command
              Filter all output through command, multiple -P's can be used.

              Due  to  the  nature  of  pipes  in Unix, this pipeline is recreated for every file
              processed. Also see 'Child Processes' below.

       -F format
              Specify a printf-style format to use. See FORMAT below.

       -N timestamp
              use the c_time of file timestamp as the timestamp to decide what to include in  the
              incremental backup list. If timestamp does not exist a full dump is performed.

       -M timestamp
              As -N, but look at the m_time of timestamp.

       -R     Reverse  the  output  of  rdup.  Tools  accepting  this  output must create leading
              directory as they see them. This option allows a script -- running as a normal user
              -- to put files in a directory which could have 0600 as its permission.

       -E file
              The  file  named  'file'  contains  a  list  of Perl-compatible regular expressions
              (PCRE), one per line, that rdup will use to exclude names. A '#' at  the  start  of
              the line can be used to signal a comment.  Empty lines are ignored.

              If  a  directory is excluded, rdup won't descend in that directory, so all files in
              that directory are also excluded.

              The directories leading up to the directory to be backed up can not be excluded. If
              you use a command line like:

                      rdup /dev/null /home/miekg/bin

              The directories '/home', '/home/miekg', '/home/miekg/bin' are always printed.

              If  you  want to exclude the file '/home/miekg/blaat' you need to add the following
              regular expression: '/home/miekg/blaat'.

              If you want to exclude all .mozilla/cache directories of  all  users  you  can  use
              '/home/.*/.mozilla/cache/.*'.  This  doesn't  exclude  the directory itself and I'm
              assuming that the users' home directories are found under '/home'.

              Also note that rdup does not print directories with a trailing slash.

       -a     Restore the original access times on files and directories.

       -n     Don't honor .nobackup files. Normally if such a file is found the directory and all
              files containing it, are not printed to standard output. Now they are.

       -u     Output  files  with a ._rdup_. prefix just as normal files. When this option is not
              given these files are skipped by rdup.

       -r     Only print removed files; entries that start with a `-'. This option unsets -m.

       -m     Only print modified/new files; entries that start with a `+'.  This  option  unsets

       -v     Be more verbose. When used each path will also be printed to standard error.

       -s size
              Don't output files larger than size bytes.  This can be used to limit the amount of
              data to be transferred when doing a remote backup.  This  option  only  applies  to

       -x     Stay on the local filesystem.

       -V     Print rdup's version.

       -h     Give an overview of the options.

   Child Processes (-P flag)
       When  creating  output  you  might also want to 'pipe' the contents of each file through a
       number of commands, say a compression and encryption utility. Note that this is  different
       than  compressing the entire archive as GNU tar allows by using the -z option.  So this is
       where rdup comes in. It allows you to create a  normal  archive  in  which  each  file  is
       encrypted  (or  compressed.   reversed  or  whatever).  rdup  does  this  by forking child
       processes which transform the content.

       If one of the forked children returns an exit code other than zero (0), it is assumed  the
       whole conversion process failed. In that case rdup terminates.

       As  said  rdup works by forking off a number of child processes (those commands named with
       the -P option(s)), interconnecting these with pipes. The current file is connected to  the
       first  child.   The  output  created  by  these  child processes is captured by the parent
       (rdup).  The contents is then written to standard output  in  an  archive  format.   As  a
       picture says more than a thousand words here is an ASCII image of the process:

                          +--- ...   (stdout)    ... ----> archive
                     rdup  <--- ...   ... <----+
                 loop #files                   |
                file ---> cmd1 | cmd2 | ...| cmdN


               rm -f timestamp && rdup -N timestamp LIST DIR

       A full-dump filelist is printed to standard output. And with:

               rdup -N timestamp LIST DIR

       An incremental dump filelist is printed. The file timestamp is used to save the exact time
       of rdup's run. The file LIST is used to calculate the correct incremental dump list,  this
       is needed for files that are removed, or have a different type.


       If  backups  are  made by a non-root user or on a filesystem that does not implement/allow
       chown (think sshfs mounted by an ordinary user), rdup creates a separate file which stores
       the  correct  user  and  group information. If the file's name is foobar a new file called
       ._rdup_.foobar is created in  the  same  directory.  This  file  contains  one  line,  for


       That  tells that the actual ownership should be root:root. For directories a ._rdup_. file
       is created inside the current directory.


       The default format rdup uses is: "%p%T %b %t %u %U %g %G %l %s\n%n%C"

       The following escape sequences are understood by rdup:

               'p': '+' if file is new/modified, '-' if removed
               'b': permission bits from lstat(2), octal in four digits
               'm': the file mode bits, st_mode from lstat(2), decimal digits
               'u': uid
               'U': username
               'g': gid
               'G': groupname
               'l': path name length
               's': original file size, but see CAVEATS
               'n': path name
               'N': path name, but in case of a soft- or hardlink only the link name
               't': time of modification (seconds from epoch)
               'H': the SHA1 hash of the file, all zeros ("0") for all other types
               'T': file type
                     - normal file, l symlink, h hardlink, d directory,
                     c character device, b block device, p named pipe
                     and s socket
               'C': the content of the file (none for all other types)

       To delimit the output of rdup with NULLs you can use '\0' in the format string.

       Any file content is written in a block/chunk based manner. The last block is signaled with
       a  null  block. A block start entry is ASCII and is formatted as follows: VVBLOCKBBBBB\n .
       Where 'VV' is the version, currently at '01', then the literal string 'BLOCK' and then the
       amount of bytes (BBBBB), typical '08192'. And then a newline.  This look like this:

               <START OF THE FIRST 8192 BYTES>01BLOCK00015
               <ANOTHER 15 BYTES>01BLOCK00000

       A byte count of zero signals a stop block.


       rdup writes the (internal) FILELIST in the following format:


       Where MODE is the st_mode from stat(2), DEV is the dev id as returned by the stat call and
       INODE is the inode number - rdup needs this info to decide if a directory is renamed. LINK
       is  equal to 'h' for hardlinks, 'l' for symlinks and otherwise it is '*'.  UID and GID are
       the numeric user and group id of the file. PATH_SIZE is the length of PATH. FILE_SIZE  the
       file size.  And finally PATH is the path of the file.

       A typical example is:

              16893 2050 32085 * 1000 1000 30 4096 /home/miekg/git/rdup/.git/logs


       The output generated by rdup is formatted like:

               PATH FILE_CONTENTS

       This  makes  it  possible  possible  for  a remote shell script to receive the actual file
       contetns and make a backup.

       For directories: the FILE_SIZE is zero and no content is printed. Thus:

               +d 0755 1260243445 1000 miekg 1000 miekg 11 0\n

       For regular files the following is a sample output:

               +- 0644 1260243445 1000 miekg 1000 miekg 32 6\n

       Where aaa/a is a regular file containing the word 'hello\n'

       Soft- and hardlinks are handled differently when using %n, if you don't like this behavior
       use %N.  The PATH name is generated from the link's name and its target. A symlink like

               /home/bin/blaat -> /home/bin/bliep

       is printed as '/home/bin/blaat -> /home/bin/bliep'. The PATH_SIZE is modified accordingly,
       where ' -> ' (4 characters) is also counted.  The FILE_SIZE is not  needed  for  soft-  or
       hardlinks,  so  it  is set the length of the link's name -- the part left of the ' ->', in
       this case the length of '/home/bin/blaat'.

       If rdup encounters a hardlink it is handled in the same way, but the output type is set to
       'h'  instead  of 'l'. A hardlink is only detected if rdup finds a file with the same inode
       and device number as a previous one, i.e. such hardlinks must be contained in your backup.

       Again note: with '%N' only the link's name is printed. The FILE_SIZE is still set  to  the
       length of the link's name.

   Device Files
       For  devices  the size field (%s) is changed to hold the major,minor number of the device.
       So if a major number is 8 and the minor number is 0 (under Linux this  is  /dev/sda),  its
       size will be 8,0. The numbers are only separated with a comma `,'.

       You  will probably think rdup will descend into the directory the symbolic link points to.
       This is not what actually happens, rdup will print  any  directories  leading  up  to  the
       symlink and will not descend into the directory. GNU tar works the same.


       rdup  return  a  zero exit code on success, otherwise 1 is returned.  rdup will abort if a
       file can not be concatenated, if a regular expression can not be compiled or if  a  signal
       is received.


       The next set of examples will all make a full dump -- because of the use of /dev/null. See
       rdup-tr(1) for more advanced examples.

   rdup (mirroring)
               rdup /dev/null ~/bin | rdup-up -t /shared/backup
              rdup /dev/null /shared/backup | rdup-up -t /tmp/restore
              cp -rap /shared/backup /tmp/restore

   rdup (archiving)
              rdup /dev/null ~/bin > my-archive.rdup
              rdup-up -t /tmp/restore < my-archive.rdup

              rdup -R -F '%N\n' /dev/null ~/bin | cpio -o -Hcrc > my-archive.cpio
              cpio -i -d -Hcrc < my-archive.cpio

              rdup -F '%N\n' /dev/null ~/bin | tar c -f my-archive.tar -T - --no-recursion
              tar x -f my-archive.tar


       Written by Miek Gieben.


       Report bugs to <>.


       http:/ is the main site of rdup. Also see rdup-tr(1),  rdup-up(1)
       and rdup-backups(7).


       Copyright (C) 2005-2011 Miek Gieben. This is free software. There is NO warranty; not even

       Licensed under the GPL version 3. See the file LICENSE in the source distribution of rdup.