Provided by: sortmail_2.4-3_amd64 bug


       sortmail - classify incoming mail


       sortmail  [  -v  ]  [  -terse  ]  [  -home path ] [ -mailbox path ] [ -mailrc initfile ] [
       -sortmailrc initfile ] [ -inbox filename ] [ -mbox ] [ -pop|pop3|pop2 user:password@host ]
       [  -pop|pop3|pop2  /path  ]  [  -keep  ] [ -noapop ] [ var=value ] [ -dumpCrcs dbmname ] [
       -verify ] [ -version ] username


       Sortmail reads and classifies email according to patterns you specify.  It can be used  to
       process  incoming  mail,  filter mailing lists, process mail folders or download mail from
       POP servers.

       For processing incoming mail, create this .forward file in your home directory:

            "| /path/sortmail user"

       Where "/path/sortmail" is the full path where you installed sortmail, and user is your own
       userid.   The userid must be specified because when mail arrives, sortmail could be run as
       root, daemon, or any number of other uid's.

       Once your .forward file is set up, sortmail will classify incoming mail according  to  the
       patterns  in $HOME/.sortmailrc.  Your .sortmailrc file is similar to a news KILL file, but
       somewhat more powerful.  You can discard mail, have it delivered to your mailbox, have  it
       filed  into  a  folder,  forward  it  to  another  address or even pipe it through a shell

       Don't let the long list of options and command below frighten you.   New  users  might  do
       well  to  skip  to  the EXAMPLES section below, and/or read the README and sample files in

       When sortmail starts up, it first reads the following config  files:  /usr/lib/sortmailrc,
       /usr/local/lib/sortmailrc,              /etc/sortmailrc,              /usr/etc/sortmailrc,
       /usr/local/etc/sortmailrc, $HOME/.mailrc and $HOME/.sortmailrc.


       -v             Verbose.  A message is printed stderr or a log file of  your  choosing  for
                      every  mail  message.   A  second  -v  causes  a lot more information to be

       -terse         Set verbosity to 1, omit timestamps.

       -home path     Set user's home directory, overriding the default  taken  from  the  user's
                      passwd entry.

       -mailbox path  Set  the  user's  system  mailbox,  overriding  the default for your system

       -mailrc path   Set the .mailrc file, overriding the default of  ~/.mailrc.   Path  may  be
                      specified  as /fullpath, ~/path, ~user/path, or path.  The last form is the
                      same as ~/path.

       -sortmailrc path
                      Set the .sortmailrc file, overriding the default  of  ~/.sortmailrc.   Path
                      may be specified as with -mailrc, above.

       -inbox filename
                      Take  input  from  named  file  instead of stdin.  Filename may be /abspath
                      "~/path", "~user/path" or "+foldername".  When POP2 protocol is used,  this
                      option can be used to select the inbox instead of the default mailbox.

       -mbox          Indicates  that  input  is  a standard Berkeley mailbox containing multiple
                      messages, rather than a single message.  Used to process an entire  mailbox
                      at once.

       -pop user:password@host
                      Sortmail connects to the specified server, downloads mail and processes it.
                      If password is not specified, the user is prompted interactively.  Note: it
                      is  highly  recommended that you do not specify the password on the command
                      line on a multi-user system, see below.

                      Sortmail attempts to use pop3  and  pop2  protocols  in  that  order.   For
                      obvious reasons, the user id may not contain ':'.

                      Many  providers  assign  usernames that contain '@', e.g.  In
                      this   case,   the   argument   to   -pop   will   look   something    like

                      For  security  reasons, sortmail attempts to hide this information from the
                      "ps" command, but this does not work  under  all  operating  systems  (e.g.
                      Solaris).   It  is  strongly  discouraged  to  specify  the password on the
                      command line for this reason.

       -pop /path     This variant of the -pop command reads a single  line  from  the  specified
                      file,  containing  user:password@host.  This is more secure than specifying
                      the password on the command  line.   File  must  be  specified  as  a  full
                      pathname, starting with '/'.

       -pop3 user:password@host

       -pop3 /path    Sortmail  connects  to  the  specified  pop3  server,  downloads  mail  and
                      processes it.

       -pop2 user:password@host

       -pop2 /path    Sortmail  connects  to  the  specified  pop2  server,  downloads  mail  and
                      processes it.

       -keep          For  POP  use  or  when -inbox and -mbox are specified.  Indicates that all
                      messages are to be left in the source input box instead of being deleted.

       -noapop        For POP3, do not attempt to use APOP authentication.  This option  is  used
                      when dealing with broken servers which do not handle APOP correctly.

       variable=value Set  a  variable  on  the  command  line.   Spaces are not permitted in the

       -dumpCrcs dbmname
                      Dump the bounce-check database in dbmname.{dir,pag} for debugging purposes.

       -verify        Verify only.  Examine the mailrc and sortmailrc files for errors and exit.

       -version       Print  version  and  exit.   If  this  option  fails,  you   have   version


       Your .sortmailrc file is a series of lines in the form

            set variable=value




            [ip-address - ip-address]modifiers:commands..


            includerc filename

            listinclude filename

            listexclude filename

            header headerline

            replace headerline

            bouncecheck dbmname

       where  regular-expression  is any ed(1)-style regular expression, modifier is any of i, t,
       f, s, h, a, o, and command is one of m, j, v, f file, a file, d file, +file, or | command.
       Multiple  commands may be placed on a line, separated by ':'s.  If you need to place a ':'
       within a command for any reason, escape it with '\'.

       Users of rn-style KILLfiles will be familiar with this format.

       The [ip-address] form specifies a literal IP address to be matched (e.g. or a
       partial  IP  address (e.g. 192.168.3).  This differs from a regular expression in that the
       '.' character must match literally,  and  the  pattern  must  match  at  the  start  (e.g.  would  not  match the pattern given above.)  (Note that the '[]' characters
       are literal here, and do not denote an optional argument.)

       IP addresses may also be specified as a range, e.g. "[]" would match all  IP
       addresses  containing  192.168  in  the  first 16 bits.  Finally, IP addresses may also be
       specified as e.g.  "[ - "]".


       These modifiers affect how the regular expression is applied to the  incoming  mail.   The
       default is 's'.

       i     Ignore case.

       o     Evaluate variables in pattern only once, when sortmailrc file is read.  Without this
             option, variables are evaluated every time the pattern is tested.   If  the  pattern
             contains no variables, this modifier has no effect.

       s     Test the "Subject: " line of the mail against the regular expression.

       t     Test  the "To: ", "Cc: " and "Apparently-To: " lines of the mail against the regular

       f     Test the "From: " line of the mail against the regular expression.

       r     Test the Received: lines of the incoming mail against the regular expression.

       h     Test the entire header of the incoming mail against the regular expression.

       a     Test the entire incoming mail message against the regular expression.

       Any combination of s,t,f,h,a may be used.  If none are specified, 's' is assumed.


       These commands are executed for any message which matches a search pattern.

       :m        Send the message to the user's mailbox.

       :m address
                 Forward the mail to the specified address.

       :j        Delete the message ("junk" it.)

       :e n      Set the exit code to n.  When processing is complete, sortmail  will  exit  with
                 the given exit code instead of zero.

       :E n      Exit immediately with exit code n.

       :k        Keep  the  message.  When downloading messages from a POP server, or when -inbox
                 and -mbox are specified, messages are normally deleted  from  the  mailbox  once
                 transfer is successful.  This option causes the message to be left behind.

       :f folder Append  the  message  to  the  given  mail folder.  folder may be in the formats
                 ~/path,  /abspath,  ~user/path,  or  +name.   The   latter   form   expands   to
                 ~/folder/name  where  folder  is  the  value  specified for the $folder variable
                 (default is "folders".)

       :+folder  Shorthand for "f +folder".

       :d file   Append the message to the given file in digest form.  file may be in the formats
                 ~/path, /abspath, ~user/path, or +name.

                 "Digest"  form  is a stripped form where each message contains only the "From:",
                 "Subject:" and "Date:" headers, and messages are separated by a line of dashes.

       :a file   "Archive".  Identical to digest.

       :| command
                 Pipe the mail message through the given shell-command.  sh(1) is used.

       :c        Continue processing.  Normally, sortmail  applies  search  expressions  to  mail
                 messages  until  a match is found.  At this point, the message is dispatched and
                 sortmail is finished.  This command causes sortmail to  continue  comparing  the
                 message  to  more  patterns.   This option may be considered "continue", "Cc" or
                 "copy" at your whim.  Thus, a message may be sent to more than one destination.


       The following is a list of commands which may be contained within a .mailrc or .sortmailrc

       set variable = value
             Set  an  environment variable.  Variables used by sortmail are listed below.  Quotes
             around the string are not needed.  Special characters such as  '$'  or  '\'  may  be
             quoted  with  '\'.   Variables  may  be included within the value string in the form
             $name or ${name}.

             Note that the set command is processed immediately when the initfile is read.  Other
             commands  are  processed  as  mail  messages  are  read.  Thus, all set commands are
             processed before any other commands, regardless of their order in the init files.

       listinclude filename
             Used for mailing list administration (see below).  Ignore this command if you're not
             using sortmail to administer a mailing list.

             This  command specifies a file containing a list of addresses which are permitted to
             post to the list.  Each line of the file  contains  one  regular  expression,  which
             represents the email address of a list member.  Lines in the format

                  User Name <address>

             will  only use the address part of the line.  This allows the mailing list itself to
             be used as the include list.

             Multiple include lists may be specified with multiple listinclude commands.  If  the
             listinclude  command  is  used, posters to the list must be found in at least one of
             the lists.  If no include files are specified, anybody may post.

             Messages which are rejected are handled according to  the  $reject  variable,  which
             must exist and which contains either a filename or a search command (see below.)

             For more on include and exclude files, see MAILING LISTS, below.

       listexclude filename
             Specify  a  list  of  addresses  which  are not permitted to post to the list.  Same
             format as listinclude.  In order to post  to  the  list,  a  user  must  be  in  the
             listinclude file(s) (if any) and not in the listexclude file(s).

       replace Header: value
             Used  for  mailing list processing.  Headers lines matching the specified header are
             replaced with the new value.  If no match is found, the  line  is  appended  to  the
             message  header.   Typically  used to change the "From: " header to specify the list
             address rather than the originator, and to set an "Errors-To: " header.

             If the value field is empty, the specified header line is deleted.

       header Header: value
             Same format as replace, except that header lines are always appended to the  header,
             not replaced.  Typically used to add comments.

       bouncecheck dbmname
             Last  resort  mechanism for detecting mail loops.  A crc-32 hash of the text portion
             of the message is computed and stored in dbmname.{dir,pag}.  If another message with
             the  same  hash code is encountered in the next 60 days, the message is rejected and
             disposed of as described in $reject

             This is not a perfect mechanism, however, as broken mailers may choose to  add  some
             comments to the message before bouncing it back.

       includerc filename
             Process commands from named file.  Include files may be nested.


       Variables  are  used  in  the form $name or ${name}.  Variables may appear anywhere in the
       init file.

       Sortmail uses the following variables, which may be changed in your .mailrc or .sortmailrc
       files.  Variables may also be set on the command line.

       default   Command(s)  used  to handle unclassifiable mail.  The default behavior is to put
                 unclassifiable mail into mailbox.  Another reasonable value might be "+other".

       delay     Used  to  prevent  runaway  mail  loops;  especially  useful  for  mailing  list
                 administration.   Specifies  a  delay  in  seconds  to be imposed before mail is
                 forwarded to another address  or  piped  through  a  command.   For  example,  a
                 600-second  delay (ten minutes) would limit a mail loop to one message every ten

       folder    The user's mail folders directory.  Mail folders are denoted by a leading '+' in
                 their  name,  and  are  stored  in  ~user/$folder/.  Default is "folders".  Many
                 people choose to set this to "Mail" instead.

       from      Used for mailing list administration.  Specifies the value of the "From  "  line
                 when  mail  is  forwarded  to the list.  Not all versions of sendmail will honor
                 this.  You may need to make sortmail suid-uucp  or  add  your  username  to  the
                 "trusted users" entry in /etc/

       HOME      The  user's  home  directory.   Used to find initialization files and the user's
                 folders directory.  Default is ~user.

       lines     Count of lines of text in the message.  Set by sortmail and  updated  for  every

       logfile   Debugging  messages are sent to the specified log file.  If sortmail is executed
                 from the command  line,  the  default  is  stderr.   Otherwise  the  default  is

                 If  logfile  cannot  be opened, stderr is used.  Note that when sortmail is used
                 from your .forward file to filter incoming messages,  messages  sent  to  stderr
                 will be sent back to the sender as bounces.

       mailbox   The user's mail box.  Default is /var/mail/user.

       mailrc    Full path of the user's .mailrc file.  There's no real point in changing this.

       maxlines  Maximum  number of message lines which will be searched during pattern matching.
                 Restricting this value can make searches quicker and prevent the /tmp  directory
                 from filling.  Default value is 5000.

       reject    Used  for  mailing  list administration.  Specifies the file or command to which
                 rejected mail is sent.

       sendmail  The command used to deliver mail.  Default value is "/usr/lib/sendmail -om -oi".
                 If  '%f'  occurs  in  the string, it will be expanded to the temporary file name
                 containing the message.   Otherwise,  the  message  will  be  delivered  to  the
                 command's standard input.

                 Special  values  "SMTP"  and  "SMTP  hostname" cause the message to be delivered
                 directly to an SMTP port.

       size      Size of message in bytes.  Set by sortmail and updated for every message.

                 Full path of the user's .sortmailrc file.  There's no  real  point  in  changing

       timeout   Timeout in seconds for POP connections.

       user      The user on behalf of whom sortmail is running.  This value must be specified on
                 the command line when sortmail is executed from a  .forward  file,  but  may  be
                 changed  later.   It is used to determine the user's home directory, among other

       vacation  If set, mail to user will also be piped through vacation(1).

       TMPDIR    Directory used for temporary files.  Default is "/tmp".

       In addition, sortmail defines the following environment variables before passing a message
       to another program.

       FROM      The sender of the message

       SUBJECT   The subject line from the incoming message


       Here is a sample .sortmailrc file:

              set default=+other
              /for brenda/s:k
              /testing/t:m falk@lab
              /jym@apple/f:| /home/falk/bin/fixjim
              /^Precedence: junk/h:+other
              (/bill/f && /dive/s):+scuba

       In  this  example,  the  folder  directory  and  other variables have whatever values were
       specified in .mailrc.  Unclassifiable mail will be sent to the folder "+other".  Mail from
       "MAILER-DAEMON"  is  sent  to  the  folder  "+bounces".  Mail to "falk" or "bldg8" is sent
       directly to my mailbox.

       Mail from my friend joe is sent directly to my mailbox, and processing continues in  order
       to see if there's somewhere else it should go as well.

       Mail  labeled  "for  brenda" is left at the POP server untouched.  (This only works if the
       email is being downloaded from a POP server; it would be lost otherwise.)

       Mail to the scuba club or with "scuba" in the subject line is sent to the "+scuba" folder.
       Mail  from  marko  is  thrown away unread.  Mail to the "testing" alias is forwarded to my
       account on another machine.

       Mail from my friend jym, who formats his mail in a funny way is  passed  through  a  shell
       script  which  cleans  up his messages and appends them to my mailbox.  Mail messages with
       "^Precedence: junk" anywhere in the header are filed in +other.

       The next-to-last line shows a feature new to sortmail version 2:  logical expressions.  In
       this  case,  mail from bill with the subject "dive" is added to the scuba folder.  Logical
       expressions are described in detail below.

       Finally, the last line shows another feature new to sortmail version 2:   IP  ranges.   In
       this  case,  all  email  with an IP address in the "" range in a "Received:"
       line will be junked unread.

       Note that the patterns are applied in the order given; it is important, for example,  that
       the  "MAILER-DAEMON" pattern precede the "falk" pattern so that mail from MAILER-DAEMON is
       filed in +bounces even if directed to me personally.  Similarly, mail from marko will  not
       be junked if addressed to me personally.


       Logical  expressions allow you to specify more complicated rules for processing mail.  For
       example, you could specify that all mail from a certain domain with a size greater than  a
       certain amount be deleted unread unless a specific keyword were to be found in the header.

       Logical expressions consist of the following operators, grouped in order of precedence:

                        │    n     │ integer constant                          │
                        │  $var    │ variable.                                 │
                        │/pattern/ │ regular expression.  Evaluates as 0 or 1. │
                        │    !     │ logical not                               │
                        │    *     │ multiply                                  │
                        │    /     │ divide                                    │
                        │    +     │ add                                       │
                        │    -     │ subtract                                  │
                        │    <     │ less than                                 │
                        │   <=     │ less than or equal                        │
                        │    >     │ greater than                              │
                        │   >=     │ greater than or equal                     │
                        │   ==     │ equal                                     │
                        │   !=     │ not equal                                 │
                        │    &     │ logical AND                               │
                        │   &&     │ logical AND                               │
                        │    |     │ logical OR                                │
                        │   ||     │ logical OR                                │
                        │    ,     │ comma                                     │
       Order of precedence in expression evaluation may be modified by use of parenthesis.

       ´:' commands may follow any close-parenthesis or regular expression.  See examples below.

       The  second  form  of  logical AND and OR operations ("&&" and "||") are optimized in this
       way:  If the left half of an AND is false, or the left half of an OR  is  true,  then  the
       right  hand  is  not  evaluated.   Thus,  you  should place a simple expression (such as a
       subject match) to the left and a complex expression (such as a message body search) to the
       right.   If  the  simple  expression  evalutes  to false or true respectively, the complex
       expression is not tested.

       The first form of logical AND and OR operations ("&" and "|") always test  both  sides  of
       the expression.

       The  comma  operator  deserves  a  bit  of  explanation  for those not familiar with the C
       language.  The comma operator evalutes the expressions  on  both  sides  and  returns  the
       expression  on  the  right  -- ignoring the one on the left.  Thus, the expression "3 , 4"
       evaluates as 4.  The comma operator is useful only when the expression  on  the  left  has
       some sort of side effect when evaluated -- i.e. it contains ':' commands.

       Here are some sample expressions:


       mail from joe comes directly to me.  This is the same as /joe/f:m

              (/joe/f && /dive/s):+scuba

       mail from joe with "dive" in the subject line goes to the scuba folder.

              (/joe/f && !/dive/s):m

       mail from joe without "dive" in the subject line goes directly to me.  Else, mail from joe
       goes to the scuba folder.

              (/joe/f && $lines > 1000):j

       Looks like joe posted another long boring vacation report to the scuba list.  Junk it.

              (/earthlink/r && $size > 32768 &&
                        !(/key west/ia || /caymans/ia) ):j

       Junk it if it came from or passed through earthlink (as shown by the Received: lines), and
       the  size  is  greater than 32k and it does not contain the phrase "key west" or "caymans"
       anywhere in the message body.  Case is ignored in the body search.  Note that  we  examine
       the message body last to avoid downloading the message unnecessarily.

       Note also that logical expressions may be continued across multiple lines as needed.


       An  extremely  simple  expression.   (1)  is  always  true,  so all mail that reaches this
       expression is filed to the folder  "maillog".   The  ":c"  command  causes  processing  to

       This  expression  is a very good one to have at the top of your .sortmailrc when testing a
       new configuration.  All incoming mail is copied  to  a  backup  log  before  more  complex
       expressions are tested.

              (/joe/f:+joemail && /scuba/:+scuba)

       This  example  shows  the use of ':' commands within an expression.  Mail from joe goes to
       the "joemail" folder.  If it also contains the subject  "scuba",  it  goes  to  the  scuba
       folder as well.

              (/joe/f:+joemail , /scuba/:+scuba)

       This example shows the use of the ',' operator.  Mail from joe goes to the joemail folder.
       Whether or not this matches, the mail is tested again to see if it belongs  in  the  scuba
       folder.  If so, then processing is finished.

              (/sex/:+sex && /drugs/:+drugs && /rock-n-roll/:+rock):+bacchanalia

       This  pattern  does  not  do  what it looks like it was intended to do.  That is, at first
       glance it looks as if the pattern is intended to place all messages  containing  "sex"  in
       the  subject into the sex folder, all "drugs" messages into the drugs folder, all "rock-n-
       roll" messages into the rock folder and place messages into the bacchanalia folder if they
       match  on  all  three  keys.   However,  logical  expressions are only evaluated as far as
       necessary.  If the "sex" pattern is not matched, the next two will not be tested  at  all.
       A "rock-n-roll" message would be missed by this pattern.

       In this case, the '&' operator should be used instead of '&&'.


       Skip this section unless you're using sortmail to administer a mailing list.

       In  a  homogeneous  environment,  it is usually not necessary to use sortmail or any other
       mail filter.  You would simply create the alias in /etc/aliases and let sendmail(8) handle

       However,  in  a  heterogeneous  environment, there can be problems.  The internet document
       Rfc822 specifies the handling of internet mail, but there are many mailers out there which
       do  not  honor  Rfc822  and  cause  trouble.   Not surprisingly, many of the major service
       providers are among the worst troublemakers.

       What typically happens is that for some reason, some member of your mailing list  suddenly
       cannot receive mail.  The service provider at the user's end bounces an error message back
       to the list itself rather than to the original sender or  the  administrator.   The  error
       message is then resent to the list subscribers -- including the the one who cannot receive
       mail, causing another bounce.  This creates a loop, sending and resending bounce  messages
       to  everybody  on  the  loop every few minutes.  Murphy's Law states that this will happen
       while you are on vacation.

       Here is how to administer a mailing list:

       First, (as root) edit /etc/aliases and add the following lines:

                 scubaclub: "| /usr/yourname/sortmail -sortmailrc scubaclubrc yourname"
                 scubaclub-real: :include:/usr/yourname/scubalist
                 scubaclub-request: yourname
                 owner-scubaclub: yourname

       The first entry indicates that mail to the scuba  club  goes  through  sortmail,  using  a
       specific  sortmailrc  file.   The  second  entry  is  the actual scuba club alias to which
       sortmail will forward the mail.  The third entry is a standard list address which will  be
       used by users to contact you directly; this should always exist for any mailing list.  The
       final entry is used by the sendmail system to send internal errors back to you.

       (Most unix systems require you to run newaliases(8) after editing /etc/aliases.)

       Second, create /usr/yourname/scubalist, containing the names and addresses of everybody in
       the list.
            yourname  <youraddress>
            Joe Shmoe <>
            Jane Doe  <>

       Third, create a sortmailrc file which will be used to filter incoming mail.

              # general variables

              set alias = scubaclub
              set owner = yourname
              set site =
              set digestDir = ~/Maillists/Scubaclub

              # mail that makes it through the filter gets mailed to
              # the list and archived.
              set default = m $alias-real@$site:a $digestDir/archive

              # mail that gets rejected is mailed to me
              set reject = m $owner

              # catch anything that looks like a bounce or a loop

              /Mailer-Daemon/f:m $owner
              /MAILER-DAEMON/f:m $owner
              /Postmaster/f:m $owner
              /scubaclub/f:m $owner
              /X-List-Name: scubaclub/h:m $owner
              bouncecheck $digestDir/bounceDb

              # (For some reason, we can't set Errors-To to $owner@$site,
              # because if we do, sendmail will expand $owner into an
              # invalid value before connecting to SMTP.  It would probably
              # be ok if I didn't have a personal .forward file.  By adding
              # a '\' to the address, we avoid the problem.)

              replace Reply-To: $alias@$site
              replace Errors-To: \\$owner@$site
              header Comment: send add/delete requests to $alias-request@$site
              header X-List-Name: $alias

       In  this  example,  the  variables  $alias,  $owner,  $site  and  $digestDir  are not used
       internally by sortmail, but are created for convenience and generality.

       The search patterns are used to detect possible mail loops, and as such, always send  mail
       to  the  owner.   Mail  that  makes it without matching any of the patterns is sent to the

       As a last resort, the mail is processed by  the  bouncecheck  command  which  maintains  a
       database  of  previously-seen  messages  and  will  reject  any message that seems to be a

       If mail passes through all the patterns unmatched, it is probably  a  valid  message.   In
       this  case,  the message is processed by the commands in $other, which mail the message to
       the   actual   alias,   and   append   a   digest    version    of    the    message    to

       Finally,  the  headers  of outgoing mail are modified.  The "Reply-To:" header is added so
       that replies to mail from the list are sent to the list at large,  and  not  just  to  the
       sender  of the original message.  The "Errors-To:" header is added so that bounces will be
       sent to the administrator instead of to the list  in  general.   (Not  all  mail  transfer
       agents honor the "Errors-To:" header.)

       The  "X-List-Name:"  header line serves two purposes.  First, it lets recipients know what
       they're receiving.  Secondly, it is a trick used to help detect bounces.  It is  added  so
       that  it  may  be  searched  for  in  incoming mail.  If an incoming message contains this
       header, it is likely that this  is  a  bounce,  and  is  sent  to  the  administrator  for

       If  some of your list members wish to receive messages in "digest" form, you can split the
       list into two sections, one normal and one for the members  who  want  digests.   Add  the
       following line to /etc/aliases:

            scubaclub-digest: :include:/usr/yourname/scubadigest

       and change $default in /usr/yourname/scubaclubrc:

        set default = m $alias-real@foo:a $digestDir/archive:d $digestDir/digest

       Now,  incoming  messages  will  be  copied  to  ~/Maillists/Scubaclub/digest as well as to
       ~/Maillists/Scubaclub/archive.  On a nightly basis, execute a program that  will  test  to
       see  if  ~/Maillists/Scubaclub/digest  is  non-empty,  and  if  so,  mail it to scubaclub-
       digest@yourhost and empty it.

              #! /bin/sh
              # collect the digest file, prepend some header info and transmit


              if [ ! -s $digest ] ; then
                exit 0

              cat $digest | awk "
              BEGIN {
                print \"Return-Path: $alias@$host\"
                print \"Date: `date`\"
                print \"From: $alias@$host\"
                print \"To: $alias@$host\"
                print \"Subject: $alias digest\"
                print \"X-List-Name: $alias\"
                print \"\"
                print \"\"
              {print}" | \
              /usr/lib/sendmail -om -oi -f$alias@$host $alias-digest

              rm $digest
              touch $digest
              chmod a+w $digest


       Remember that sortmail can be executed under any userid (e.g. root, daemon or  the  sender
       of  the  mail)  depending  on who sent the mail, and whether or not it came from the local
       machine.  Because of this, you cannot depend on any  user  environment  to  be  available,
       especially  environment  variables  and  path.   All filenames and program names should be
       specified as full paths, except that "~", "~user" and "+folder" forms are understood.  The
       permissions  of  sortmail  and every directory along its path should be such that any user
       can execute it.

       If you pipe incoming mail through a program, that program should not generate  any  output
       to  stdout  or  stderr  whatsoever.   If  it  does,  that  output will be sent back to the
       originator of the mail as if the mail had bounced.

       Always test your setup thoroughly, especially when  administering  mail  lists.   Mistakes
       usually  result  in  bounce  messages  being  sent to the originator of mail.  This can be
       catastrophic with a mail list.   When  testing  a  mail  list,  start  with  a  test  list
       containing  only  your  name  and  a  known bad address to test bounce handling.  Use of a
       logfile and -v is recommended for the first few days after installing.

       The bounce detection mechanism tries to be robust, but as the saying goes, you  can  never
       make  a  system that's foolproof because some fools are ingenious.  No matter how thorough
       the detection mechanism is, there is a broken mailer out there somewhere that  can  defeat

       Never  leave a mailing list unattended; that's when bounce loops always seem to start.  If
       you go on vacation, either temporarily shut the list down, or designate  someone  who  can
       turn it off in an emergency.


       The following exit values are returned:

       0    Normal exit, mail delivered successfully.

       1    Normal exit, but no messages waiting (-mbox and -pop options)

       2    User error in command line options.

       3    Error in .mailrc or .sortmailrc file.

       4    Out of memory

       5    Cannot determine user name

       6    Cannot determine user directory

       7    Cannot  open a temporary file.  In this case, sortmail attempts to recover by writing
            the incoming mail to the user's inbox.

       8    Cannot open bounce-check database (-dumpCrcs command)

       9    Cannot open input file (-inbox option).


       If multiple instances of sortmail are executing and printing status messages to  the  same
       logfile, the output may become jumbled.

       The maxlines variable is not yet implemented.


       Mail(1), procmail(1), fetchmail(1).


       Copyright 1990, 1999 by Edward A. Falk (

       Permission  is  hereby  granted,  free  of  charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this
       software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),  to  deal  in  the  Software
       without  restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
       publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons
       to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

       The  above  copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or
       substantial portions of the Software.


       regex.[ch] is covered by the GNU copyleft.

                                           21 Apr 1991                                SORTMAIL(1)