Provided by: systemd_240-6ubuntu5_amd64 bug


       systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager


       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-level [LEVEL]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log-target [TARGET]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPECS...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] service-watchdogs [BOOL]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...


       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance statistics and
       retrieve other state and tracing information from the system and service manager, and to
       verify the correctness of unit files. It is also used to access special functions useful
       for advanced system manager debugging.

       systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has been
       reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before normal system userspace
       has been reached, and the time normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
       measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all system services have
       been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or the disk is

       systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they took to
       initialize. This information may be used to optimize boot-up times. Note that the output
       might be misleading as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it
       waits for the initialization of another service to complete. Also note: systemd-analyze
       blame doesn't display results for services with Type=simple, because systemd considers
       such services to be started immediately, hence no measurement of the initialization delays
       can be done.

       systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]  prints a tree of the time-critical chain of
       units (for each of the specified UNITs or for the default target otherwise). The time
       after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit
       takes to start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
       misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket activation and
       because of the parallel execution of units.

       systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have been
       started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on initialization.

       systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in dot format for
       further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a command line like systemd-analyze
       dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or
       --require is passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
       dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.  *.target) may be given
       at the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of these patterns match
       either the origin or destination node.

       systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable serialization of the
       complete server state. Its format is subject to change without notice and should not be
       parsed by applications.

       systemd-analyze cat-config is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on config files. It
       will copy the contents of a config file and any drop-ins to standard output, using the
       usual systemd set of directories and rules for precedence. Each argument must be either an
       absolute path including the prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind.conf or
       /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf), or a name relative to the prefix (such as

       Example 1. Showing logind configuration

           $ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf

           # /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf.d/20-test.conf
           ... some override from another package

           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf.d/50-override.conf
           ... some administrator override

       systemd-analyze unit-paths outputs a list of all directories from which unit files, .d
       overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded. Combine with --user to retrieve
       the list for the user manager instance, and --global for the global configuration of user
       manager instances. Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into
       systemd-analyze itself, and does not comunicate with the running manager. Use

           systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value

       to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty directories omitted.

       systemd-analyze log-level prints the current log level of the systemd daemon. If an
       optional argument LEVEL is provided, then the command changes the current log level of the
       systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log-level= described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze log-target prints the current log target of the systemd daemon. If an
       optional argument TARGET is provided, then the command changes the current log target of
       the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts the same values as --log-target=, described in

       systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]  will list system calls contained in the specified
       system call set SET, or all known sets if no sets are specified. Argument SET must include
       the "@" prefix.

       systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any errors are detected.
       Files specified on the command line will be loaded, but also any other units referenced by
       them. The full unit search path is formed by combining the directories for all command
       line arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported,
       and may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see
       systemd.unit(5)). All units files present in the directories containing the command line
       arguments will be used in preference to the other paths.

       systemd-analyze calendar will parse and normalize repetitive calendar time events, and
       will calculate when they will elapse next. This takes the same input as the OnCalendar=
       setting in systemd.timer(5), following the syntax described in systemd.time(7).

       systemd-analyze service-watchdogs prints the current state of service runtime watchdogs of
       the systemd daemon. If an optional boolean argument is provided, then globally enables or
       disables the service runtime watchdogs (WatchdogSec=) and emergency actions (e.g.
       OnFailure= or StartLimitAction=); see systemd.service(5). The hardware watchdog is not
       affected by this setting.

       systemd-analyze timespan parses a time span and outputs the equivalent value in
       microseconds, and as a reformatted timespan. The time span should adhere to the same
       syntax documented in systemd.time(7). Values without associated magnitudes are parsed as

       systemd-analyze security analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of one or more
       specified service units. If at least one unit name is specified the security settings of
       the specified service units are inspected and a detailed analysis is shown. If no unit
       name is specified, all currently loaded, long-running service units are inspected and a
       terse table with results shown. The command checks for various security-related service
       settings, assigning each a numeric "exposure level" value, depending on how important a
       setting is. It then calculates an overall exposure level for the whole unit, which is an
       estimation in the range 0.0...10.0 indicating how exposed a service is security-wise. High
       exposure levels indicate very little applied sandboxing. Low exposure levels indicate
       tight sandboxing and strongest security restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the
       per-service security features systemd itself implements. This means that any additional
       security mechanisms applied by the service code itself are not accounted for. The exposure
       level determined this way should not be misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means
       that there is no effective sandboxing applied by the service code itself, nor that the
       service is actually vulnerable to remote or local attacks. High exposure levels do
       indicate however that most likely the service might benefit from additional settings
       applied to them. Please note that many of the security and sandboxing settings
       individually can be circumvented — unless combined with others. For example, if a service
       retains the privilege to establish or undo mount points many of the sandboxing options can
       be undone by the service code itself. Due to that is essential that each service uses the
       most comprehensive and strict sandboxing and security settings possible. The tool will
       take into account some of these combinations and relationships between the settings, but
       not all. Also note that the security and sandboxing settings analyzed here only apply to
       the operations executed by the service code itself. If a service has access to an IPC
       system (such as D-Bus) it might request operations from other services that are not
       subject to the same restrictions. Any comprehensive security and sandboxing analysis is
       hence incomplete if the IPC access policy is not validated too.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.


       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied default.

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd instance.

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects which dependencies
           are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is passed, only dependencies of type
           After= or Before= are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of type
           Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed, this
           shows dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this selects which
           relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both options require a glob(7)
           pattern as an argument, which will be matched against the left-hand and the
           right-hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit name must match one
           of the values. When tests for both sides of the relation are present, a relation must
           pass both tests to be shown. When patterns are also specified as positional arguments,
           they must match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns specified
           with those two options will trim the list of edges matched by the positional
           arguments, if any are given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see above), also show units,
           which finished timespan earlier, than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of
           timespan is seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in Documentation=.

           Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some generators require root
           privileges. Under a normal user, running with generators enabled will generally result
           in some warnings.

           With cat-files, show config files underneath the specified root path PATH.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username and hostname
           separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may optionally be suffixed by a port ssh
           is listening on, seperated by ":", and then a container name, separated by "/", which
           connects directly to a specific container on the specified host. This will use SSH to
           talk to the remote machine manager instance. Container names may be enumerated with
           machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses in brackets.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.


       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.


       Example 2. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with "avahi-daemon"

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
           $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 3. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

           $ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg


       The following errors are currently detected:

       ·   unknown sections and directives,

       ·   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       ·   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the system,

       ·   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in the system or not

       Example 4. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 5. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.


           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER
           nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known pager implementations are tried in turn,
           including less(1) and more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
           discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable to an empty string
           or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager that is invoked is
           less, Ctrl+C will be ignored by the executable. This allows less to handle Ctrl+C

           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the invoking terminal is
           determined to be UTF-8 compatible).


       systemd(1), systemctl(1)