Provided by: tnftp_20130505-3build3_amd64 bug

NAME

     ftp — Internet file transfer program

SYNOPSIS

     ftp [-46AadefginpRtVv] [-N netrc] [-o output] [-P port] [-q quittime] [-r retry]
         [-s srcaddr] [-T dir,max[,inc]] [[user@]host [port]] [[user@]host:[path][/]]
         [file:///path] [ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/][;type=X]]
         [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path] [...]
     ftp -u URL file [...]

DESCRIPTION

     ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol.  The program
     allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site.

     The last five arguments will fetch a file using the FTP or HTTP protocols, or by direct
     copying, into the current directory.  This is ideal for scripts.  Refer to AUTO-FETCHING
     FILES below for more information.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command interpreter.

     -4          Forces ftp to only use IPv4 addresses.

     -6          Forces ftp to only use IPv6 addresses.

     -A          Force active mode ftp.  By default, ftp will try to use passive mode ftp and
                 fall back to active mode if passive is not supported by the server.  This option
                 causes ftp to always use an active connection.  It is only useful for connecting
                 to very old servers that do not implement passive mode properly.

     -a          Causes ftp to bypass normal login procedure, and use an anonymous login instead.

     -d          Enables debugging.

     -e          Disables command line editing.  This is useful for Emacs ange-ftp mode.

     -f          Forces a cache reload for transfers that go through the FTP or HTTP proxies.

     -g          Disables file name globbing.

     -i          Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

     -N netrc    Use netrc instead of ~/.netrc.  Refer to THE .netrc FILE for more information.

     -n          Restrains ftp from attempting “auto-login” upon initial connection for non auto-
                 fetch transfers.  If auto-login is enabled, ftp will check the .netrc (see
                 below) file in the user's home directory for an entry describing an account on
                 the remote machine.  If no entry exists, ftp will prompt for the remote machine
                 login name (default is the user identity on the local machine), and, if
                 necessary, prompt for a password and an account with which to login.  To
                 override the auto-login for auto-fetch transfers, specify the username (and
                 optionally, password) as appropriate.

     -o output   When auto-fetching files, save the contents in output.  output is parsed
                 according to the FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS below.  If output is not ‘-’ or doesn't
                 start with ‘|’, then only the first file specified will be retrieved into
                 output; all other files will be retrieved into the basename of their remote
                 name.

     -P port     Sets the port number to port.

     -p          Enable passive mode operation for use behind connection filtering firewalls.
                 This option has been deprecated as ftp now tries to use passive mode by default,
                 falling back to active mode if the server does not support passive connections.

     -q quittime
                 Quit if the connection has stalled for quittime seconds.

     -R          Restart all non-proxied auto-fetches.

     -r wait     Retry the connection attempt if it failed, pausing for wait seconds.

     -s srcaddr  Uses srcaddr as the local IP address for all connections.

     -t          Enables packet tracing.

     -T direction,maximum[,increment]
                 Set the maximum transfer rate for direction to maximum bytes/second, and if
                 specified, the increment to increment bytes/second.  Refer to rate for more
                 information.

     -u URL file [...]
                 Upload files on the command line to URL where URL is one of the ftp URL types as
                 supported by auto-fetch (with an optional target filename for single file
                 uploads), and file is one or more local files to be uploaded.

     -V          Disable verbose and progress, overriding the default of enabled when output is
                 to a terminal.

     -v          Enable verbose and progress.  This is the default if output is to a terminal
                 (and in the case of progress, ftp is the foreground process).  Forces ftp to
                 show all responses from the remote server, as well as report on data transfer
                 statistics.

     The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the command line.  If
     this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish a connection to an FTP server on
     that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its command interpreter and await instructions from the
     user.  When ftp is awaiting commands from the user the prompt ‘ftp>’ is provided to the
     user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

     ! [command [args]]
                 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there are arguments, the
                 first is taken to be a command to execute directly, with the rest of the
                 arguments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
                 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef command.
                 Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
                 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for access to
                 resources once a login has been successfully completed.  If no argument is
                 included, the user will be prompted for an account password in a non-echoing
                 input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
                 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is left
                 unspecified, the local file name is used in naming the remote file after being
                 altered by any ntrans or nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings
                 for type, format, mode, and structure.

     ascii       Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the default type.

     bell        Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command is completed.

     binary      Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.

     bye         Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit ftp.  An end of file
                 will also terminate the session and exit.

     case        Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during get, mget and mput
                 commands.  When case is on (default is off), remote computer file names with all
                 letters in upper case are written in the local directory with the letters mapped
                 to lower case.

     cd remote-directory
                 Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-directory.

     cdup        Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of the current remote
                 machine working directory.

     chmod mode remote-file
                 Change the permission modes of the file remote-file on the remote system to
                 mode.

     close       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return to the command
                 interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

     cr          Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file retrieval.  Records are
                 denoted by a carriage return/linefeed sequence during ascii type file transfer.
                 When cr is on (the default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
                 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.  Records on non-UNIX
                 remote systems may contain single linefeeds; when an ascii type transfer is
                 made, these linefeeds may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr
                 is off.

     delete remote-file
                 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

     dir [remote-path [local-file]]
                 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote machine.  The
                 listing includes any system-dependent information that the server chooses to
                 include; for example, most UNIX systems will produce output from the command ‘ls
                 -l’.  If remote-path is left unspecified, the current working directory is used.
                 If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last
                 argument is indeed the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no local
                 file is specified, or if local-file is ‘-’, the output is sent to the terminal.

     disconnect  A synonym for close.

     edit        Toggle command line editing, and context sensitive command and file completion.
                 This is automatically enabled if input is from a terminal, and disabled
                 otherwise.

     epsv epsv4 epsv6
                 Toggle the use of the extended EPSV and EPRT commands on all IP, IPv4, and IPv6
                 connections respectively.  First try EPSV / EPRT, and then PASV / PORT.  This is
                 enabled by default.  If an extended command fails then this option will be
                 temporarily disabled for the duration of the current connection, or until epsv,
                 epsv4, or epsv6 is executed again.

     exit        A synonym for bye.

     features    Display what features the remote server supports (using the FEAT command).

     fget localfile
                 Retrieve the files listed in localfile, which has one line per filename.

     form format
                 Set the file transfer form to format.  The default (and only supported) format
                 is “non-print”.

     ftp host [port]
                 A synonym for open.

     ftp_debug [ftp_debug-value]
                 Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional ftp_debug-value is specified it is used
                 to set the debugging level.  When debugging is on, ftp prints each command sent
                 to the remote machine, preceded by the string ‘-->’.

     gate [host [port]]
                 Toggle gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the TIS FWTK and Gauntlet
                 ftp proxies.  This will not be permitted if the gate-ftp server hasn't been set
                 (either explicitly by the user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If
                 host is given, then gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-ftp server will
                 be set to host.  If port is also given, that will be used as the port to connect
                 to on the gate-ftp server.

     get remote-file [local-file]
                 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.  If the local file
                 name is not specified, it is given the same name it has on the remote machine,
                 subject to alteration by the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The
                 current settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while transferring
                 the file.

     glob        Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget, mput, and mreget.  If globbing is
                 turned off with glob, the file name arguments are taken literally and not
                 expanded.  Globbing for mput is done as in csh(1).  For mdelete, mget, and
                 mreget, each remote file name is expanded separately on the remote machine and
                 the lists are not merged.  Expansion of a directory name is likely to be
                 different from expansion of the name of an ordinary file: the exact result
                 depends on the foreign operating system and ftp server, and can be previewed by
                 doing ‘mls remote-files -’ Note: mget, mput and mreget are not meant to transfer
                 entire directory subtrees of files.  That can be done by transferring a tar(1)
                 archive of the subtree (in binary mode).

     hash [size]
                 Toggle hash-sign (‘#’) printing for each data block transferred.  The size of a
                 data block defaults to 1024 bytes.  This can be changed by specifying size in
                 bytes.  Enabling hash disables progress.

     help [command]
                 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.  If no argument is
                 given, ftp prints a list of the known commands.

     idle [seconds]
                 Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds seconds.  If seconds is
                 omitted, the current inactivity timer is printed.

     image       A synonym for binary.

     lcd [directory]
                 Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no directory is
                 specified, the user's home directory is used.

     less file   A synonym for page.

     lpage local-file
                 Display local-file with the program specified by the set pager option.

     lpwd        Print the working directory on the local machine.

     ls [remote-path [local-file]]
                 A synonym for dir.

     macdef macro-name
                 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro macro-name; a null
                 line (consecutive newline characters in a file or carriage returns from the
                 terminal) terminates macro input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096
                 total characters in all defined macros.  Macro names can be a maximum of 8
                 characters.  Macros are only applicable to the current session they are defined
                 within (or if defined outside a session, to the session invoked with the next
                 open command), and remain defined until a close command is executed.  To invoke
                 a macro, use the $ command (see above).

                 The macro processor interprets ‘$’ and ‘\’ as special characters.  A ‘$’
                 followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding argument on
                 the macro invocation command line.  A ‘$’ followed by an ‘i’ signals the macro
                 processor that the executing macro is to be looped.  On the first pass “$i” is
                 replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation command line, on the
                 second pass it is replaced by the second argument, and so on.  A ‘\’ followed by
                 any character is replaced by that character.  Use the ‘\’ to prevent special
                 treatment of the ‘$’.

     mdelete [remote-files]
                 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
                 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If interactive
                 prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is
                 indeed the target local file for receiving mdir output.

     mget remote-files
                 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get for each file name
                 thus produced.  See glob for details on the filename expansion.  Resulting file
                 names will then be processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
                 Files are transferred into the local working directory, which can be changed
                 with ‘lcd directory’; new local directories can be created with ‘! mkdir
                 directory’.

     mkdir directory-name
                 Make a directory on the remote machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
                 Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and the local-file must
                 be specified.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to
                 verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving mls
                 output.

     mlsd [remote-path]
                 Display the contents of remote-path (which should default to the current
                 directory if not given) in a machine-parsable form, using MLSD.  The format of
                 display can be changed with ‘remopts mlst ...’.

     mlst [remote-path]
                 Display the details about remote-path (which should default to the current
                 directory if not given) in a machine-parsable form, using MLST.  The format of
                 display can be changed with ‘remopts mlst ...’.

     mode mode-name
                 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default (and only supported) mode
                 is “stream”.

     modtime remote-file
                 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote machine, in RFC 2822
                 format.

     more file   A synonym for page.

     mput local-files
                 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as arguments and do a put for
                 each file in the resulting list.  See glob for details of filename expansion.
                 Resulting file names will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap
                 settings.

     mreget remote-files
                 As per mget, but performs a reget instead of get.

     msend local-files
                 A synonym for mput.

     newer remote-file [local-file]
                 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is more recent
                 that the file on the current system.  If the file does not exist on the current
                 system, the remote file is considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is
                 identical to get.

     nlist [remote-path [local-file]]
                 A synonym for ls.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
                 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments are specified, the
                 filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, remote
                 filenames are mapped during mput commands and put commands issued without a
                 specified remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local filenames
                 are mapped during mget commands and get commands issued without a specified
                 local target filename.  This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX
                 remote computer with different file naming conventions or practices.  The
                 mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.  [Inpattern] is a
                 template for incoming filenames (which may have already been processed according
                 to the ntrans and case settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by
                 including the sequences “$1”, “$2”, ...  “$9” in inpattern.  Use ‘\’ to prevent
                 this special treatment of the ‘$’ character.  All other characters are treated
                 literally, and are used to determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For
                 example, given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data", $1 would
                 have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value "data".  The outpattern
                 determines the resulting mapped filename.  The sequences “$1”, “$2”, ...  “$9”
                 are replaced by any value resulting from the inpattern template.  The sequence
                 “$0” is replaced by the original filename.  Additionally, the sequence “[seq1,
                 seq2]” is replaced by [seq1] if seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is
                 replaced by seq2.  For example, the command

                       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

                 would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input filenames "myfile.data"
                 and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the input filename "myfile", and
                 "myfile.myfile" for the input filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
                 outpattern, as in the example:
                       nmap $1 sed s/  *$// > $1
                 Use the ‘\’ character to prevent special treatment of the ‘$’, ‘[’, ‘]’, and ‘,’
                 characters.

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
                 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.  If no arguments are
                 specified, the filename character translation mechanism is unset.  If arguments
                 are specified, characters in remote filenames are translated during mput
                 commands and put commands issued without a specified remote target filename.  If
                 arguments are specified, characters in local filenames are translated during
                 mget commands and get commands issued without a specified local target filename.
                 This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with
                 different file naming conventions or practices.  Characters in a filename
                 matching a character in inchars are replaced with the corresponding character in
                 outchars.  If the character's position in inchars is longer than the length of
                 outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.

     open host [port]
                 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An optional port
                 number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will attempt to contact an FTP server
                 at that port.  If the set auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also
                 attempt to automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     page file   Retrieve file and display with the program specified by the set pager option.

     passive [auto]
                 Toggle passive mode (if no arguments are given).  If auto is given, act as if
                 FTPMODE is set to ‘auto’.  If passive mode is turned on (default), ftp will send
                 a PASV command for all data connections instead of a PORT command.  The PASV
                 command requests that the remote server open a port for the data connection and
                 return the address of that port.  The remote server listens on that port and the
                 client connects to it.  When using the more traditional PORT command, the client
                 listens on a port and sends that address to the remote server, who connects back
                 to it.  Passive mode is useful when using ftp through a gateway router or host
                 that controls the directionality of traffic.  (Note that though FTP servers are
                 required to support the PASV command by RFC 1123, some do not.)

     pdir [remote-path]
                 Perform dir [remote-path], and display the result with the program specified by
                 the set pager option.

     pls [remote-path]
                 Perform ls [remote-path], and display the result with the program specified by
                 the set pager option.

     pmlsd [remote-path]
                 Perform mlsd [remote-path], and display the result with the program specified by
                 the set pager option.

     preserve    Toggle preservation of modification times on retrieved files.

     progress    Toggle display of transfer progress bar.  The progress bar will be disabled for
                 a transfer that has local-file as ‘-’ or a command that starts with ‘|’.  Refer
                 to FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS for more information.  Enabling progress disables
                 hash.

     prompt      Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs during multiple file
                 transfers to allow the user to selectively retrieve or store files.  If
                 prompting is turned off (default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all
                 files, and any mdelete will delete all files.

                 When prompting is on, the following commands are available at a prompt:

                       a   Answer ‘yes’ to the current file, and automatically answer ‘yes’ to
                           any remaining files for the current command.

                       n   Answer ‘no’, and do not transfer the file.

                       p   Answer ‘yes’ to the current file, and turn off prompt mode (as is
                           “prompt off” had been given).

                       q   Terminate the current operation.

                       y   Answer ‘yes’, and transfer the file.

                       ?   Display a help message.

                 Any other response will answer ‘yes’ to the current file.

     proxy ftp-command
                 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.  This command allows
                 simultaneous connection to two remote FTP servers for transferring files between
                 the two servers.  The first proxy command should be an open, to establish the
                 secondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to see other FTP
                 commands executable on the secondary connection.  The following commands behave
                 differently when prefaced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
                 auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro definitions, get and
                 mget transfer files from the host on the primary control connection to the host
                 on the secondary control connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
                 from the host on the secondary control connection to the host on the primary
                 control connection.  Third party file transfers depend upon support of the FTP
                 protocol PASV command by the server on the secondary control connection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
                 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is left unspecified,
                 the local file name is used after processing according to any ntrans or nmap
                 settings in naming the remote file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                 type, format, mode, and structure.

     pwd         Print the name of the current working directory on the remote machine.

     quit        A synonym for bye.

     quote arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server.

     rate direction [maximum [increment]]
                 Throttle the maximum transfer rate to maximum bytes/second.  If maximum is 0,
                 disable the throttle.

                 direction may be one of:
                       all  Both directions.
                       get  Incoming transfers.
                       put  Outgoing transfers.

                 maximum can be modified on the fly by increment bytes (default: 1024) each time
                 a given signal is received:

                       SIGUSR1  Increment maximum by increment bytes.

                       SIGUSR2  Decrement maximum by increment bytes.  The result must be a
                                positive number.

                 If maximum is not supplied, the current throttle rates are displayed.

                 Note: rate is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.

     rcvbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket receive buffer to size.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
                 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
                 reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is smaller than
                 remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a partially transferred copy of
                 remote-file and the transfer is continued from the apparent point of failure.
                 This command is useful when transferring very large files over networks that are
                 prone to dropping connections.

     remopts command [command-options]
                 Set options on the remote FTP server for command to command-options (whose
                 absence is handled on a command-specific basis).  Remote FTP commands known to
                 support options include: ‘MLST’ (used for MLSD and MLST).

     rename [from [to]]
                 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

     reset       Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/reply sequencing with
                 the remote FTP server.  Resynchronization may be necessary following a violation
                 of the FTP protocol by the remote server.

     restart marker
                 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated marker.  On UNIX
                 systems, marker is usually a byte offset into the file.

     rhelp [command-name]
                 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name is specified it is
                 supplied to the server as well.

     rmdir directory-name
                 Delete a directory on the remote machine.

     rstatus [remote-file]
                 With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If remote-file is specified,
                 show status of remote-file on remote machine.

     runique     Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique filenames.  If a file
                 already exists with a name equal to the target local filename for a get or mget
                 command, a ".1" is appended to the name.  If the resulting name matches another
                 existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If this process
                 continues up to ".99", an error message is printed, and the transfer does not
                 take place.  The generated unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique
                 will not affect local files generated from a shell command (see below).  The
                 default value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
                 A synonym for put.

     sendport    Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will attempt to use a PORT
                 command when establishing a connection for each data transfer.  The use of PORT
                 commands can prevent delays when performing multiple file transfers.  If the
                 PORT command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the use of PORT
                 commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT commands for each data
                 transfer.  This is useful for certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT
                 commands but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.

     set [option value]
                 Set option to value.  If option and value are not given, display all of the
                 options and their values.  The currently supported options are:

                       anonpass     Defaults to $FTPANONPASS

                       ftp_proxy    Defaults to $ftp_proxy.

                       http_proxy   Defaults to $http_proxy.

                       https_proxy  Defaults to $https_proxy.

                       no_proxy     Defaults to $no_proxy.

                       pager        Defaults to $PAGER.

                       prompt       Defaults to $FTPPROMPT.

                       rprompt      Defaults to $FTPRPROMPT.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server as a SITE
                 command.

     size remote-file
                 Return size of remote-file on remote machine.

     sndbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket send buffer to size.

     status      Show the current status of ftp.

     struct struct-name
                 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  The default (and only
                 supported) structure is “file”.

     sunique     Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file names.  The remote
                 FTP server must support FTP protocol STOU command for successful completion.
                 The remote server will report unique name.  Default value is off.

     system      Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.

     tenex       Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX machines.

     throttle    A synonym for rate.

     trace       Toggle packet tracing.

     type [type-name]
                 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is specified, the current
                 type is printed.  The default type is network ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
                 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If newmask is omitted,
                 the current umask is printed.

     unset option
                 Unset option.  Refer to set for more information.

     usage command
                 Print the usage message for command.

     user user-name [password [account]]
                 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password is not specified
                 and the server requires it, ftp will prompt the user for it (after disabling
                 local echo).  If an account field is not specified, and the FTP server requires
                 it, the user will be prompted for it.  If an account field is specified, an
                 account command will be relayed to the remote server after the login sequence is
                 completed if the remote server did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is
                 invoked with “auto-login” disabled, this process is done automatically on
                 initial connection to the FTP server.

     verbose     Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the FTP server are
                 displayed to the user.  In addition, if verbose is on, when a file transfer
                 completes, statistics regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By
                 default, verbose is on.

     xferbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to size.

     ? [command]
                 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote ‘"’ marks.

     Commands which toggle settings can take an explicit on or off argument to force the setting
     appropriately.

     Commands which take a byte count as an argument (e.g., hash, rate, and xferbuf) support an
     optional suffix on the argument which changes the interpretation of the argument.  Supported
     suffixes are:
           b    Causes no modification.  (Optional)
           k    Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
           m    Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
           g    Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824

     If ftp receives a SIGINFO (see the “status” argument of stty(1)) or SIGQUIT signal whilst a
     transfer is in progress, the current transfer rate statistics will be written to the
     standard error output, in the same format as the standard completion message.

AUTO-FETCHING FILES

     In addition to standard commands, this version of ftp supports an auto-fetch feature.  To
     enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list of hostnames/files on the command line.

     The following formats are valid syntax for an auto-fetch element:

     [user@]host:[path][/]
           “Classic” FTP format.

           If path contains a glob character and globbing is enabled, (see glob), then the
           equivalent of ‘mget path’ is performed.

           If the directory component of path contains no globbing characters, it is stored
           locally with the name basename (see basename(1)) of path, in the current directory.
           Otherwise, the full remote name is used as the local name, relative to the local root
           directory.

     ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/][;type=X]
           An FTP URL, retrieved using the FTP protocol if set ftp_proxy isn't defined.
           Otherwise, transfer the URL using HTTP via the proxy defined in set ftp_proxy.  If set
           ftp_proxy isn't defined and user is given, login as user.  In this case, use password
           if supplied, otherwise prompt the user for one.

           If a suffix of ‘;type=A’ or ‘;type=I’ is supplied, then the transfer type will take
           place as ascii or binary (respectively).  The default transfer type is binary.

           In order to be compliant with RFC 3986, ftp interprets the path part of an “ftp://”
           auto-fetch URL as follows:

           ·   The ‘/’ immediately after the host[:port] is interpreted as a separator before the
               path, and not as part of the path itself.

           ·   The path is interpreted as a ‘/’-separated list of name components.  For all but
               the last such component, ftp performs the equivalent of a cd command.  For the
               last path component, ftp performs the equivalent of a get command.

           ·   Empty name components, which result from ‘//’ within the path, or from an extra
               ‘/’ at the beginning of the path, will cause the equivalent of a cd command
               without a directory name.  This is unlikely to be useful.

           ·   Any ‘%XX’ codes (per RFC 3986) within the path components are decoded, with XX
               representing a character code in hexadecimal.  This decoding takes place after the
               path has been split into components, but before each component is used in the
               equivalent of a cd or get command.  Some often-used codes are ‘%2F’ (which
               represents ‘/’) and ‘%7E’ (which represents ‘~’).

           The above interpretation has the following consequences:

           ·   The path is interpreted relative to the default login directory of the specified
               user or of the ‘anonymous’ user.  If the / directory is required, use a leading
               path of “%2F”.  If a user's home directory is required (and the remote server
               supports the syntax), use a leading path of “%7Euser/”.  For example, to retrieve
               /etc/motd from ‘localhost’ as the user ‘myname’ with the password ‘mypass’, use
               “ftp://myname:mypass@localhost/%2fetc/motd”

           ·   The exact cd and get commands can be controlled by careful choice of where to use
               ‘/’ and where to use ‘%2F’ (or ‘%2f’).  For example, the following URLs correspond
               to the equivalents of the indicated commands:

               ftp://host/dir1/dir2/file         “cd dir1”, “cd dir2”, “get file”.

               ftp://host/%2Fdir1/dir2/file      “cd /dir1”, “cd dir2”, “get file”.

               ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2/file       “cd dir1/dir2”, “get file”.

               ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2/file    “cd /dir1/dir2”, “get file”.

               ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile     “get dir1/dir2/file”.

               ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile  “get /dir1/dir2/file”.

           ·   You must have appropriate access permission for each of the intermediate
               directories that is used in the equivalent of a cd command.

     http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path
           An HTTP URL, retrieved using the HTTP protocol.  If set http_proxy is defined, it is
           used as a URL to an HTTP proxy server.  If HTTP authorization is required to retrieve
           path, and ‘user’ (and optionally ‘password’) is in the URL, use them for the first
           attempt to authenticate.

     https://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path
           An HTTPS URL, retrieved using the HTTPS protocol.  If set https_proxy is defined, it
           is used as a URL to an HTTPS proxy server.  If HTTPS authorization is required to
           retrieve path, and ‘user’ (and optionally ‘password’) is in the URL, use them for the
           first attempt to authenticate.  There is currently no certificate validation and
           verification.

     file:///path
           A local URL, copied from /path on the local host.

     about:topic
           Display information regarding topic; no file is retrieved for this auto-fetched
           element.  Supported values include:

           about:ftp      Information about ftp.

           about:version  The version of ftp.  Useful to provide when reporting problems.

     Unless noted otherwise above, and -o output is not given, the file is stored in the current
     directory as the basename(1) of path.  Note that if a HTTP redirect is received, the fetch
     is retried using the new target URL supplied by the server, with a corresponding new path.
     Using an explicit -o output is recommended, to avoid writing to unexpected file names.

     If a classic format or an FTP URL format has a trailing ‘/’ or an empty path component, then
     ftp will connect to the site and cd to the directory given as the path, and leave the user
     in interactive mode ready for further input.  This will not work if set ftp_proxy is being
     used.

     Direct HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.1.  Proxied FTP and HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.0.

     If -R is given, all auto-fetches that don't go via the FTP or HTTP proxies will be
     restarted.  For FTP, this is implemented by using reget instead of get.  For HTTP, this is
     implemented by using the ‘Range: bytes=’ HTTP/1.1 directive.

     If WWW or proxy WWW authentication is required, you will be prompted to enter a username and
     password to authenticate with.

     When specifying IPv6 numeric addresses in a URL, you need to surround the address in square
     brackets.  E.g.: “ftp://[::1]:21/”.  This is because colons are used in IPv6 numeric address
     as well as being the separator for the port number.

ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER

     To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-C).  Sending
     transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers will be halted by sending an FTP
     protocol ABOR command to the remote server, and discarding any further data received.  The
     speed at which this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
     processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, the prompt will not
     appear until the remote server has completed sending the requested file.

     If the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst ftp is awaiting a reply from the
     remote server for the ABOR processing, then the connection will be closed.  This is
     different from the traditional behaviour (which ignores the terminal interrupt during this
     phase), but is considered more useful.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS

     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to the following rules.

     1.   If the file name ‘-’ is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout (for writing) is
          used.

     2.   If the first character of the file name is ‘|’, the remainder of the argument is
          interpreted as a shell command.  ftp then forks a shell, using popen(3) with the
          argument supplied, and reads (writes) from the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command
          includes spaces, the argument must be quoted; e.g.  “"| ls -lt"”.  A particularly
          useful example of this mechanism is: “dir "" |more”.

     3.   Failing the above checks, if “globbing” is enabled, local file names are expanded
          according to the rules used in the csh(1); see the glob command.  If the ftp command
          expects a single local file (e.g.  put), only the first filename generated by the
          "globbing" operation is used.

     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file names, the local
          filename is the remote filename, which may be altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap
          setting.  The resulting filename may then be altered if runique is on.

     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file names, the remote
          filename is the local filename, which may be altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The
          resulting filename may then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS

     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file transfer.  The type
     may be one of “ascii”, “image” (binary), “ebcdic”, and “local byte size” (for PDP-10's and
     PDP-20's mostly).  ftp supports the ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte
     size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer parameters: mode, form,
     and struct.

THE .netrc FILE

     The .netrc file contains login and initialization information used by the auto-login
     process.  It resides in the user's home directory, unless overridden with the -N netrc
     option, or specified in the NETRC environment variable.  The following tokens are
     recognized; they may be separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:

     machine name
               Identify a remote machine name.  The auto-login process searches the .netrc file
               for a machine token that matches the remote machine specified on the ftp command
               line or as an open command argument.  Once a match is made, the subsequent .netrc
               tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached or another machine
               or a default token is encountered.

     default   This is the same as machine name except that default matches any name.  There can
               be only one default token, and it must be after all machine tokens.  This is
               normally used as:

                     default login anonymous password user@site

               thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous FTP login to machines not specified
               in .netrc.  This can be overridden by using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

     login name
               Identify a user on the remote machine.  If this token is present, the auto-login
               process will initiate a login using the specified name.

     password string
               Supply a password.  If this token is present, the auto-login process will supply
               the specified string if the remote server requires a password as part of the login
               process.  Note that if this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
               than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the .netrc is readable by
               anyone besides the user.

     account string
               Supply an additional account password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
               process will supply the specified string if the remote server requires an
               additional account password, or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT
               command if it does not.

     macdef name
               Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp macdef command functions.  A
               macro is defined with the specified name; its contents begin with the next .netrc
               line and continue until a blank line (consecutive new-line characters) is
               encountered.  Like the other tokens in the .netrc file, a macdef is applicable
               only to the machine definition preceding it.  A macdef entry cannot be used by
               multiple machine definitions; rather, it must be defined following each machine it
               is intended to be used with.  If a macro named init is defined, it is
               automatically executed as the last step in the auto-login process.  For example,

                     default
                     macdef init
                     epsv4 off

               followed by a blank line.

COMMAND LINE EDITING

     ftp supports interactive command line editing, via the editline(3) library.  It is enabled
     with the edit command, and is enabled by default if input is from a tty.  Previous lines can
     be recalled and edited with the arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may be
     used as well.

     The editline(3) library is configured with a .editrc file - refer to editrc(5) for more
     information.

     An extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive command and filename
     completion (including remote file completion).  To use this, bind a key to the editline(3)
     command ftp-complete.  By default, this is bound to the TAB key.

COMMAND LINE PROMPT

     By default, ftp displays a command line prompt of “ftp> ” to the user.  This can be changed
     with the set prompt command.

     A prompt can be displayed on the right side of the screen (after the command input) with the
     set rprompt command.

     The following formatting sequences are replaced by the given information:

           %/   The current remote working directory.

           %c[[0]n],%.[[0]n]
                The trailing component of the current remote working directory, or n trailing
                components if a digit n is given.  If n begins with ‘0’, the number of skipped
                components precede the trailing component(s) in the format “/<number>trailing”
                (for ‘%c’) or “...trailing” (for ‘%.’).

           %M   The remote host name.

           %m   The remote host name, up to the first ‘.’.

           %n   The remote user name.

           %%   A single ‘%’.

ENVIRONMENT

     ftp uses the following environment variables.

     FTPANONPASS    Password to send in an anonymous FTP transfer.  Defaults to “`whoami`@”.

     FTPMODE        Overrides the default operation mode.  Support values are:

                    active   active mode FTP only

                    auto     automatic determination of passive or active (this is the default)

                    gate     gate-ftp mode

                    passive  passive mode FTP only

     FTPPROMPT      Command-line prompt to use.  Defaults to “ftp> ”.  Refer to COMMAND LINE
                    PROMPT for more information.

     FTPRPROMPT     Command-line right side prompt to use.  Defaults to “”.  Refer to COMMAND
                    LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPSERVER      Host to use as gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.

     FTPSERVERPORT  Port to use when connecting to gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.  Default
                    is port returned by a getservbyname() lookup of “ftpgate/tcp”.

     FTPUSERAGENT   The value to send for the HTTP User-Agent header.

     HOME           For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

     NETRC          An alternate location of the .netrc file.

     PAGER          Used by various commands to display files.  Defaults to more(1) if empty or
                    not set.

     SHELL          For default shell.

     ftp_proxy      URL of FTP proxy to use when making FTP URL requests (if not defined, use the
                    standard FTP protocol).

                    See http_proxy for further notes about proxy use.

     http_proxy     URL of HTTP proxy to use when making HTTP URL requests.  If proxy
                    authentication is required and there is a username and password in this URL,
                    they will automatically be used in the first attempt to authenticate to the
                    proxy.

                    If “unsafe” URL characters are required in the username or password (for
                    example ‘@’ or ‘/’), encode them with RFC 3986 ‘%XX’ encoding.

                    Note that the use of a username and password in ftp_proxy and http_proxy may
                    be incompatible with other programs that use it (such as lynx(1)).

                    NOTE: this is not used for interactive sessions, only for command-line
                    fetches.

     no_proxy       A space or comma separated list of hosts (or domains) for which proxying is
                    not to be used.  Each entry may have an optional trailing ":port", which
                    restricts the matching to connections to that port.

EXTENDED PASSIVE MODE AND FIREWALLS

     Some firewall configurations do not allow ftp to use extended passive mode.  If you find
     that even a simple ls appears to hang after printing a message such as this:

           229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||58551|)

     then you will need to disable extended passive mode with epsv4 off.  See the above section
     The .netrc File for an example of how to make this automatic.

SEE ALSO

     getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)

STANDARDS

     ftp attempts to be compliant with:

           RFC 959   File Transfer Protocol

           RFC 1123  Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support

           RFC 1635  How to Use Anonymous FTP

           RFC 2389  Feature negotiation mechanism for the File Transfer Protocol

           RFC 2428  FTP Extensions for IPv6 and NATs

           RFC 2616  Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1

           RFC 2822  Internet Message Format

           RFC 3659  Extensions to FTP

           RFC 3986  Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

HISTORY

     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command and file
     completion, dynamic progress bar, automatic fetching of files and URLs, modification time
     preservation, transfer rate throttling, configurable command line prompt, and other
     enhancements over the standard BSD ftp were implemented in NetBSD 1.3 and later releases by
     Luke Mewburn ⟨lukem@NetBSD.org⟩.

     IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project (but may not be present in all non-NetBSD
     versions of this program, depending if the operating system supports IPv6 in a similar
     manner to KAME).

BUGS

     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the remote server.

     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode transfer code has
     been corrected.  This correction may result in incorrect transfers of binary files to and
     from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image
     type.

     ftp assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses (IPv6 addresses with a form like ::ffff:10.1.1.1)
     indicate IPv4 destinations which can be handled by AF_INET sockets.  However, in certain
     IPv6 network configurations, this assumption is not true.  In such an environment, IPv4
     mapped addresses must be passed to AF_INET6 sockets directly.  For example, if your site
     uses a SIIT translator for IPv6-to-IPv4 translation, ftp is unable to support your
     configuration.