Provided by: ttf2ufm_3.4.4~r2+gbp-1build1_amd64 bug


       TTF2UFM - A True Type to PostScript Type 1 Font Converter


       "ttf2ufm [-options] ttffont.ttf [Fontname]"


       "ttf2ufm [-options] ttffont.ttf -"


       Ttf2ufm is a font converter from the True Type format (and some other formats supported by
       the FreeType library as well) to the Adobe Type1 format.

       The versions 3.0 and later got rather extensive post-processing algorithm that brings the
       converted fonts to the requirements of the Type1 standard, tries to correct the rounding
       errors introduced during conversions and some simple kinds of bugs that are typical for
       the public domain TTF fonts. It also generates the hints that enable much better rendering
       of fonts in small sizes that are typical for the computer displays. But everything has its
       price, and some of the optimizations may not work well for certain fonts. That's why the
       options were added to the converter, to control the performed optimizations.


       The first variant creates the file "Fontname.pfa" (or "Fontname.pfb" if the option '-b'
       was used) with the converted font and "Fontname.afm" with the font metrics, the second one
       prints the font or another file (if the option '-G' was used) on the standard output from
       where it can be immediately piped through some filter. If no "Fontname" is specified for
       the first variant, the name is generated from "ttffont" by replacing the ".ttf" filename

       Most of the time no options are neccessary (with a possible exception of '-e'). But if
       there are some troubles with the resulting font, they may be used to control the
       conversion.  The options are:

       · "-a" - Include all the glyphs from the source file into the converted file. If this
         option is not specified then only the glyphs that have been assigned some encoding are
         included, because the rest of glyphs would be inaccessible anyway and would only consume
         the disk space.  But some applications are clever enough to change the encoding on the
         fly and thus use the other glyphs, in this case they could benefit from using this
         option. But there is a catch: the X11 library has rather low limit for the font size.
         Including more glyphs increases the file size and thus increases the chance of hitting
         this limit.  See "app/X11/README" for the description of a patch to X11 which fixes this

       · "-b" - Encode the resulting font to produce a ready ".pfb" file.

       · "-d suboptions" - Debugging options. The suboptions are:

         "a" - Print out the absolute coordinates of dots in outlines. Such a font can not be
         used by any program (that's why this option is incompatible with '-e') but it has proven
         to be a valuable debuging information.

         "r" - Do not reverse the direction of outlines. The TTF fonts have the standard
         direction of outlines opposite to the Type1 fonts. So they should be reversed during
         proper conversion. This option may be used for debugging or to handle a TTF font with
         wrong direction of outlines (possibly, converted in a broken way from a Type1 font). The
         first signs of the wrong direction are the letters like "P" or "B" without the unpainted
         "holes" inside.

       · "-e" - Assemble the resulting font to produce a ready ".pfa" file.

         [ S.B.: Personally I don't think that this option is particularly useful.  The same
         result may be achieved by piping the unassembled data through t1asm, the Type 1
         assembler. And, anyways, it's good to have the t1utils package handy. But Mark and many
         users think that this functionality is good and it took not much time to add this
         option. ]

       · "-F" - Force the Unicode encoding: any type of MS encoding specified in the font is
         ignored and the font is treated like it has Unicode encoding. WARNING: this option is
         intended for buggy fonts which actually are in Unicode but are marked as something else.
         The effect on the other fonts is unpredictable.

       · "-G suboptions" - File generation options. The suboptions may be lowercase or uppercase,
         the lowercase ones disable the generation of particular files, the corresponding
         uppercase suboptions enable the generation of the same kind of files. If the result of
         ttf2ufm is requested to be printed on the standard output, the last enabling suboption
         of -G determines which file will be written to the standard output and the rest of files
         will be discarded. For example, -G A will request the AFM file.  The suboptions to
         disable/enable the generation of the files are:

         "f/F" - The font file. Depending on the other options this file will have one of the
         suffixes ".t1a", ".pfa" or ".pfb". If the conversion result is requested on the standard
         output ('"-"' is used as the output file name) then the font file will also be written
         there by default, if not overwritten by another suboption of -G.  Default: enabled

         "a/A" - The Adobe font metrics file (".afm").  Default: enabled

         "e/E" - The dvips encoding file (".enc").  Default: disabled

       · "-l language[+argument]" - Extract the fonts for the specified language from a multi-
         language Unicode font. If this option is not used the converter tries to guess the
         language by the values of the shell variable LANG.  If it is not able to guess the
         language by LANG it tries all the languages in the order they are listed.

         After the plus sign an optional argument for the language extractor may be specified.
         The format of the argument is absolutely up to the particular language converter. The
         primary purpose of the argument is to support selection of planes for the multi-plane
         Eastern encodings but it can also be used in any other way. The language extractor may
         decide to add the plane name in some form to the name of the resulting font. None of the
         currently supported languages make any use of the argument yet.

         As of now the following languages are supported:

           "latin1" - for all the languages using the Latin-1 encoding

           "latin2" - for the Central European languages

           "latin4" - for the Baltic languages

           "latin5" - for the Turkish language

           "cyrillic" - for the languages with Cyrillic alphabet

           "russian" - historic synonym for cyrillic

           "bulgarian" - historic synonym for cyrillic

           "adobestd" - for the AdobeStandard encoding used by TeX

           "plane+argument" - to select one plane from a multi-byte encoding

         The argument of the ""plane"" language may be in one of three forms:




         Pid (TTF platform id) and eid (TTF encoding id) select a particular TTF encoding table
         in the original font. They are specified as decimal numbers. If this particular encoding
         table is not present in the font file then the conversion fails. The native ("ttf")
         front-end parser supports only pid=3 (Windows platform), the FreeType-based ("ft")
         front-end supports any platform. If pid/eid is not specified then the TTF encoding table
         is determined as usual: Unicode encoding if it's first or an 8-bit encoding if not (and
         for an 8-bit encoding the plane number is silently ignored).  To prevent the converter
         from falling back to an 8-bit encoding, specify the Unicode pid/eid value explicitly.

         Plane_number is a hexadecimal (if starts with "0x") or decimal number.  It gives the
         values of upper bytes for which 256 characters will be selected. If not specified,
         defaults to 0. It is also used as a font name suffix (the leading "0x" is not included
         into the suffix).

         NOTE: You may notice that the language names are not uniform: some are the names of
         particular languages and some are names of encodings. This is because of the different
         approaches. The original idea was to implement a conversion from Unicode to the
         appropriate Windows encoding for a given language. And then use the translation tables
         to generate the fonts in whatever final encodings are needed. This would allow to pile
         together the Unicode fonts and the non-Unicode Windows fonts for that language and let
         the program to sort them out automatically. And then generate fonts in all the possible
         encodings for that language. An example of this approach is the Russian language
         support. But if there is no multiplicity of encodings used for some languages and if the
         non-Unicode fonts are not considered important by the users, another way would be
         simpler to implement: just provide only one table for extraction of the target encoding
         from Unicode and don't bother with the translation tables. The latin* "languages" are
         examples of this approach. If somebody feels that he needs the Type1 fonts both in
         Latin-* and Windows encodings he or she is absolutely welcome to submit the code to
         implement it.

         WARNING: Some of the glyphs included into the AdobeStandard encoding are not included
         into the Unicode standard. The most typical examples of such glyphs are ligatures like
         'fi', 'fl' etc. Because of this the font designers may place them at various places. The
         converter tries to do its best, if the glyphs have honest Adobe names and/or are placed
         at the same codes as in the Microsoft fonts they will be picked up. Otherwise a possible
         solution is to use the option '-L' with an external map.

       · "-L file[+[pid=<pid>,eid=<eid>,][plane]]" - Extract the fonts for the specified language
         from a multi-language font using the map from this file. This is rather like the option
         '-l' but the encoding map is not compiled into the program, it's taken from that file,
         so it's easy to edit. Examples of such files are provided in
         "maps/", "". (NOTE: the 'standard encoding' map
         does not include all the glyphs of the AdobeStandard encoding, it's provided only as an
         example.) The description of the supported map formats is in the file

         Likewise to '-l', an argument may be specified after the map file name. But in this case
         the argument has fixed meaning: it selects the original TTF encoding table (the syntax
         is the same as in '-l plane') and/or a plane of the map file. The plane name also gets
         added after dash to the font name. The plane is a concept used in the Eastern fonts with
         big number of glyphs: one TTF font gets divided into multiple Type1 fonts, each
         containing one plane of up to 256 glyphs. But with a little creativity this concept may
         be used for other purposes of combining multiple translation maps into one file.  To
         extract multiple planes from a TTF font "ttf2ufm" must be run multiple times, each time
         with a different plane name specified.

         The default original TTF encoding table used for the option '-L' is Unicode. The map
         files may include directives to specify different original TTF encodings. However if the
         pid/eid pair is specified with it overrides any original encoding specified in the map

       · "-m type=value" - Set maximal or minimal limits of resources.  These limits control the
         the font generation by limiting the resources that the font is permitted to require from
         the PostScript interpreter.  The currently supported types of limits are:

         "h" - the maximal hint stack depth for the substituted hints.  The default value is 128,
         according to the limitation in X11. This seems to be the lowest (and thus the safest)
         widespread value. To display the hint stack depth required by each glyph in a ".t1a"
         file use the script "scripts/".

       · "-O suboptions" - Outline processing options. The suboptions may be lowercase or
         uppercase, the lowercase ones disable the features, the corresponding uppercase
         suboptions enable the same features.  The suboptions to disable/enable features are:

         "b/B" - Guessing of the ForceBold parameter. This parameter helps the Type1 engine to
         rasterize the bold fonts properly at small sizes.  But the algorithm used to guess the
         proper value of this flag makes that guess based solely on the font name. In rare cases
         that may cause errors, in these cases you may want to disable this guessing.  Default:

         "h/H" - Autogeneration of hints. The really complex outlines may confuse the algorithm,
         so theoretically it may be useful sometimes to disable them. Although up to now it seems
         that even bad hints are better than no hints at all.  Default: enabled

         "u/U" - Hint substitution. Hint substitution is a technique permitting generation of
         more detailed hints for the rasterizer. It allows to use different sets of hints for
         different parts of a glyph and change these sets as neccessary during rasterization
         (that's why "substituted").  So it should improve the quality of the fonts rendered at
         small sizes.  But there are two catches: First, the X11 library has rather low limit for
         the font size. More detailed hints increase the file size and thus increase the chance
         of hitting this limit (that does not mean that you shall hit it but you may if your
         fonts are particularly big). This is especially probable for Unicode fonts converted
         with option '-a', so you may want to use '-a' together with '-Ou'. See "app/X11/README"
         for the description of a patch to X11 which fixes this problem. Second, some rasterizers
         (again, X11 is the typical example) have a limitation for total number of hints used
         when drawing a glyph (also known as the hint stack depth). If that stack overflows the
         glyph is ignored. Starting from version 3.22 "ttf2ufm" uses algorithms to minimizing
         this depth, with the trade-off of slightly bigger font files. The glyphs which still
         exceed the limit set by option '-mh' have all the substituted hints removed and only
         base hints left.  The algorithms seem to have been refined far enough to make the fonts
         with substituted hints look better than the fonts without them or at least the same.
         Still if the original fonts are not well-designed the detailed hinting may emphasize the
         defects of the design, such as non-even thickness of lines. So provided that you are not
         afraid of the X11 bug the best idea would be to generate a font with this feature and
         without it, then compare the results using the program "other/cmpf" (see the description
         in "other/README") and decide which one looks better.  Default: enabled

         "o/O" - Space optimization of the outlines' code. This kind of optimization never hurts,
         and the only reason to disable this feature is for comparison of the generated fonts
         with the fonts generated by the previous versions of converter. Well, it _almost_ never
         hurts. As it turned out there exist some brain-damaged printers which don't understand
         it. Actually this feature does not change the outlines at all. The Type 1 font manual
         provides a set of redundant operators that make font description shorter, such as '10
         hlineto' instead of '0 10 rlineto' to describe a horizontal line. This feature enables
         use of these operators.  Default: enabled

         "s/S" - Smoothing of outlines. If the font is broken in some way (even the ones that are
         not easily noticeable), such smoothing may break it further. So disabling this feature
         is the first thing to be tried if some font looks odd. But with smoothing off the hint
         generation algorithms may not work properly too.  Default: enabled

         "t/T" - Auto-scaling to the 1000x1000 Type1 standard matrix. The TTF fonts are described
         in terms of an arbitrary matrix up to 4000x4000. The converted fonts must be scaled to
         conform to the Type1 standard. But the scaling introduces additional rounding errors, so
         it may be curious sometimes to look at the font in its original scale.  Default: enabled

         "v/V" - Do vectorization on the bitmap fonts. Functionally "vectorization" is the same
         thing as "autotracing", a different word is used purely to differentiate it from the
         Autotrace library. It tries to produce nice smooth outlines from bitmaps. This feature
         is still a work in progress though the results are already mostly decent.  Default:

         "w/W" - Glyphs' width corection. This option is designed to be used on broken fonts
         which specify too narrow widths for the letters. You can tell that a font can benefit
         from this option if you see that the characters are smashed together without any
         whitespace between them. This option causes the converter to set the character widths to
         the actual width of this character plus the width of a typical vertical stem. But on the
         other hand the well-designed fonts may have characters that look better if their widths
         are set slightly narrower. Such well-designed fonts will benefit from disabling this
         feature. You may want to convert a font with and without this feature, compare the
         results and select the better one. This feature may be used only on proportional fonts,
         it has no effect on the fixed-width fonts.  Default: disabled

         "z/Z" - Use the Autotrace library on the bitmap fonts. The results are horrible and the
         use of this option is not recommended. This option is present for experimental purposes.
         It may change or be removed in the future. The working tracing can be achieved with
         option "-OV".  Default: disabled

       · "-p parser_name" - Use the specified front-end parser to read the font file.  If this
         option is not used, ttf2ufm selects the parser automatically based on the suffix of the
         font file name, it uses the first parser in its list that supports this font type. Now
         two parsers are supported:

           "ttf" - built-in parser for the ttf files (suffix ".ttf")

           "bdf" - built-in parser for the BDF files (suffix ".bdf")

           "ft" - parser based on the FreeType-2 library (suffixes ".ttf", ".otf", ".pfa",

         The parser "ft" is NOT linked in by default. See "Makefile" for instructions how to
         enable it. We do no support this parser on Windows: probably it will work but nobody
         tried and nobody knows how to build it.

         The conversion of the bitmap fonts (such as BDF) is simplistic yet, producing jagged
         outlines.  When converting such fonts, it might be a good idea to turn off the hint
         substitution (using option -Ou) because the hints produced will be huge but not adding
         much to the quality of the fonts.

       · "-u number" - Mark the font with this value as its UniqueID. The UniqueID is used by the
         printers with the hard disks to cache the rasterized characters and thus significantly
         speed-up the printing. Some of those printers just can't store the fonts without
         UniqueID on their disk.The problem is that the ID is supposed to be unique, as it name
         says. And there is no easy way to create a guaranteed unique ID. Adobe specifies the
         range 4000000-4999999 for private IDs but still it's difficult to guarantee the
         uniqueness within it. So if you don't really need the UniqueID don't use it, it's
         optional. Luckily there are a few millions of possible IDs, so the chances of collision
         are rather low.  If instead of the number a special value '"A"' is given then the
         converter generates the value of UniqueID automatically, as a hash of the font name.
         (NOTE:  in the version 3.22 the algorithm for autogeneration of UniqueID was changed to
         fit the values into the Adobe-spacified range. This means that if UniqueIDs were used
         then the printer's cache may need to be flushed before replacing the fonts converted by
         an old version with fonts converted by a newer version).  A simple way to find if any of
         the fonts in a given directory have duplicated UniqueIDs is to use the command:

         "  cat *.pf[ab] | grep UniqueID | sort | uniq -c | grep -v ' 1 '"

         Or if you use "scripts/convert" it will do that for you automatically plus it will also
         give the exact list of files with duplicate UIDs.

       · "-v size" - Re-scale the font to get the size of a typical uppercase letter somewhere
         around the specified size. Actually, it re-scales the whole font to get the size of one
         language-dependent letter to be at least of the specified size. Now this letter is "A"
         in all the supported languages. The size is specified in the points of the Type 1
         coordinate grids, the maximal value is 1000. This is an experimental option and should
         be used with caution. It tries to increase the visible font size for a given point size
         and thus make the font more readable. But if overused it may cause the fonts to look out
         of scale. As of now the interesting values of size for this option seem to be located
         mostly between 600 and 850. This re-scaling may be quite useful but needs more
         experience to understand the balance of its effects.

       · "-W level" - Select the verbosity level of the warnings.  Currently the levels from 0 to
         4 are supported. Level 0 means no warnings at all, level 4 means all the possible
         warnings. The default level is 3.  Other levels may be added in the future, so using the
         level number 99 is recommended to get all the possible warnings. Going below level 2 is
         not generally recommended because you may miss valuable information about the problems
         with the fonts being converted.

       · Obsolete option: "-A" - Print the font metrics (.afm file) instead of the font on
         STDOUT.  Use -GA instead.

       · Very obsolete option:

         The algorithm that implemented the forced fixed width had major flaws, so it was
         disabled. The code is still in the program and some day it will be refined and returned
         back. Meanwhile the option name '-f' was reused for another option. The old version was:

         "-f" - Don't try to force the fixed width of font. Normally the converter considers the
         fonts in which the glyph width deviates by not more than 5% as buggy fixed width fonts
         and forces them to have really fixed width. If this is undesirable, it can be disabled
         by this option.

       The ".pfa" font format supposes that the description of the characters is binary encoded
       and encrypted. This converter does not encode or encrypt the data by default, you have to
       specify the option '-e' or use the "t1asm" program to assemble (that means, encode and
       encrypt) the font program. The "t1asm" program that is included with the converter is
       actually a part of the "t1utils" package, rather old version of which may be obtained from

       Note that "t1asm" from the old version of that package won't work properly with the files
       generated by "ttf2ufm" version 3.20 and later. Please use "t1asm" packaged with "ttf2ufm"
       or from the new version "t1utils" instead. For a newer version of "t1utils" please look at


       So, the following command lines:

       "ttf2ufm -e ttffont.ttf t1font"

       "ttf2ufm ttffont.ttf - | t1asm >t1font.pfa"

       represent two ways to get a working font. The benefit of the second form is that other
       filters may be applied to the font between the converter and assembler.


       · TTF2UFM_LIBXDIR/t1asm


       · TTF2UFM_SHAREDIR/scripts/*

       · TTF2UFM_SHAREDIR/other/*




       ·   ttf2ufm_convert(1)

       ·   ttf2ufm_x2gs(1)

       ·   t1asm(1)


           The mailing list with announcements about ttf2ufm. It is a moderated mailing with
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           The main page of the project.


           The old main page of the project.


       It seems that many Eastern fonts use features of the TTF format that are not supported by
       the ttf2ufm's built-in front-end parser. Because of this for now we recommend using the
       FreeType-based parser (option '-p ft') with the ""plane"" language.

   Troubleshooting and bug reports
       Have problems with conversion of some font ? The converter dumps core ? Or your printer
       refuses to understand the converted fonts ? Or some characters are missing ? Or some
       characters look strange ?

       Send the bug reports to the ttf2ufm development mailing list at

       Try to collect more information about the problem and include it into the bug report. (Of
       course, even better if you would provide a ready fix, but just a detailed bug report is
       also good). Provide detailed information about your problem, this will speed up the
       response greatly.  Don't just write "this font looks strange after conversion" but
       describe what's exactly wrong with it: for example, what characters look wrong and what
       exactly is wrong about their look. Providing a link to the original font file would be
       also a good idea. Try to do a little troublehooting and report its result. This not only
       would help with the fix but may also give you a temporary work-around for the bug.

       First, enable full warnings with option '-W99', save them to a file and read carefully.
       Sometimes the prolem is with a not implemented feature which is reported in the warnings.
       Still, reporting about such problems may be a good idea: some features were missed to cut
       corners, in hope that no real font is using them. So a report about a font using such a
       feature may motivate someone to implement it. Of course, you may be the most motivated
       person: after all, you are the one wishing to convert that font. ;-) Seriously, the
       philosophy "scrath your own itch" seems to be the strongest moving force behind the Open
       Source software.

       The next step is playing with the options. This serves a dual purpose: on one hand, it
       helps to localize the bug, on the other hand you may be able to get a working version of
       the font for the meantime while the bug is being fixed. The typical options to try out
       are: first '-Ou', if it does not help then '-Os', then '-Oh', then '-Oo'.  They are
       described in a bit more detail above. Try them one by one and in combinations. See if with
       them the resulting fonts look better.

       On some fonts ttf2ufm just crashes. Commonly that happens because the font being converted
       is highly defective (although sometimes the bug is in ttf2ufm itself). In any case it
       should not crash, so the reports about such cases will help to handle these defects
       properly in future.

       We try to respond to the bug reports in a timely fashion but alas, this may not always be
       possible, especially if the problem is complex.  This is a volunteer project and its
       resources are limited. Because of this we would appreciate bug reports as detailed as
       possible, and we would appreciate the ready fixes and contributions even more.


       Based on ttf2pfa by Andrew Weeks, and help from Frank Siegert.

       Modification by Mark Heath.

       Further modification by Sergey Babkin.

       The Type1 assembler by I. Lee Hetherington with modifications by Kai-Uwe Herbing.