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v.in.ogr - Imports vector data into a GRASS vector map using OGR library.
vector, import, OGR, topology, geometry, snapping, create location
v.in.ogr v.in.ogr --help v.in.ogr [-flc2tojrewi] input=string [gdal_config=string] [gdal_doo=string] [layer=string[,string,...]] [output=name] [spatial=xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax[,xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax,...]] [where=sql_query] [min_area=float] [type=string[,string,...]] [snap=float] [location=name] [columns=name[,name,...]] [encoding=string] [key=string] [geometry=name] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui] Flags: -f List supported OGR formats and exit -l List available OGR layers in data source and exit -c Do not clean polygons (not recommended) -2 Force 2D output even if input is 3D Useful if input is 3D but all z coordinates are identical -t Do not create attribute table -o Override projection check (use current location’s projection) Assume that the dataset has the same projection as the current location -j Perform projection check only and exit -r Limit import to the current region -e Extend region extents based on new dataset Also updates the default region if in the PERMANENT mapset -w Change column names to lowercase characters -i Create the location specified by the "location" parameter and exit. Do not import the vector data. --overwrite Allow output files to overwrite existing files --help Print usage summary --verbose Verbose module output --quiet Quiet module output --ui Force launching GUI dialog Parameters: input=string [required] Name of OGR datasource to be imported Examples: ESRI Shapefile: directory containing shapefiles MapInfo File: directory containing mapinfo files gdal_config=string GDAL configuration options Comma-separated list of key=value pairs gdal_doo=string GDAL dataset open options Comma-separated list of key=value pairs layer=string[,string,...] OGR layer name. If not given, all available layers are imported Examples: ESRI Shapefile: shapefile name MapInfo File: mapinfo file name output=name Name for output vector map spatial=xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax[,xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax,...] Import subregion only Format: xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax - usually W,S,E,N where=sql_query WHERE conditions of SQL statement without ’where’ keyword Example: income < 1000 and population >= 10000 min_area=float Minimum size of area to be imported (square meters) Smaller areas and islands are ignored. Should be greater than snap^2 Default: 0.0001 type=string[,string,...] Optionally change default input type Options: point, line, boundary, centroid Default: point: import area centroids as points line: import area boundaries as lines boundary: import lines as area boundaries centroid: import points as centroids snap=float Snapping threshold for boundaries (map units) ’-1’ for no snap Default: -1 location=name Name for new location to create columns=name[,name,...] List of column names to be used instead of original names, first is used for category column encoding=string Encoding value for attribute data Overrides encoding interpretation, useful when importing ESRI Shapefile key=string Name of column used for categories If not given, categories are generated as unique values and stored in ’cat’ column geometry=name Name of geometry column If not given, all geometry columns from the input are used
v.in.ogr imports vector data from files and database connections supported by the OGR library) into the current location and mapset. If the layer parameter is not given, all available OGR layers are imported as separate GRASS layers into one GRASS vector map. If several OGR layer names are given, all these layers are imported as separate GRASS layers into one GRASS vector map. The optional spatial parameter defines spatial query extents. This parameter allows the user to restrict the region to a spatial subset while importing the data. All vector features completely or partially falling into this rectangle subregion are imported. The -r current region flag is identical, but uses the current region settings as the spatial bounds (see g.region). Supported Vector Formats v.in.ogr uses the OGR library which supports various vector data formats including ESRI Shapefile, Mapinfo File, UK .NTF, SDTS, TIGER, IHO S-57 (ENC), DGN, GML, GPX, AVCBin, REC, Memory, OGDI, and PostgreSQL, depending on the local OGR installation. For details see the OGR web site. The -f prints a list of the vector formats supported by the system’s OGR (Simple Features Library). The OGR (Simple Features Library) is part of the GDAL library, hence GDAL needs to be installed to use v.in.ogr. The list of actually supported formats can be printed by -f flag. Topology cleaning Topology cleaning on areas is automatically performed, but may fail in special cases. In these cases, a snap threshold value is estimated from the imported vector data and printed out at the end. The vector data can then be imported again with the suggested snap threshold value which is incremented by powers of 10 until either an estimated upper limit for the threshold value is reached or the topology cleaning on areas was successful. In some cases, manual cleaning might be required or areas are truly overlapping, e.g. buffers created with non-topological software. The min_area threshold value is being specified as area size in map units with the exception of latitude-longitude locations in which it is being specified solely in square meters. The snap threshold value is used to snap boundary vertices to each other if the distance in map units between two vertices is not larger than the threshold. Snapping is by default disabled with -1. See also the v.clean manual. Overlapping polygons When importing overlapping polygons, the overlapping parts will become new areas with multiple categories, one unique category for each original polygon. An original polygon will thus be converted to multiple areas with the same shared category. These multiple areas will therefore also link to the same entry in the attribute table. A single category value may thus refer to multiple non-overlapping areas which together represent the original polygon overlapping with another polygon. The original polygon can be recovered by using v.extract with the desired category value or where statement and the -d flag to dissolve common boundaries.
v.in.ogr attempts to preserve projection information when importing datasets if the source format includes projection information, and if the OGR driver supports it. If the projection of the source dataset does not match the projection of the current location v.in.ogr will report an error message ("Projection of dataset does not appear to match current location"). If the user wishes to ignore the difference between the apparent coordinate system of the source data and the current location, they may pass the -o flag to override the projection check. If the user wishes to import the data with the full projection definition, it is possible to have v.in.ogr automatically create a new location based on the projection and extents of the file being read. This is accomplished by passing the name to be used for the new location via the location parameter. Upon completion of the command, a new location will have been created (with only a PERMANENT mapset), and the vector map will have been imported with the indicated output name into the PERMANENT mapset. An interesting wrapper command around v.in.ogr is v.import which reprojects (if needed) the vector dataset during import to the projection of the current location.
Table column names: supported characters The characters which are eligible for table column names are limited by the SQL standard. Supported are: [A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]* This means that SQL neither supports ’.’ (dots) nor ’-’ (minus) nor ’#’ in table column names. Also a table name must start with a character, not a number. v.in.ogr converts ’.’, ’-’ and ’#’ to ’_’ (underscore) during import. The -w flag changes capital column names to lowercase characters as a convenience for SQL usage (lowercase column names avoid the need to quote them if the attribute table is stored in a SQL DBMS such as PostgreSQL). The columns parameter is used to define new column names during import. The DBF database specification limits column names to 10 characters. If the default DB is set to DBF and the input data contains longer column/field names, they will be truncated. If this results in multiple columns with the same name then v.in.ogr will produce an error. In this case you will either have to modify the input data or use v.in.ogr’s columns parameter to rename columns to something unique. (hint: copy and modify the list given with the error message). Alternatively, change the local DB with db.connect. File encoding When importing ESRI Shapefiles the OGR library tries to read the LDID/codepage setting from the .dbf file and use it to translate string fields to UTF-8. LDID "87 / 0x57" is treated as ISO8859_1 which may not be appropriate for many languages. Unfortunately it is not clear what other values may be appropriate (see example below). To change encoding the user can set up SHAPE_ENCODING environmental variable or simply to define encoding value using encoding parameter. Note that recoding support is new for GDAL/OGR 1.9.0. Value for encoding also affects text recoding when importing DXF files. For other formats has encoding value no effect. Defining the key column Option key specifies the column name used for feature categories. This column must be integer. If not specified, categories numbers are generated starting with 1 and stored in the column named "cat". Supports of multiple geometry columns Starting with GDAL 1.11 the library supports multiple geometry columns in OGR. By default v.in.ogr reads all geometry columns from given layer. The user can choose desired geometry column by geometry option, see example below. Latitude-longitude data: Vector postprocessing after import For vector data like a grid, horizontal lines need to be broken at their intersections with vertical lines (v.clean ... tool=break).
The command imports various vector formats: SHAPE files v.in.ogr input=/home/user/shape_data/test_shape.shp output=grass_map Alternate method: v.in.ogr input=/home/user/shape_data layer=test_shape output=grass_map Define encoding value for attribute data (in this example we expect attribute data in Windows-1250 encoding; ie. in Central/Eastern European languages that use Latin script, Microsoft Windows encoding). v.in.ogr input=/home/user/shape_data/test_shape.shp output=grass_map encoding=cp1250 MapInfo files v.in.ogr input=./ layer=mapinfo_test output=grass_map Arc Coverage We import the Arcs and Label points, the module takes care to build areas. v.in.ogr input=gemeinden layer=LAB,ARC type=centroid,boundary output=mymap E00 file See also v.in.e00. First we have to convert the E00 file to an Arc Coverage with ’avcimport’ (AVCE00 tools, use e00conv first in case that avcimport fails): avcimport e00file coverage v.in.ogr input=coverage layer=LAB,ARC type=centroid,boundary output=mymap SDTS files You have to select the CATD file. v.in.ogr input=CITXCATD.DDF output=cities TIGER files v.in.ogr input=input/2000/56015/ layer=CompleteChain,PIP output=t56015_all \ type=boundary,centroid snap=-1 PostGIS tables Import polygons as areas: v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=postgis user=postgres" layer=polymap \ output=polygons type=boundary,centroid If the table containing the polygons are in a specific schema, you can use: v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=postgis user=postgres" \ layer=myschema.polymap \ output=polygons type=boundary,centroid Generally, v.in.ogr just follows the format-specific syntax defined by the OGR library. OpenStreetMap (OSM) OSM data are available in .osm (XML based) and .pbf (optimized binary) formats. The .pbf format is recommended because file sizes are smaller. The OSM driver will categorize features into 5 layers : · points: "node" features that have significant tags attached. · lines: "way" features that are recognized as non-area. · multilinestrings: "relation" features that form a multilinestring(type = ’multilinestring’ or type = ’route’). · multipolygons: "relation" features that form a multipolygon (type = ’multipolygon’ or type = ’boundary’), and "way" features that are recognized as area. · other_relations: "relation" features that do not belong to any of the above layers. It is recommended to import one layer at a time, and to select features with the where option, e.g. to import roads, use v.in.ogr where="highway <> ’’" i.e. the OSM tag highway must be set. When importing administrative boundaries from OSM, it is important to not only select administrative boundaries, but also the admin level to be imported (valid range is 1 - 11), e.g. with v.in.ogr where="boundary = ’administrative’ and admin_level = ’1’" The OSM topological model differs from the GRASS topological model. OSM topologically correct connections of lines can be on all vertices of a line. During import, lines are automatically split at those vertices where an OSM connection to another line exists. Import of OSM data requires a configuration file, defined with the OSM_CONFIG_FILE configuration option. In the data folder of the GDAL distribution, you can find a osmconf.ini file that can be customized to fit your needs. See OSM map features for keys and their values. You should set "other_tags=no" to avoid problems with import or querying the imported vector. Once a OSM_CONFIG_FILE has been created, OSM data can be imported with e.g. export OSM_CONFIG_FILE=/path/to/osmconf.ini v.in.ogr input=name.pbf layer=lines output=osm_data Oracle Spatial Note that you have to set the environment-variables ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_SID, ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN accordingly. v.in.ogr input=OCI:username/password@database_instance output=grasslayer layer=roads_oci Multiple geometry columns This example shows how to work with data which contain multiple geometry per feature. The number of geometry columns per feature can be checked by v.external together with -t flag. v.external -t input=20141130_ST_UKSH.xml.gz ... Okresy,point,1,DefinicniBod Okresy,multipolygon,1,OriginalniHranice Okresy,multipolygon,1,GeneralizovaneHranice ... In our example layer "Okresy" has three geometry columns: "DefinicniBod", "OriginalniHranice" and "GeneralizovanaHranice". By default v.in.ogr reads data from all three geometry columns. The user can specify desired geometry column by geometry option, in this case the module will read geometry only from the specified geometry column. In the example below, the output vector map will contain only geometry saved in "OriginalniHranice" geometry column. v.in.ogr input=20141130_ST_UKSH.xml.gz layer=Okresy geometry=OriginalniHranice
If a message like WARNING: Area size 1.3e-06, area not imported appears, the min_area may be adjusted to a smaller value so that all areas are imported. Otherwise tiny areas are filtered out during import (useful to polish digitization errors or non-topological data). If a message like Try to import again, snapping with at least 1e-008: ’snap=1e-008’ appears, then the map to be imported contains topological errors. The message suggests a value for the snap parameter to be tried. For more details, see above in Topology Cleaning.
SQL syntax errors Depending on the currently selected SQL driver, error messages such as follows may arise: DBMI-SQLite driver error: Error in sqlite3_prepare(): near "ORDER": syntax error Or: DBMI-DBF driver error: SQL parser error: syntax error, unexpected DESC, expecting NAME processing ’DESC This indicates that a column name in the input dataset corresponds to a reserved SQL word (here: ’ORDER’ and ’DESC’ respectively). A different column name has to be used in this case. The columns parameter can be used to assign different column names on the fly in order to avoid using reserved SQL words. For a list of SQL reserved words for SQLite (the default driver), see here. Projection errors Projection of dataset does not appear to match the current location. Here you need to create or use a location whose projection matches that of the vector data you wish to import. Try using location parameter to create a new location based upon the projection information in the file. If desired, you can then re-project it to another location with v.proj.
· OGR vector library · OGR vector library C API documentation
db.connect, v.clean, v.extract, v.build.polylines, v.edit, v.external, v.import, v.in.db, v.in.e00, v.out.ogr GRASS GIS Wiki page: Import of Global datasets
Original author: Radim Blazek, ITC-irst, Trento, Italy Location and spatial extent support by Markus Neteler and Paul Kelly Various improvements by Markus Metz Multiple geometry columns support by Martin Landa, OSGeoREL, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic Last changed: $Date: 2018-10-14 13:08:03 +0200 (Sun, 14 Oct 2018) $
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