Provided by: validns_0.8+git20170804-0ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       validns - DNS and DSNSEC zone file validator


       This document describes validns version 0.8


       validns -h validns [options] zone-file

       For validating stdin, specify "-" in place of zone-file.


       Coming soon.


       -h     Produce usage text and quit.

       -f     Quit  on  first  validation  error.   Normally, validns continues working on a zone
              after encountering a parsing or validation error.

       -p name
              Activate policy check name.  By default, only basic checks and  DNSSEC  checks  are
              performed.  This option can be specified multiple times.  See POLICY CHECKS, below,
              for details.  The following names are understood:

              · single-ns

              · cname-other-data

              · dname

              · dnskey

              · nsec3param-not-apex

              · mx-alias

              · ns-alias

              · rp-txt-exists

              · tlsa-host

              · ksk-exists

              · smimea-host

              · all

       -n N   Use N worker threads for parallelizable operations.  The default is 0,  meaning  no
              parallelization.  Currently only signature verification is parallelizable.

       -q     quiet - do not produce any output

       -s     Print  validation  summary/stats.   If specified twice, also print record counts by

       -v     be extra verbose

       -M     use SOA MINTTL as the default TTL when no TTL specified

       -I path
              use this path for $INCLUDE files

       -z origin
              use this origin as initial $ORIGIN

       -t epoch-time
              Use specified time instead of the current  time  when  verifying  validity  of  the
              signatures.   This  option  may  be  specified  multiple times, in which case every
              signature is checked against all specified times.


       Every record and every supported directive should be parsable, which consitutes  the  most
       basic  check of all.  The validns program will report the exact reason why it cannot parse
       a record or a directive.

       Other basic checks include:

       · there could only be one SOA in a zone;

       · the first record in the zone must be an SOA record;

       · a record outside the apex;

       · TTL values differ within an RR set (excepting RRSIG);


       · type exists, but NSEC does not mention it for name;

       · NSEC mentions type, but no such record found for name;

       · NSEC says x is the last name, but z exists;

       · NSEC says z comes after x, but nothing does;

       · NSEC says z comes after x, but y does;

       · signature is too new;

       · signature is too old;

       · RRSIG exists for non-existing type type;

       · RRSIG's original TTL differs from corresponding record's;

       · RRSIG(type): cannot find a signer key;

       · RRSIG(type): cannot verify the signature;

       · RRSIG(type): cannot find the right signer key;

       · NSEC3 record name is not valid;

       · multiple NSEC3 with the same record name;

       · no corresponding NSEC3 found for name;

       · type exists, but NSEC3 does not mention it for name;

       · NSEC3 mentions type, but no such record found for name;

       · there are more record types than NSEC3 mentions for name;

       · broken NSEC3 chain, expected name, but nothing found;

       · broken NSEC3 chain, expected name1, but found name2;

       · NSEC3 without a corresponding record (or empty non-terminal).


       · there should be at least two NS records per name (or zero);

       · CNAME and other data (excluding possible RRSIG and NSEC);

       · DNAME checks: no multiple DNAMEs, no descendants of a node with  a  DNAME;  please  note
         that DNAME/CNAME clash is handled by CNAME and other data check already;

       · DNSKEY  checks:  public  key  too  short,  leading zero octets in public key exponent or

       · NSEC3PARAM, if present, should only be at the zone apex.

       · MX exchange should not be an alias

       · NS nsdname should not be an alias

       · TXT domain name mentioned in RP record must have a corresponding TXT  record  if  it  is
         within the zone

       · domain name of a TLSA record must be a proper prefixed DNS name

       · a KSK key must exist in a signed zone

       · domain name must have the form which is proper for an SMIMEA record


       · textual segments in TXT and HINFO must be enclosed in double quotes;

       · a dot within a label is not currently supported;

       If  at  least  one  NSEC3  record uses opt-out flag, validns assumes it is used as much as
       possible, that is, every unsigned delegation does not have a corresponding  NSEC3  record.
       This is done for reasons of efficiency, to avoid calculating cryptographic hashes of every
       unsigned delegation.  If this assumption  is  wrong  for  a  zone,  validns  will  produce
       spurious validation errors.


       Thanks  go  to  Andy  Holdaway,  Daniel  Stirnimann,  Dennis Kjaer Jensen, Goran Bengtson,
       Hirohisa Yamaguchi, Hugo Salgado, Jake Zack, Jakob Schlyter, Koh-ichi Ito, Mathieu Arnold,
       Miek  Gieben,  Patrik  Wallstrom,  Paul  Wouters, Ryan Eby, Tony Finch, Willem Toorop, and
       YAMAGUCHI Takanori for bug reports, testing, discussions, and occasional patches.

       Special thanks to Stephane Bortzmeyer and Phil Regnauld.

       Thanks for AFNIC which funded major portion of the development.   Thanks  for  SWITCH  for
       additional funding.


       Anton Berezin.

                                            April 2011                                 VALIDNS(1)