Provided by: varnish_6.1.1-1_amd64 bug


       varnishncsa - Display Varnish logs in Apache / NCSA combined log format


       varnishncsa   [-a]   [-b]  [-c]  [-C]  [-d]  [-D]  [-F  <format>]  [-f  <formatfile>]  [-g
       <request|vxid>] [-h] [-L <limit>] [-n <dir>] [-P <file>] [-q <query>] [-r <filename>]  [-t
       <seconds|off>] [-V] [-w <filename>]


       The  varnishncsa  utility  reads  varnishd(1)  shared memory logs and presents them in the
       Apache / NCSA "combined" log format.

       Each log line produced is based on a single Request type  transaction  gathered  from  the
       shared memory log. The Request transaction is then scanned for the relevant parts in order
       to output one log line. To filter the log lines produced, use the query language to select
       the applicable transactions. Non-request transactions are ignored.

       The following options are available:

       -a     When writing output to a file, append to it rather than overwrite it.

       -b     Log  backend  requests.  If  -c  is  not specified, then only backend requests will
              trigger log lines.

       -c     Log client requests. This is the default. If -b is specified, then -c is needed  to
              also log client requests

       -C     Do all regular expression and string matching caseless.

       -d     Process log records at the head of the log and exit.

       -D     Daemonize.

       -F <format>
              Set the output log format string.

       -f <formatfile>
              Read  output  format  from a file. Will read a single line from the specified file,
              and use that line as the format.

       -g <request|vxid>
              The grouping of the log records. The default is to group by vxid.

       -h     Print program usage and exit

       -L <limit>
              Sets the upper limit of incomplete transactions kept before the oldest  transaction
              is force completed. A warning record is synthesized when this happens. This setting
              keeps an upper bound on the memory usage  of  running  queries.  Defaults  to  1000

       -n <dir>
              Specify  the  varnishd  working directory (also known as instance name) to get logs
              from. If -n is not specified, the host name is used.

       -P <file>
              Write the process' PID to the specified file.

       -q <query>
              Specifies the VSL query to use.

       -r <filename>
              Read log in binary file format from  this  file.  The  file  can  be  created  with
              varnishlog -w filename.

       -t <seconds|off>
              Timeout before returning error on initial VSM connection. If set the VSM connection
              is retried every 0.5 seconds for this many  seconds.  If  zero  the  connection  is
              attempted only once and will fail immediately if unsuccessful. If set to "off", the
              connection will not fail, allowing the utility to start and wait  indefinetely  for
              the Varnish instance to appear.  Defaults to 5 seconds.

       -V     Print version information and exit.

       -w <filename>
              Redirect  output  to  file.  The  file will be overwritten unless the -a option was
              specified. If the application receives a SIGHUP in daemon mode  the  file  will  be
              reopened  allowing  the  old  one  to be rotated away. This option is required when
              running in daemon mode.

              Print the optstring parameter to getopt(3) to help writing wrapper scripts.


       The default mode of varnishncsa is "client mode".  In this mode, the log will  be  similar
       to  what  a  web  server  would  produce  in  the  absence of varnish.  Client mode can be
       explicitly selected by using -c.

       If the -b switch is specified, varnishncsa will operate in "backend mode".  In this  mode,
       requests  generated  by  varnish  to  the  backends  will  be  logged.   Unless -c is also
       specified, client requests received by varnish will be ignored.

       When running varnishncsa in both backend and  client  mode,  it  is  strongly  advised  to
       include  the  format  specifier %{Varnish:side}x to distinguish between backend and client

       Client requests that results in a pipe  (ie.  return(pipe)  in  vcl),  will  not  generate
       logging  in  backend mode. This is because varnish is not generating requests, but blindly
       passes on bytes in both directions.  However, a varnishncsa  instance  running  in  normal
       mode can see this case by using the formatter %{Varnish:handling}x, which will be 'pipe'.

       In  backend  mode,  some  of the fields in the format string get different meanings.  Most
       notably, the byte counting formatters (%b, %I, %O) considers varnish to be the client.

       It is possible to keep two varnishncsa instances running, one in backend mode, and one  in
       client mode, logging to different files.


       Specify the log format to use. If no format is specified the default log format is used:

          %h %l %u %t "%r" %s %b "%{Referer}i" "%{User-agent}i"

       Escape sequences \n and \t are supported.

       Supported formatters are:

       %b     In  client  mode,  size  of  response in bytes, excluding HTTP headers.  In backend
              mode, the number of bytes received from the backend, excluding  HTTP  headers.   In
              CLF format, i.e. a '-' rather than a 0 when no bytes are sent.

       %D     In client mode, time taken to serve the request, in microseconds.  In backend mode,
              time from the request was sent to the entire body had been received.

       %H     The request protocol. Defaults to HTTP/1.0 if not known.

       %h     Remote host. Defaults to '-' if not known.  In backend mode this is the IP  of  the
              backend server.

       %I     In  client  mode,  total  bytes received from client.  In backend mode, total bytes
              sent to the backend.

       %{X}i  The contents of request header X. If the header appears multiple times in a  single
              transaction, the last occurrence is used.

       %l     Remote logname. Always '-'.

       %m     Request method. Defaults to '-' if not known.

       %{X}o  The contents of response header X. If the header appears multiple times in a single
              transaction, the last occurrence is used.

       %O     In client mode, total bytes sent to client.  In backend mode, total bytes  received
              from the backend.

       %q     The query string. Defaults to an empty string if not present.

       %r     The  first line of the request. Synthesized from other fields, so it may not be the
              request verbatim. See the NOTES section.

       %s     Status sent to the client.  In backend mode, status received from the backend.

       %t     In client mode, time when the request was received, in HTTP date/time  format.   In
              backend mode, time when the request was sent.

       %{X}t  In  client  mode, time when the request was received, in the format specified by X.
              In backend mode, time when the request was sent.  The time specification format  is
              the same as for strftime(3).

       %T     In client mode, time taken to serve the request, in seconds.  In backend mode, time
              from the request was sent to the entire body had been received.

       %U     The request URL without the query string. Defaults to '-' if not known.

       %u     Remote user from auth.

       %{X}x  Extended variables.  Supported variables are:

                     Time from when the request processing starts until the first byte is sent to
                     the client, in seconds.  For backend mode: Time from the request was sent to
                     the backend to the entire header had been received.

                     One of the 'hit' or 'miss' strings, depending on whether the request  was  a
                     cache hit or miss. Pipe, pass and synth are considered misses.

                     One  of  the 'hit', 'miss', 'pass', 'pipe' or 'synth' strings indicating how
                     the request was handled.

                     Backend or client side. One of two values, 'b' or 'c',  depending  on  where
                     the  request  was  made.  In pure backend or client mode, this field will be

                     The VXID of the varnish transaction.

                     The value set by std.log("key:value") in VCL.

                     The  value  of  the  VSL  entry  for  the  given   tag-record   prefix-field
                     combination. Tag is mandatory, the other components are optional.

                     The  record  prefix  will  limit the matches to those records that have this
                     prefix as the first part of the record content followed by a colon.

                     The field will, if present, treat the log record as a white space  separated
                     list of fields, and only the nth part of the record will be matched against.
                     Fields start counting at 1 and run up to 255.

                     Defaults to '-' when the tag is not seen, the record prefix does  not  match
                     or  the  field is out of bounds. If a tag appears multiple times in a single
                     transaction, the first occurrence is used.


       SIGHUP Rotate the log file (see -w option).

              Flush any outstanding transactions.


       The %r formatter is equivalent to "%m http://%{Host}i%U%q %H". This differs from  apache's
       %r behavior, equivalent to "%m %U%q %H".  Furthermore, when using the %r formatter, if the
       Host header appears multiple times in a single transaction, the first occurrence is used.


       Log the second field of the  Begin  record,  corresponding  to  the  VXID  of  the  parent

          varnishncsa -F "%{VSL:Begin[2]}x"

       Log the entire Timestamp record associated with the processing length:

          varnishncsa -F "%{VSL:Timestamp:Process}x"


       varnishd(1) varnishlog(1) varnishstat(1) vsl(7)


       The  varnishncsa  utility  was  developed by Poul-Henning Kamp in cooperation with Verdens
       Gang AS and Varnish Software AS. This manual page  was  initially  written  by  Dag-Erling
       Smørgrav  <>,  and  later  updated  by  Martin  Blix  Grydeland  and Pål Hermunn


       This document is licensed under the same  licence  as  Varnish  itself.  See  LICENCE  for

       · Copyright (c) 2006 Verdens Gang AS

       · Copyright (c) 2006-2016 Varnish Software AS