Provided by: atfs_1.4pl6-14_amd64 bug


       vgrep, vegrep, vfgrep - print lines matching a pattern


       vgrep [ vbind-options ] [ -[[AB] ]num ] [ -[CEFGVBchilnsvwx] ] [ -e ] pattern | -ffile ] [
       names...  ]


       Vgrep is GNU grep with a patch to access AtFS version objects.  Vgrep searches  the  files
       and AtFS version objects listed in the arguments (or standard input if no names are given,
       or the name - is given) for lines containing a match to the given  pattern.   By  default,
       vgrep prints the matching lines.

       There are three major variants of vgrep, controlled by the following options.
       -G     Interpret pattern as a basic regular expression (see below).  This is the default.
       -E     Interpret pattern as an extended regular expression (see below).
       -F     Interpret  pattern  as a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines, any of which
              is to be matched.
       In addition, two variant programs vegrep and vfgrep are available.  Vegrep is similar (but
       not  identical)  to vgrep -E, and is compatible with the historical Unix egrep.  Vfgrep is
       the same as vgrep -F.

       Vgrep understands the standard version binding options of the Shape toolkit.  The names on
       the  command  line  are  replaced  by  the appropriate version IDs of the selected version

       The vbind-options are shapeTools' standard options for version binding.  A description  of
       these options can be found in the manual page of vbind(1).

       All variants of vgrep understand the following options:
       -num   Matches  will  be printed with num lines of leading and trailing context.  However,
              vgrep will never print any given line more than once.
       -A num Print num lines of trailing context after matching lines.
       -B num Print num lines of leading context before matching lines.
       -C     Equivalent to -2.
       -V     Print the version number of vgrep to standard error.  This version number should be
              included in all bug reports (see below).
       -b     Print the byte offset within the input file before each line of output.
       -c     Suppress  normal  output;  instead  print  a count of matching lines for each input
              file.  With the -v option (see below), count non-matching lines.
       -e pattern
              Use pattern as the pattern; useful to protect patterns beginning with -.
       -f file
              Obtain the pattern from file.
       -h     Suppress the prefixing of filenames on output when multiple files are searched.
       -i     Ignore case distinctions in both the pattern and the input files.
       -L     Suppress normal output; instead print the name of each input  file  from  which  no
              output would normally have been printed.
       -l     Suppress normal output; instead print the name of each input file from which output
              would normally have been printed.
       -n     Prefix each line of output with the line number within its input file.
       -q     Quiet; suppress normal output.
       -s     Suppress error messages about nonexistent or unreadable files.
       -v     Invert the sense of matching, to select non-matching lines.
       -w     Select only those lines containing matches that form whole words.  The test is that
              the  matching substring must either be at the beginning of the line, or preceded by
              a non-word constituent character.  Similarly, it must be either at the end  of  the
              line  or followed by a non-word constituent character.  Word-constituent characters
              are letters, digits, and the underscore.
       -x     Select only those matches that exactly match the whole line.


       A regular expression is a pattern that describes a set of  strings.   Regular  expressions
       are  constructed  analagously  to  arithmetic  expressions,  by using various operators to
       combine smaller expressions.

       Vgrep understands two different versions  of  regular  expression  syntax:  ``basic''  and
       ``extended.''  In GNU grep, there is no difference in available functionality using either
       syntax.  In other implementations, basic  regular  expressions  are  less  powerful.   The
       following  description  applies  to  extended  regular  expressions; differences for basic
       regular expressions are summarized afterwards.

       The fundamental building blocks are the regular expressions that match a single character.
       Most  characters,  including  all  letters  and digits, are regular expressions that match
       themselves.  Any metacharacter with special meaning may be quoted by preceding it  with  a

       A list of characters enclosed by [ and ] matches any single character in that list; if the
       first character of the list is the caret ^ then it matches any character not in the  list.
       For  example,  the  regular  expression [0123456789] matches any single digit.  A range of
       ASCII characters may be specified by giving the first and last characters, separated by  a
       hyphen.   Finally,  certain  named  classes of characters are predefined.  Their names are
       self explanatory, and they are  [:alnum:],  [:alpha:],  [:cntrl:],  [:digit:],  [:graph:],
       [:lower:],  [:print:],  [:punct:],  [:space:],  [:upper:],  and  [:xdigit:].  For example,
       [[:alnum:]] means [0-9A-Za-z],  except  the  latter  form  is  dependent  upon  the  ASCII
       character  encoding,  whereas  the  former  is portable.  (Note that the brackets in these
       class names are part of the symbolic names, and  must  be  included  in  addition  to  the
       brackets  delimiting  the  bracket  list.)  Most metacharacters lose their special meaning
       inside lists.  To include a literal ] place it first in the list.  Similarly, to include a
       literal ^ place it anywhere but first.  Finally, to include a literal - place it last.

       The  period  .   matches any single character.  The symbol \w is a synonym for [[:alnum:]]
       and \W is a synonym for [^[:alnum]].

       The caret ^ and the dollar sign $ are metacharacters that  respectively  match  the  empty
       string  at  the beginning and end of a line.  The symbols \< and \> respectively match the
       empty string at the beginning and end of a word.  The symbol \b matches the  empty  string
       at  the edge of a word, and \B matches the empty string provided it's not at the edge of a

       A regular expression matching a single  character  may  be  followed  by  one  of  several
       repetition operators:
       ?      The preceding item is optional and matched at most once.
       *      The preceding item will be matched zero or more times.
       +      The preceding item will be matched one or more times.
       {n}    The preceding item is matched exactly n times.
       {n,}   The preceding item is matched n or more times.
       {,m}   The preceding item is optional and is matched at most m times.
       {n,m}  The preceding item is matched at least n times, but not more than m times.

       Two  regular expressions may be concatenated; the resulting regular expression matches any
       string formed by concatenating two substrings that  respectively  match  the  concatenated

       Two  regular  expressions  may  be  joined  by the infix operator |; the resulting regular
       expression matches any string matching either subexpression.

       Repetition takes precedence over  concatenation,  which  in  turn  takes  precedence  over
       alternation.   A  whole  subexpression  may  be  enclosed in parentheses to override these
       precedence rules.

       The backreference \n, where n is a single digit, matches the substring previously  matched
       by the nth parenthesized subexpression of the regular expression.

       In  basic  regular  expressions the metacharacters ?, +, {, |, (, and ) lose their special
       meaning; instead use the backslashed versions \?, \+, \{, \|, \(, and \).

       In vegrep the metacharacter { loses its special meaning; instead use \{.


       Normally, exit status is 0 if matches were found, and 1 if no matches were found.  (The -v
       option  inverts  the  sense  of  the  exit status.)  Exit status is 2 if there were syntax
       errors in the pattern, inaccessible input files, or other system errors.


       Grep for ``foo'' in version 1.43 of smile.c:

              vgrep foo smile.c[1.43]

       Grep for ``foo'' in the last version of smile.c (last  saved  version  or  busy  file,  if

              vgrep -last foo smile.c

       Grep for ``foo'' in all versions of C files that have been created since February 14 1993:

              vgrep -since 14.2.93 foo \∗.c

       Grep for ``foo'' in all versions carrying the symbolic name ``Release-2.3'':

              vgrep foo \∗[Release-2.3]


       emacs(1), ed(1), sh(1), vbind(1), atread(3), GNU Emacs Manual


       Email  bug reports to  Be sure to include the word ``grep''
       somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.

       Large repetition counts in the {m,n} construct may cause vgrep to use lots of memory.   In
       addition,  certain  other  obscure regular expressions require exponential time and space,
       and may cause vgrep to run out of memory.

       Backreferences are very slow, and may require exponential time.