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NAME

       wimapply - Apply a WIM image

SYNOPSIS

       wimapply WIMFILE [IMAGE] TARGET [OPTION...]

DESCRIPTION

       wimapply,  or  equivalently  wimlib-imagex  apply,  extracts  ("applies") an image, or all
       images, from the Windows Imaging (WIM) archive WIMFILE.

       IMAGE specifies the image in WIMFILE to extract.  It may be the 1-based index of an image,
       the  name  of  an image, or the keyword "all" to specify all images.  It may be omitted if
       WIMFILE contains only one image.  You can use wiminfo(1) to list the images  contained  in
       WIMFILE.

       TARGET  specifies  where  to  extract the image(s) to.  If TARGET is a directory, then the
       image(s) will be extracted to  that  directory  as  per  DIRECTORY  EXTRACTION  (UNIX)  or
       DIRECTORY  EXTRACTION  (WINDOWS).   If  TARGET  does  not  exist, then a directory will be
       created there first.  Alternatively, if TARGET specifies a UNIX  block  device,  then  the
       image will be extracted to it as described in NTFS VOLUME EXTRACTION (UNIX).

       Note  that  wimapply  is designed to extract, or "apply", full WIM images.  If you instead
       want to extract only certain files or directories from  a  WIM  image,  use  wimextract(1)
       instead.

       If  IMAGE  is  "all",  then all images in WIMFILE will be extracted into subdirectories of
       TARGET named after the images, falling back to the image index when an image has  no  name
       or an unusual name.  This is not yet supported in NTFS VOLUME EXTRACTION (UNIX) mode.

       If  WIMFILE  is  "-", then the WIM is read from standard input rather than from disk.  See
       PIPABLE WIMS for more information.

DIRECTORY EXTRACTION (UNIX)

       On UNIX-like systems, a WIM image may be extracted to a  directory.   This  mode  has  the
       limitation  that  NTFS  or Windows-specific metadata will not be extracted.  Although some
       concepts such as hard links, symbolic links, last access timestamps, and last modification
       timestamps will be translated to their UNIX equivalents, other metadata will be lost (with
       warnings given).  Notably, the following types of metadata will not be extracted  in  this
       mode:

       ·   Windows file attribute flags

       ·   Windows security descriptors (e.g. file owners and DACLs)

       ·   File creation timestamps

       ·   Reparse points other than symbolic links and junction points

       ·   Named data streams

       ·   Short filenames (also known as 8.3 names or DOS names).

       ·   Object IDs

       These  same  limitations  apply  to  wimextract.   As  such,  this  mode is most useful in
       situations where NTFS or Windows-specific metadata is unimportant, e.g.  when  wanting  to
       extract  specific  files, or when doing file archiving only on UNIX-like systems, possibly
       in combination with --unix-data.  When Windows-specific metadata is important, then either
       the  NTFS  VOLUME  EXTRACTION (UNIX) mode should be used, or the Windows version of wimlib
       should be used (see DIRECTORY EXTRACTION (WINDOWS)).

NTFS VOLUME EXTRACTION (UNIX)

       On UNIX-like systems, TARGET may also be specified as a  block  device  (e.g.   /dev/sda3)
       containing  an unmounted NTFS volume.  In this mode, wimapply uses libntfs-3g to apply the
       specified WIM image to the root directory of the NTFS volume.  The target volume should be
       empty,  e.g. newly created by mkntfs(8).  In this mode, NTFS-specific and Windows-specific
       data and metadata will be extracted, including the following:

       ·   All data streams of all files except  encrypted  files,  including  the  unnamed  data
           stream as well as all named data streams.

       ·   Reparse points, including symbolic links, junction points, and other reparse points.

       ·   File  and  directory  creation,  access, and modification timestamps, using the native
           NTFS resolution of 100 nanoseconds.

       ·   Windows security descriptors, including all components (owner, group, DACL, and SACL).

       ·   Windows file attribute flags

       ·   All names of all files,  including  names  in  the  Win32  namespace,  DOS  namespace,
           Win32+DOS namespace, and POSIX namespace.  This includes hard links.

       ·   Object IDs.

       However, encrypted files will not be extracted.

       Restoring extended attributes (EAs) is also not yet supported in this mode.

       Regardless,  since  almost all information from the WIM image is restored in this mode, it
       is possible (and fully supported) to restore an image of an  actual  Windows  installation
       using  wimapply  on  a  UNIX-like  system  as  an alternative to using wimapply or DISM on
       Windows.  In the EXAMPLES section below, there is an example of applying an image from  an
       "install.wim" file as may be found in the Windows installation media.

       Note  that  to actually boot Windows (Vista or later) from an applied "install.wim" image,
       you also need to mark the partition as "bootable" and set up various boot files,  such  as
       \BOOTMGR  and  \BOOT\BCD.   The  latter  task  is  most  easily  accomplished  by  running
       bcdboot.exe from a live Windows system such as Windows PE, but there are other options  as
       well.

       Finally,  note  that  this  mode  uses  libntfs-3g  directly,  without  going  through the
       ntfs-3g(8) driver.  Hence, there is no special support for  applying  a  WIM  image  to  a
       directory  on  which  an  NTFS  filesystem  has been mounted using ntfs-3g(8); you have to
       unmount it first.  There is also no support for applying a WIM image to some  subdirectory
       of the NTFS volume; you can only apply to the root directory.

DIRECTORY EXTRACTION (WINDOWS)

       On Windows, wimapply (and wimextract) natively support NTFS and Windows-specific metadata.
       For best results, the target directory should be located on an NTFS volume and the program
       should  be  run  with  Administrator privileges; however, non-NTFS filesystems and running
       without Administrator privileges are also supported, subject to limitations.

       On Windows, wimapply tries to extract as much data and metadata as possible, including:

       ·   All data streams of all files.  This includes the default file contents,  as  well  as
           named data streams if supported by the target volume.

       ·   Reparse  points,  including symbolic links, junction points, and other reparse points,
           if  supported  by  the  target  volume.   Restoring  symlinks  requires  Administrator
           privileges.  Also see --rpfix and --norpfix for details on how absolute symbolic links
           and junctions are extracted.

       ·   File and directory creation, access,  and  modification  timestamps,  to  the  highest
           resolution supported by the target volume.

       ·   Security  descriptors,  if supported by the filesystem and --no-acls is not specified.
           Note that this, in  general,  requires  Administrator  privileges,  and  may  be  only
           partially  successful  if  the  program  is  run without Administrator privileges (see
           --strict-acls).

       ·   File attribute flags, including  hidden,  compressed,  encrypted,  sparse,  etc,  when
           supported by the filesystem.

       ·   Short filenames (also known as 8.3 names or DOS names).

       ·   Hard links, if supported by the target filesystem.

       ·   Object IDs, if supported by the target filesystem.

       ·   Extended attributes (EAs), if supported by the target filesystem.

       Additional notes about extracting files on Windows:

       ·   wimapply  will  issue warnings if unable to extract the exact metadata and data of the
           WIM image due to limitations of the target filesystem.

       ·   Since encrypted files (with FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) are not stored in  plaintext  in
           the  WIM  image, wimapply cannot restore encrypted files to filesystems not supporting
           encryption.  Therefore, on such filesystems, encrypted files will  not  be  extracted.
           Furthermore,  even  if  encrypted  files  are  restored  to a filesystem that supports
           encryption, they will only be decryptable if the decryption key is available.

       ·   Files with names that cannot be represented  on  Windows  will  not  be  extracted  by
           default; see --include-invalid-names.

       ·   Files  with full paths over 260 characters (the so-called MAX_PATH) will be extracted,
           but beware that such files will be inaccessible to most Windows software and  may  not
           be able to be deleted easily.

       ·   On  Windows,  unless the --no-acls option is specified, wimlib will attempt to restore
           files' security descriptors exactly as they are provided in  the  WIM  image.   Beware
           that  typical  Windows  installations  contain files whose security descriptors do not
           allow the Administrator to delete them.  Therefore, such files will not be able to  be
           deleted,  or  in  some  cases  even  read,  after  extracting, unless processed with a
           specialized program that knows to acquire the  SE_RESTORE_NAME  and/or  SE_BACKUP_NAME
           privileges  which allow overriding access control lists.  This is not a bug in wimlib,
           which works as designed to correctly restore the data that was archived, but rather  a
           problem  with  the  access rights Windows uses on certain files.  But if you just want
           the file data and don't  care  about  security  descriptors,  use  --no-acls  to  skip
           restoring all security descriptors.

       ·   A similar caveat to the above applies to file attributes such as Readonly, Hidden, and
           System.  By design, on Windows wimlib will restore such  file  attributes;  therefore,
           extracted  files  may  have  those  attributes.  If this is not what you want, use the
           --no-attributes option.

SPLIT WIMS

       You may use wimapply to apply images from a split WIM, or wimextract to extract files from
       a split WIM.  The WIMFILE argument must specify the first part of the split WIM, while the
       additional parts of the split WIM must be specified in one or more  --ref="GLOB"  options.
       Since  globbing  is  built  into  the  --ref  option,  typically  only one --ref option is
       necessary.  For example, the names for the split WIM parts usually go something like:

              mywim.swm
              mywim2.swm
              mywim3.swm
              mywim4.swm
              mywim5.swm

       To apply the first image of this split WIM to the directory "dir", run:

              wimapply mywim.swm 1 dir --ref="mywim*.swm"

PIPABLE WIMS

       wimapply also supports applying a WIM from a nonseekable file, such as  a  pipe,  provided
       that  the  WIM  was  captured  in  the wimlib-specific pipable format using --pipable (see
       wimcapture(1)).  To use standard input as the WIM, specify "-" as WIMFILE.  A possible use
       of  this feature is to apply a WIM image being streamed from the network.  For example, to
       apply the first image from a WIM file available on a HTTP server  to  an  NTFS  volume  on
       /dev/sda1, run something like:

              wget -O - http://myserver/mywim.wim | wimapply - 1 /dev/sda1

       Pipable  WIMs  may  also  be split into multiple parts, just like normal WIMs.  To apply a
       split pipable WIM from a pipe, the parts must be concatenated and all written to the pipe.
       The first part must be sent first, but the remaining parts may be sent in any order.

OPTIONS

       --check
             Before applying the image, verify the integrity of WIMFILE if it has extra integrity
             information.

       --ref="GLOB"
             File glob of additional WIMs or split WIM parts to reference  resources  from.   See
             SPLIT_WIMS.   This  option can be specified multiple times.  Note: GLOB is listed in
             quotes because it is interpreted by wimapply and may need to be  quoted  to  protect
             against shell expansion.

       --rpfix, --norpfix
             Set  whether  to  fix  targets of absolute symbolic links (reparse points in Windows
             terminology) or not.  When enabled (--rpfix), extracted absolute symbolic links that
             are  marked  in  the  WIM  image as being fixed are assumed to have absolute targets
             relative to the image root, and therefore wimapply prepends the absolute path to the
             extraction  target  directory to their targets.  The intention is that you can apply
             an image containing absolute symbolic links and still have them be  valid  after  it
             has been applied to any location.

             The  default  behavior  is  --rpfix if any images in WIMFILE have been captured with
             reparse-point fixups done.  Otherwise, it is --norpfix.

             Reparse point fixups are never done in the NTFS volume extraction mode on  UNIX-like
             systems.

       --unix-data
             (UNIX-like systems only)  Restore UNIX-specific metadata and special files that were
             captured by wimcapture with the --unix-data option.  This  includes:  standard  UNIX
             file  permissions  (owner, group, and mode); device nodes, named pipes, and sockets;
             and extended attributes (Linux-only).

       --no-acls
             Do not restore security descriptors on extracted files and directories.

       --strict-acls
             Fail immediately if the full security descriptor of any file or directory cannot  be
             set  exactly  as  specified  in the WIM file.  If this option is not specified, when
             wimapply on Windows does not have permission to set  a  security  descriptor  on  an
             extracted file, it falls back to setting it only partially (e.g. with SACL omitted),
             and in the worst case omits it entirely.  However, this should  only  be  a  problem
             when  running  wimapply  without  Administrator rights.  Also, on UNIX-like systems,
             this flag can also be combined with --unix-data to cause wimapply to issue an  error
             if UNIX permissions are unable to be applied to an extracted file.

       --no-attributes
             Do not restore Windows file attributes such as readonly, hidden, etc.

       --include-invalid-names
             Extract  files  and  directories  with  invalid  names  by  replacing characters and
             appending a suffix rather  than  ignoring  them.   Exactly  what  is  considered  an
             "invalid" name is platform-dependent.

             On  POSIX-compliant  systems,  filenames are case-sensitive and may contain any byte
             except '\0' and ´/', so on a POSIX-compliant system this option will  only  have  an
             effect  in  the  unlikely  case  that  the  WIM image for some reason has a filename
             containing one of these characters.

             On Windows, filenames are case-insensitive(*), cannot  include  control  characters,
             and  cannot  include the characters '/', ´\0', '\', ':', '*', '?', ´"', '<', '>', or
             '|'.  Ordinarily, files in WIM images should meet these conditions as well. However,
             it  is  not  guaranteed, and in particular a WIM image captured with wimcapture on a
             POSIX-compliant system could contain such files.  By default, invalid names will  be
             ignored,  and if there are multiple names differing only in case, one will be chosen
             to extract arbitrarily; however, with --include-invalid-names,  all  names  will  be
             sanitized and extracted in some form.

             (*)  Unless the ObCaseInsensitive setting has been set to 0 in the Windows registry,
             in which case certain software, including the  Windows  version  of  wimapply,  will
             honor case-sensitive filenames on NTFS and other compatible filesystems.

       --wimboot
             Windows  only:  Instead  of extracting the files themselves, extract "pointer files"
             back to the WIM archive(s).  This can result in significant space savings.  However,
             it  comes  at  several  potential  costs,  such  as not being able to delete the WIM
             archive(s)  and  possibly  having  slower  access   to   files.    See   Microsoft's
             documentation for "WIMBoot" for more information.

             If     it     exists,     the     [PrepopulateList]     section    of    the    file
             \Windows\System32\WimBootCompress.ini in the WIM image will be read.  Files matching
             any  of  these  patterns will be extracted normally, not as WIMBoot "pointer files".
             This is helpful for certain files that Windows needs  to  read  early  in  the  boot
             process.

             This  option  only  works when the program is run as an Administrator and the target
             volume is NTFS or another filesystem that supports reparse points.

             In addition, this option works best when running on Windows 8.1 Update 1  or  later,
             since  that  is  the  first  version  of  Windows  that contains the Windows Overlay
             Filesystem filter driver ("WOF").  If the WOF driver is detected, wimlib will create
             the WIMBoot "pointer files" using documented ioctls provided by WOF.

             Otherwise,  if the WOF driver is not detected, wimlib will create the reparse points
             and edit the file "\System Volume Information\WimOverlay.dat" on the  target  volume
             manually.  This is potentially subject to problems, since although the code works in
             certain tested cases, neither of  these  data  formats  is  actually  documented  by
             Microsoft.   Before  overwriting this file, wimlib will save the previous version in
             "\System Volume Information\WimOverlay.wimlib_backup", which you  potentially  could
             restore if you needed to.

             You actually can still do a --wimboot extraction even if the WIM image is not marked
             as "WIMBoot-compatible".  This option causes  the  extracted  files  to  be  set  as
             "externally  backed"  by  the  WIM  file.   Microsoft's driver which implements this
             "external backing" functionality seemingly does not care whether the image(s) in the
             WIM  are  really  marked as WIMBoot-compatible.  Therefore, the "WIMBoot-compatible"
             tag (<WIMBOOT> in the XML data) seems to be a marker for intent only.  In  addition,
             the Microsoft driver can externally back files from WIM files that use XPRESS chunks
             of size 8192, 16384, and 32768, or LZX chunks of size  32768,  in  addition  to  the
             default  XPRESS chunks of size 4096 that are created when wimcapture is run with the
             --wimboot option.

       --compact=FORMAT
             Windows-only: compress the extracted files using System Compression, when  possible.
             This  only  works  on  either  Windows  10 or later, or on an older Windows to which
             Microsoft's wofadk.sys driver has been added.  Several different compression formats
             may  be  used  with  System  Compression,  and one must be specified as FORMAT.  The
             choices are: xpress4k, xpress8k, xpress16k, and lzx.

             Exclusions are handled in the same way as with the --wimboot option.  That is: if it
             exists,       the       [PrepopulateList]       section       of       the      file
             \Windows\System32\WimBootCompress.ini in the WIM  image  will  be  read,  and  files
             matching  any  of the patterns in this section will not be compressed.  In addition,
             wimlib has a hardcoded list of files for which it knows, for compatibility with  the
             Windows bootloader, to override the requested compression format.

NOTES

       Data  integrity:  WIM  files  include  checksums of file data.  To detect accidental (non-
       malicious) data corruption, wimlib calculates the checksum of every file it  extracts  and
       issues  an  error  if  it  does not have the expected value.  (This default behavior seems
       equivalent to the /verify option of ImageX.)  In addition,  a  WIM  file  can  include  an
       integrity  table  (extra  checksums)  over  the  raw  data  of  the  entire WIM file.  For
       performance reasons wimlib does not check the integrity table by default, but the  --check
       option can be passed to make it do so.

       ESD  files:  wimlib  can  extract files from solid-compressed WIMs, or "ESD" (.esd) files,
       just like from normal WIM (.wim) files.   However,  Microsoft  sometimes  distributes  ESD
       files  with  encrypted  segments;  wimlib  cannot  extract such files until they are first
       decrypted.

       Security: wimlib has been carefully written to validate all input and is  believed  to  be
       secure  against  some  types  of attacks which often plague other file archiving programs,
       e.g. directory traversal attacks (which,  as  it  happens,  Microsoft's  WIM  software  is
       vulnerable  to).   Important  parts of wimlib, e.g. the decompressors, have also been fuzz
       tested.  However, wimlib is not currently  designed  to  protect  against  some  types  of
       denial-of-service (DOS) attacks, e.g.  memory exhaustion or "zip bombs".

EXAMPLES

       Extract  the  first image from the Windows PE WIM on the Windows installation media to the
       directory "boot":

              wimapply /mnt/windows/sources/boot.wim 1 boot

       On Windows, apply an image of an entire volume, for example from "install.wim"  which  can
       be found on the Windows installation media:

              wimapply install.wim 1 E:\

       Same  as  above,  but  running  on a UNIX-like system where the corresponding partition is
       /dev/sda2:

              wimapply install.wim 1 /dev/sda2

       Note that before running either of the above commands, an NTFS filesystem may need  to  be
       created on the partition, for example with format.exe on Windows or mkntfs(8) on UNIX-like
       systems.  For example, on UNIX you might run:

              mkntfs /dev/sda2 && wimapply install.wim 1 /dev/sda2

       (Of course don't do that if you don't want to destroy all existing data on the partition!)

       See SPLIT WIMS and  PIPABLE  WIMS  for  examples  of  applying  split  and  pipable  WIMs,
       respectively.

SEE ALSO

       wimlib-imagex(1) wimcapture(1) wimextract(1) wiminfo(1)