Provided by: wml_2.12.2~ds1-2_all bug


       ipp - Include Pre-Processor


       ipp [-D name=value] [-S includedir] [-I includedir] [-s includefile] [-i includefile] [-M
       options] [-P path] [-m mapfile] [-N nosynclines] [-o outputfile] [-v] inputfile ...


       The ipp program reads all inputfiles and recursively expands all

         #include 'file'
         #include "file"
         #include <file>

       directives by substituting the directive with the contents of the file.  The output is
       send to stdout or to outputfile. The files are searched according to the following scheme:

       #include 'file'
           The file is searched in the current working directory only. Use this to force the
           loading of a local file.

       #include "file"
           The file is searched in all directories given by the -I option in the right-to-left
           order they are specified on the command line.  Note that a -I . implicit option is
           automatically appended to command-line options, then files are first searched in
           current directory.

       #include <file>
           First the file is searched in the system wide "ipp" include directory specified with
           the -S option. Second if it was not not found there it is searched for in all
           directories given by the -I option.

       And it provides eight additional features:

   Using Wildcards
       These characters have a special meaning in filenames:

       "*"   Matches any string, including the null string.
       "?"   Matches any single character.
       "[...]"  Like bracketed expressions in regexps, matches any of the enclosed characters.

       If you want to include all your templates, you may write

         #include "*.tmpl"

       With the following parameters you can control the order and the number of included files
       using the #include 'pattern' directive:

       "IPP_SORT=scheme"     Specify a sort criterion to include files. There are actually 3
       different criteria : date (files are sorted according to their last modification time),
       name (this is the default) and numeric (filenames are sorted numerically).
       "IPP_REVERSE=scheme"  As above, but resulting list of filenames is sorted in reverse
       "IPP_MAX=nmax"        Only nmax files are included.

       If you want to include the 5 newest include files of the news directory with file names
       like "", you may write:

         #include 'news/*.inc' IPP_REVERSE IPP_MAX=5

       In the files included with the "#include 'pattern'" directive, the following variables are
       set and can be read using "$(name)":

       "IPP_THIS"  the full name of the included source file including path and extension
       "IPP_PREV"  the full name of the previous included file, unset in the first file
       "IPP_NEXT"  the full name of the next included file, unset in the last file

       Keep in mind that a directive without wildcards does not set these variables.

   Special `Use' Variant
       In analogon to Perl's "use" statement, ipp provides a special variant of "#include":

          #use type::category::file

       This internally is equivalent to the directive

          #include <category/file.type>

       plus the special semantic that the include file is included (=used) only once, i.e.
       multiple inclusion is automatically avoided. In other words

          #include 'file'
          #include 'file'
          #use 'file'
          #use 'file'

       results in three inclusions of 'file'. Two from the "#include"'s and only once from the
       "#use" directives.

   Special `Depends' Variant
       You can easily write fragments of Makefiles with the -M flag (see below) to keep tracks of
       which files the output file depends on, When "ipp" is invoked as a piece of "WML", the
       final output file may depend on other files.  You can tell "ipp" about these hidden
       dependencies by using the "#depends" variant , e.g.

         #depends 'foo.dat'
         #depends "*/*.dat"
         #depends <file>

       The contents of the file is not inserted, only information about dependencies are updated.

   Input Line Synchronization
       All include commands insert some special stuff to help "WML" keeping track of input line
       numbers.  This feature may be disabled by appending the string "IPP_NOSYNCLINES" to the
       "#include" (or its variants) command.  See also the "-N" flag.

   Include Variables
       You can add


       pairs at the end of "#include" (and "#use") directives to let "$(name)" interpolate to
       "value" (or 1 if "=value" is missing) in this include file and all its recursively
       included files.

       There are the following forms of the "$(name)" syntax, similar to the functionality any
       Bourne Shell provides:

       o   "$(name)"
           `Use Only Value': The standard interpolation.

            if (exists(name))

       o   "$(name=string)"
           `Assign Value': Set a variable.

            name := string

       o   "$(name:-string)"
           `Use Default String': The standard interpolation with a default value.

            if (exists(name))

       o   "$(name:=string)"
           `Use Default String and Assign': The standard interpolation with a default value and
           additional assignment for later use.

            if (exists(name))
                name := string

       o   "$(name:+string)"
           `Use Alternate String'. The replacement interpolation.

            if (exists(name))

       o   "$(name:*string)"
           `Use Negative Alternate String'. The replacement interpolation with negated logic.

            if (exists(name))

       o   "$(name:?string)"
           `Indicate Error If Unset'. The error message interpolation.  This can also be used in
           conjunction with the above variants.

            if (exists(name))

       Previous constructs may be nested when variable expansion contains no parenthesis. You may
       for instance need these forms:

       `Set a variable if unset'.


       `Redefine a variable if it is already set.'


       Notice that nested expressions are not handled as shells do. In shells expressions are
       treated from left to right, whereas "ipp" treat inner expressions first.  With this
       example below


       Bourne shells will show "bar" whereas "ipp" will print "quux".

       It is also possible to undefine a variable.  To do so, assign an empty value to this
       variable, e.g.


       Notice the possibility to do simple If-Then-Else constructs:


       This is equivalent to the following pseudo-code:

         if (exists(foo))

   Implicit IPP Variables
       The strings "__FILE__" and "__LINE__" are always substituted by the currently processed
       include file and the current line number.

       IPP provides support for up-to-end-of-line comments.  This type of comment is like the one
       found in Bourne-Shell or Perl, i.e. any line which starts with a sharp symbol (`"#"') is
       entirely (i.e. including the newline at the end) removed from the input. Additionally
       these lines can have whitespaces in front of the sharp symbol. When you really need a
       sharp symbol at the start of a line you can use "\#", i.e. prefix it with an escaping

   End-Of-File Stopping
       It stops processing the current include file when a line containing just


       occurs. Use this to append POD documents to include files for documentation purposes as in
       Perl. You can use "__END__" in constructs like "$(SHORTENING:+__END__)", so that the
       processing is only stopped when the variable SHORTENING is set.

   End-Of-Line Continuation
       It removes all occurrences of the pattern


       Use this to let one or more lines to be concatenated.


       -D name=value
           Defines a variable the for the initial inputfile the same way you define ones with the
           #include for include files.  The variable can be interpolated via "$(name)" in all

       -S includedir
           Adds a system wide include directory.  You can use this option more than once.  The
           files are searched in right-to-left order.

       -I includedir
           This adds an entry to the include path where include files are searched for.  You can
           use this option more than once. The files are searched in right-to-left order. The
           current working directory is always appended as the last directory to this list, and
           so is searched first.

       -s includefile
           Pre-load a particular include file, i.e. virtually adds a

             #include <includefile>

           in front of inputfile. Use this to automatically load default system include files.
           You can also use the syntax "type::category::file" which leads to a virtually added

             #include <category/file.type>

       -i includefile
           Pre-loads a particular include file, i.e. virtually adds a

             #include "includefile"

           in front of inputfile. Use this to automatically load default user include files.
           You can also use the syntax "type::category::file" which leads to a virtually added

             #include "category/file.type"

       -M options
           Output a rule suitable for `make' describing the dependencies of each output file, as
           `gcc' does. It has only sense when the -o option is used.

           The D flag option writes the rule to a dependency file. The name of this file is
           obtained by replacing the suffix of the output file by ".d".

           The M flag option deletes the system files from the list of dependencies.

       -P path
           This sets up one or more prolog program path which are applied to each single input
           file just before real processing starts. Use this to pre-process the data.  Each
           program receives the data to act on as STDIN and has to produce the filtered data on

       -m mapfile
           This adds an entry to the list of mapfiles where a mapping between obsolete include
           file names and current ones can be found.  You can use this option more than once. The
           mapfiles can contain the following lines:

              #  comment line
              <blank line>
              <oldname>[,<oldname>] <newname> \[S|W|E: <text>\]


              <std/headfoot.wml>,wml::std::headfoot wml::OBSOLETE::std::headfoot [S]

       -N nosynclines
           By default, WML inserts some instructions to synchronize line numbers, which are then
           interpreted in passes 2 and 3.  This option disables this feature.

       -o outputfile
           This redirects the output to outputfile. Usually the output will be send to "stdout"
           if no such option is specified or outputfile is ""-"".

       -v  This sets verbose mode where some processing information will be given on the console.


        Ralf S. Engelschall

        Denis Barbier