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NAME

       xdvi - DVI Previewer for the X Window System

SYNOPSIS

       xdvi [+[page]] [--help] [-allowshell] [-altfont font] [-anchorposition anchor] [-bg color]
       [-browser WWWbrowser] [-copy] [-cr color] [-debug bitmask|string[,string ...]]   [-display
       host:display] [-dvipspath path] [-editor command] [-expert] [-expertmode flag] [-fg color]
       [-findstring  string]  [-font  font]  [-fullscreen  ]  [-gamma  g]  [-geometry   geometry]
       [-gsalpha]  [-gspalette palette] [-h] [-help] [-hl color] [-hush] [-hushbell] [-hushchars]
       [-hushchecksums] [-hushstdout] [-icongeometry geometry] [-iconic] [-install] [-interpreter
       path]  [-keep]  [-l]  [-license]  [-linkcolor color] [-linkstyle 0|1|2|3] [-margins dimen]
       [-mfmode  mode-def[:dpi]]  [-mgs[n]  size]   [-mousemode   0|1|2]   [-nocolor]   [-nofork]
       [-noghostscript]   [-nogrey]   [-nogssafer]  [-noinstall]  [-nomakepk]  [-nomatchinverted]
       [-noomega] [-noscan] [-notempfile] [-notype1fonts] [-noxi2scrolling] [-offsets dimen]  [-p
       pixels]  [-paper  papertype]  [-pause]  [-pausespecial  special-string] [-postscript flag]
       [-rulecolor  color]  [-rv]  [-S  density]  [-s  shrink]   [-safer]   [-sidemargin   dimen]
       [-sourceposition    line[:col][ ]filename]    [-statusline]    [-text-encoding   encoding]
       [-thorough]   [-topmargin   dimen]   [-unique]   [-version]   [-visitedlinkcolor    color]
       [-warnspecials]  [-watchfile  secs]  [-wheelunit pixels] [-xoffset dimen] [-yoffset dimen]
       [dvi_file]

DESCRIPTION

       Xdvi is a program for previewing dvi files, as produced e.g. by the tex(1) program,  under
       the X window system.

       Xdvi  can  show  the  file  shrunken by various integer factors, and it has a ``magnifying
       glass'' for viewing parts of the page enlarged (see the  section  MAGNIFIER  below).  This
       version  of xdvi is also referred to as xdvik since it uses the kpathsea library to locate
       and generate font files.  In addition to that, it supports the following features:

         - hyperlinks in DVI files (section HYPERLINKS),

         - direct rendering of PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts (section TYPE 1 FONTS),

         - source specials in the DVI file (section SOURCE SPECIALS),

         - string search in DVI files (section STRING SEARCH),

         - saving or printing (parts of) the DVI file (sections PRINT DIALOG and SAVE DIALOG).

       Xdvi can be compiled with the Motif toolkit or the Xaw (Athena) toolkit (and  variants  of
       it),  and  the  Motif  version  has  a slightly different GUI; these differences are noted
       below.

       Before displaying a page of a DVI file, xdvi will check to see if  the  file  has  changed
       since the last time it was displayed.  If this is the case, it will reload the file.  This
       feature allows you to preview many versions of the same file while running xdvi only once.
       Since it cannot read partial DVI files, xdvik versions starting from 22.74.3 will create a
       temporary copy of the DVI file being viewed, to ensure that the file can be viewed without
       interruptions. (The -notempfile can be used to turn off this feature).

       Xdvi  can  show PostScript<tm> specials by any of three methods.  It will try first to use
       Display PostScript<tm>, then NeWS, then it will try  to  use  Ghostscript  to  render  the
       images.   All  of  these options depend on additional software to work properly; moreover,
       some of them may not be compiled into this copy of xdvi.

       For performance reasons, xdvi does not render PostScript specials in the magnifying glass.

       If no file name has been specified on the command line, xdvi will try  to  open  the  most
       recently  opened file; if the file history (accessible via the File > Open Recent menu) is
       empty, or if none of the files in the history are valid DVI files, it will pop up  a  file
       selector  for  choosing  a  file  name.   (In  previous versions, which didn't have a file
       history, the file selector was always used; you can set the X resource noFileArgUseHistory
       to false to get back the old behaviour.)

OPTIONS

       In addition to specifying the dvi file (with or without the .dvi extension), xdvi supports
       the following command line options.  If the option begins with a `+' instead of a `-', the
       option  is  restored  to  its default value.  By default, these options can be set via the
       resource names given in parentheses in the description of each option.

       +page  Specifies the first page to show.  If + is given without a number, the last page is
              assumed; the first page is the default.

       -allowshell
              (.allowShell)  This  option  enables the shell escape in PostScript specials.  (For
              security reasons, shell escapes are disabled by default.)  This  option  should  be
              rarely  used;  in  particular  it should not be used just to uncompress files: that
              function is done automatically if the file name ends in .Z, .gz,  or  .bz2.   Shell
              escapes are always turned off if the -safer option is used.

       -altfont font
              (.altFont)  Declares  a default font to use when the font in the dvi file cannot be
              found.  This is useful, for example, with PostScript <tm> fonts.

       -anchorposition anchor
              Jump to anchor after opening the DVI file. This is only useful when  invoking  xdvi
              from other applications.

       -background color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.  Same as -bg.

       -bg color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.

       -browser browser
              (.wwwBrowser) Defines the web browser used for handling external URLs. The value of
              this option or resource has the same syntax as the  BROWSER  environment  variable;
              see  the  explanation  of  that  variable  in the section `ENVIRONMENT' below for a
              detailed description.  If neither the option  nor  the  X  resource  wwwBrowser  is
              specified,  the  environment  variables  BROWSER and WWWBROWSER (in that order) are
              used to determine the browser command. If these are not set either,  the  following
              default   value   is   used:   xdg-open   %s:htmlview  %s:firefox  -remote  -remote
              "openURL(%s,new-window)":mozilla -remote  "openURL(%s,new-window)":netscape  -raise
              -remote "openURL(%s,new-window)":xterm -e w3m %s:xterm -e lynx %s:xterm -e wget %s

       -copy  (.copy) Always use the copy operation when writing characters to the display.  This
              option may be necessary for correct operation on a color  display,  but  overstrike
              characters  will  be  incorrect.   If  greyscale anti-aliasing is in use, the -copy
              operation will disable the  use  of  colorplanes  and  make  overstrikes  come  out
              incorrectly.  See also -thorough.

       -cr color
              (.cursorColor)  Determines  the color of the mouse cursor.  The default is the same
              as the foreground color.

       -debug bitmask|string[,string ...]
              (.debugLevel) If nonzero, prints additional information on  standard  output.   The
              argument  can be either a bitmask specified as a decimal number, or comma-separated
              list of strings.
              For the bitmask representation, multiple values can  be  specified  by  adding  the
              numbers  that  represent  the individual bits; e.g. to debug all file searching and
              opening commands, use 4032 (= 2048 + 1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 + 64). Use -1  to  turn
              on debugging of everything (this will produce huge output).
              For  the string representation, use the strings listed in the following table, with
              a comma to separate the values; e.g.  to  debug  all  file  searching  and  opening
              commands,   use  search,expand,paths,hash,stat,open.   (The  option  `kpathsea'  is
              provided as a shorthand for these.)  Note that such a list may need to be quoted to
              prevent the shell from interpreting commas or spaces in the list.
              The individual numbers and strings have the following meanings:

               1       bitmap      Bitmap creation
               2       dvi         DVI translation
               4       pk          PK fonts
               8       batch       Batch mode: Exit after
                                   reading the DVI file
               16      event       Event handling
               32      ps          PostScript interpreter calls
               64      stat        Kpathsea stat(2) calls
               128     hash        Kpathsea hash table lookups
               256     open        Kpathsea file opening
               512     paths       Kpathsea path definitions
               1024    expand      Kpathsea path expansion
               2048    search      Kpathsea searching
               4032    kpathsea    All Kpathsea options
               4096    htex        Hypertex specials
               8192    src         Source specials
               16384   client      Client/server mode (see -unique
                                   and -sourceposition options)
               32768   ft          FreeType library messages (Type 1 fonts)
               65536   ft_verbose  Verbose FreeType library messages (currently unused)
               131072  gui         GUI elements

              Some  of  the Kpathsea debugging options are actually provided by Kpathsea; see the
              Debugging section in the Kpathsea manual for more information on these.

       -density density
              (.densityPercent) Determines the density used when shrinking bitmaps for fonts.   A
              higher  value produces a lighter font.  The default value is 40.  If greyscaling is
              in use, this argument does not  apply;  use  -gamma  instead.   See  also  the  `S'
              keystroke.  Same as -S.

       -display host:display
              Specifies  the  host and screen to be used for displaying the dvi file.  By default
              this is obtained from the environment variable DISPLAY.

       -dvipspath path
              (.dvipsPath) Use path as the dvips program to use when printing.  The  default  for
              this is dvips.  The program or script should read the DVI file from standard input,
              and write the PostScript file to standard output.

       -editor editor
              (.editor) Specifies the editor that  will  be  invoked  when  the  source-special()
              action  is  triggered to start a reverse search (by default via Ctrl-Mouse 1).  The
              argument to this option is a format string  in  which  occurrences  of  ``%f''  are
              replaced  by  the  file name, occurrences of ``%l'' are replaced by the line number
              within the file, and optional occurrences of ``%c''  are  replaced  by  the  column
              number within the line.

              If  neither  the  option  nor  the  X  resource .editor is specified, the following
              environment variables are checked to determine the editor command: XEDITOR, VISUAL,
              and EDITOR (in this sequence). If the string is found as the value of the VISUAL or
              EDITOR environment variables, then ``xterm -e '' is prepended to the string; if the
              editor  is specified by other means, then it must be in the form of a shell command
              to pop up an X window with an editor in it. If none of these variables  is  set,  a
              warning message is displayed and the command ``xterm -e vi +%l %f'' is used.

              If  no  ``%f''  or  ``%l''  occurs  in  the  string, the missing format strings are
              appended automatically.  (This is for compatibility with other programs when  using
              one of the environment variables).

              A  new  instance of the editor is started each time this command is used; therefore
              it is preferable to use an editor that can be invoked in `client' mode to load  new
              files into the same instance. Example settings are:

              emacsclient --no-wait
                     (older Emacsen)

              gnuclient -q
                     (XEmacs and newer Emacsen)

              gvim --servername xdvi --remote
                     (VIM  v6.0+;  the  `--servername  xdvi'  option  will  cause  gvim  to run a
                     dedicated instance for the files opened by xdvi.)

              nc     (nedit)

              Note that those strings need to be enclosed into quotes  when  using  them  on  the
              command-line  to  protect  them from the shell; when using them as argument for the
              .editor resource in an X resource file, no quotes should be used.

              NOTE ON SECURITY: The argument of this option isn't executed as  a  shell  command,
              but via exec() to prevent evil tricks with the contents of source specials.

       -expert
              This  option  is  only  supported  for backwards compatibility; it is equivalent to
              -expertmode 0, which should be preferred.

       -expertmode flag
              (.expertMode) With an argument of 0, this option switches off the  display  of  the
              buttons,  scrollbars,  the  toolbar (Motif only), the statusline and the page list.
              These  GUI  elements  can  also  be  (de)activated  separately,  by  combining  the
              appropriate  values  in  the flag argument. This acts similar to the -debug option:
              The integer flag is treated as a bitmap where each bit represents one  element.  If
              the  bit  has  the  value 1, the element is switched on, if it has the value 0, the
              element is switched off. The meaning of the bits is as follows:

               1       statusline
               2       scrollbars
               4       Motif: pagelist, Xaw: buttons and pagelist
               8       toolbar (Motif only)
               16      menubar (Motif only)

              For example, to turn on only the statusline and the scrollbars, use 3 (=  1  +  2).
              See also the `x' keystroke, where the bits are addressed by their positions, from 1
              to 3 (Xaw) or 5 (Motif), respectively.

       If the statusline is not active, all messages  that  would  normally  be  printed  to  the
       statusline will be printed to stdout, unless the -hushstdout option is used.

       -fg color
              (.foreground) Determines the color of the text (foreground).

       -findstring string
              This  option triggers a search for string in the DVI file mentioned on the command-
              line, similar to forward search (see the description of the sourceposition option):
              If  there  is  already  another instance of xdvi running on the displaying that DVI
              file, it will cause that instance to perform the search instead. The search  starts
              at the top of the current page of the DVI file.

       -font font
              (*font)  Sets  the  font used in menus, buttons etc., as described in the X(7x) man
              page. The font for child windows can be set separately, e.g.:

              xdvi*statusline*font: \
                 -*-helvetica-medium-r-*-*-12-*-*-*-*-*-*-*

       -foreground color
              Same as -fg.

       -fullscreen
              When this option is used, xdvi will (try to) run in fullscreen mode, with no window
              decorations.     This    option    is    not    guaranteed   to   work   with   all
              windowmanagers/desktops; if you're experiencing problems with it,  please  use  the
              -geometry  option  instead,  and  a  suitable  window manager setting to remove the
              window decorations.  When using this option for presentations, you  might  want  to
              get  rid  of  all  the  control widgets as well, using the -expertmode option. This
              option can also be toggled at runtime using the fullscreen action (by default bound
              to Ctrl-l).

       -gamma gamma
              (.gamma)  Controls the interpolation of colors in the greyscale anti-aliasing color
              palette.  Default value is 1.0.  For 0 < gamma < 1, the fonts will be lighter (more
              like  the  background),  and for gamma > 1, the fonts will be darker (more like the
              foreground).  Negative values behave the same way, but  use  a  slightly  different
              algorithm.   For  color  and grayscale displays; for monochrome, see -density.  See
              also the `S' keystroke.

       -geometry geometry
              (.geometry) Specifies the initial geometry of the main window, as described in  the
              X(7x) man page. The geometry of child windows can be set separately, e.g.:
              xdvi*helpwindow.geometry: 600x800

       -gsalpha
              (.gsAlpha)  Causes Ghostscript to be called with the x11alpha driver instead of the
              x11 driver.  The x11alpha driver enables anti-aliasing in PostScript specials,  for
              a nicer appearance.  It is available on newer versions of Ghostscript.  This option
              can also be toggled with the `V' keystroke.

       -gspalette palette
              (.palette) Specifies the palette to be used when using  Ghostscript  for  rendering
              PostScript  specials.   Possible  values are Color, Greyscale, and Monochrome.  The
              default is Color.

       -h, -help, --help
              Prints a short help text with an overview of the command-line options  to  standard
              output.

       -hl color
              (.highlight) Determines the color of the page border, of the ruler in `ruler mode',
              and of the highlighting markers in forward search and string search.   The  default
              is the foreground color.

       -hush  (.Hush) Causes xdvi to suppress all suppressible warnings.

       -hushbell
              (.hushBell) Don't sound the X bell when an error occurs.

       -hushchars
              (.hushLostChars)  Causes  xdvi  to suppress warnings about references to characters
              which are not defined in the font.

       -hushchecksums
              (.hushChecksums) Causes xdvi to suppress warnings about checksum mismatches between
              the dvi file and the font file.

       -hushstdout
              (.hushStdout)  Suppresses  printing of status messages to stdout.  Note that errors
              or warnings will still be printed to stderr even if this option is used.

       -icongeometry geometry
              (.iconGeometry) Specifies the initial position for the icon.

       -iconic
              (.iconic) Causes the xdvi window to start in the iconic state.  The default  is  to
              start with the window open.

       -install
              (.install) If xdvi is running under a PseudoColor visual, then (by default) it will
              check for TrueColor visuals with more bits per pixel, and switch to such  a  visual
              if  one  exists.   If  no  such  visual  exists, it will use the current visual and
              colormap.  If -install is selected, however, it will still use a  TrueColor  visual
              with  a  greater  depth,  if  one  is available; otherwise, it will install its own
              colormap on the current visual.  If the current visual  is  not  PseudoColor,  then
              xdvi  will  not  switch  the  visual  or  colormap, regardless of its options.  The
              default value of the install resource is the special value,  maybe.   There  is  no
              +install option.  See also -noinstall, and the GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -interpreter filename
              (.interpreter) Use filename as the Ghostscript interpreter.  By default it uses gs.

       -keep  (.keepPosition)  Sets  a  flag  to  indicate  that xdvi should not move to the home
              position when moving to a new page.  See also  the  `k'  keystroke.  This  flag  is
              honored  by  all  page  switching actions and by up-or-previous() / down-or-next(),
              although the latter only honor the horizontal position, not the vertical one.  This
              allows for a "continuous" scrolling back an forth through a document with a display
              window narrower than a page width.

       -l     (.listFonts) List the names of all fonts used.

       -license
              Prints licensing information.

       -linkcolor
              (.linkColor) Color used for unvisited hyperlinks (`Blue2' by  default).  Hyperlinks
              are  unvisited  before  you click on them, or after the DVI file has been reloaded.
              The value should be either a valid X color  name  (such  as  DarkGoldenrod4)  or  a
              hexadecimal  color  string  (such  as  #8b6508).   See  also  -visitedlinkcolor and
              -linkstyle.

       -linkstyle
              (.LinkStyle) Determines the style  in  which  hyperlinks  are  displayed.  Possible
              values and their meanings are:

               0       No highlighting of links
               1       Underline links with link color
               2       No underlining, color text with link color
               3       Underline and display text colored with
                       link color

              The  values  for  link  color are specified by the options/resources -linkcolor and
              -visitedlinkcolor (which see).

       -margins dimen
              (.Margin) Specifies the size  of  both  the  top  margin  and  side  margin.   This
              determines  the ``home'' position of the page within the window as follows.  If the
              entire page fits in the window, then the margin settings  are  ignored.   If,  even
              after  removing  the  margins from the left, right, top, and bottom, the page still
              cannot fit in the window, then the page is put in the window such that the top  and
              left  margins  are hidden, and presumably the upper left-hand corner of the text on
              the page will be in the upper left-hand corner of the window.  Otherwise, the  text
              is  centered  in  the  window.  The dimension should be a decimal number optionally
              followed by any of the two-letter abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt,  pc,
              in,  bp,  cm,  mm,  dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the unit will be cm (centimeters).
              See also -sidemargin, -topmargin, and the keystroke `M.'

       -mfmode mode-def
              (.mfMode) Specifies a mode-def string, which can be used  in  searching  for  fonts
              (see  ENVIRONMENT,  below).   Generally,  when  changing  the  mode-def, it is also
              necessary to change the font size to the appropriate value for that mode.  This  is
              done  by  adding  a  colon  and  the  value  in dots per inch; for example, -mfmode
              ljfour:600.  This method overrides any value given by the pixelsPerInch resource or
              the  -p command-line argument.  The metafont mode is also passed to metafont during
              automatic creation of fonts.  By default, it is unspecified.

       -mgs size
              Same as -mgs1.

       -mgs[n] size
              (.magnifierSize[n])  Specifies  the  size  of  the  window  to  be  used  for   the
              ``magnifying glass'' for Button n.  The size may be given as an integer (indicating
              that the magnifying glass is to be  square),  or  it  may  be  given  in  the  form
              widthxheight.   See  the  MOUSE  ACTIONS  section.   Defaults are 200x150, 400x250,
              700x500, 1000x800, and 1200x1200.

       -mousemode [0|1|2]
              (.mouseMode) Specifies the default mode of xdvi at  startup:  Magnifier  (0),  Text
              Selection  Mode  (1)  or  Ruler  Mode  (2).  See the section MODES, below, for more
              information.

       -nocolor
              (.color) Turns off the use of color specials.  This option can be toggled with  the
              `C' keystroke.  (Note: -nocolor corresponds to color:off; +nocolor to color:on.)

       -nofork
              (.fork)  With  the -sourceposition and -unique options, the default behavior is for
              xdvi to put itself into the background (like a daemon) if there is  no  appropriate
              instance  of  xdvi  already  running.  This argument makes it run in the foreground
              instead.  This is useful for debugging, or if your client application  cannot  deal
              well with a program self-backgrounding itself in this way -- e.g. the IPC functions
              in emacs are known to have problems with this.  If no  -sourceposition  or  -unique
              argument  is  given, then this option has no effect.  (Note: -nofork corresponds to
              fork:off; +nofork to fork:on.)

       -noghostscript
              (.ghostscript) Inhibits  the  use  of  Ghostscript  for  displaying  PostScript<tm>
              specials.   (Note: -noghostscript corresponds to ghostscript:off; +noghostscript to
              ghostscript:on.)

       -nogrey
              (.grey) Turns off  the  use  of  greyscale  anti-aliasing  when  printing  shrunken
              bitmaps.   (Note:  -nogrey  corresponds to grey:off; +nogrey to grey:on.)  See also
              the `G' keystroke.

       -nogssafer
              (.gsSafer) Normally, if Ghostscript is used  to  render  PostScript  specials,  the
              Ghostscript interpreter is run with the option -dSAFER.  The -nogssafer option runs
              Ghostscript without -dSAFER.  The -dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables PostScript
              operators  such  as  deletefile,  to prevent possibly malicious PostScript programs
              from having any effect.  If the -safer option is specified, then this option has no
              effect;  in  that  case  Ghostscript is always run with -dSAFER.  (Note: -nogssafer
              corresponds to gsSafer:off; +nogssafer to gsSafer:on.)

       -noinstall
              (.install) Inhibit the default behavior of switching to a TrueColor visual  if  one
              is  available  with more bits per pixel than the current visual.  (Note: -noinstall
              corresponds install:off; there is no +noinstall option.)  See  also  -install,  and
              the GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -nomakepk
              (.makePk)  Turns  off  automatic  generation  of font files that cannot be found by
              other means.  (Note: -nomakepk corresponds to makePk:off; +nomakepk to makePK:on.)

       -nomatchinverted
              (.matchInverted) Don't highlight string search matches in inverted color;  instead,
              draw  a  rectangle  in  highlight color (see the -hl option) around the match. This
              option is activated automatically  if  the  display  isn't  running  in  TrueColor.
              (Note:  -nomatchinverted  corresponds  to  matchInverted:off;  +nomatchinverted  to
              matchInverted:on.)

       -noomega
              (.omega) This will disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting DVI files.
              By  default,  the  additional  opcodes  129 and 134 are recognized by xdvi as Omega
              extensions and interpreted as requests to set 2-byte characters. The only  drawback
              is  that the virtual font array will require 65536 positions instead of the default
              256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements of xdvi will be slightly larger. If you
              find  this unacceptable or encounter another problem with the Omega extensions, you
              can switch this extension off by using -noomega (but please do send a bug report if
              you find such problems - see the bug address in the AUTHORS section below).
              (Note: -noomega corresponds to omega: off; +noomega to omega: on.)

       -noscan
              (.prescan)  By default, xdvi does a preliminary scan of the dvi file to process any
              papersize specials; this is especially important at startup since  the  paper  size
              may  be  needed  to  determine  the window size.  If PostScript<tm> is in use, then
              prescanning is also necessary in  order  to  properly  process  header  files.   In
              addition,  prescanning  is  needed to correctly determine the background color of a
              page.  This option turns off such prescanning.  (Prescanning will be  automatically
              be  turned  back  on  if xdvi detects any of the specials mentioned above.)  (Note:
              -noscan corresponds to prescan:off; +noscan to prescan:on.)

       -notempfile
              (.tempFile) As mentioned in the section  DESCRIPTION  above,  xdvi  will  create  a
              temporary  copy  of  the  DVI file so that it can be accessed without interruptions
              even while the file is being rewritten by TeX.  Since this introduces the  overhead
              of  copying  the file every time it has changed, the -notempfile allows you to turn
              off this behaviour. In this case, exposing parts of the window while the  DVI  file
              is  being  written by TeX will erase the current window contents until the DVI file
              can be completely reread.
              (Note: -notempfile corresponds to tempFile:off; +notempfile to tempFile:on.)

       -notype1fonts
              (.type1)  This  will  disable  the  use  of  the  FreeType   library   to   display
              PostScript<tm>  Type  1  fonts.  Use this option as a workaround when you encounter
              problems with the display of Type 1 fonts (but please don't forget to  send  a  bug
              report in this case, to the URL mentioned in the section AUTHORS below).
              (Note: -notype1fonts corresponds to type1:off; +notype1fonts to type1:on.)

       -noxi2scrolling
              (.xi2Scrolling)  This  will  disable the use of high-resolution scrolling using the
              XInput 2.1 features of  the  X  Server.   When  enabled,  horizontal  and  vertical
              scrolling  is done in smaller increments than would correspond to a single click of
              a mouse wheel.  This is only available for  hardware  that  supports  the  feature,
              generally  touchpads.  It is not available for traditional wheel mice.  If suitable
              hardware is not present or if the X server does not support XInput 2.1  or  higher,
              then the high-resolution scrolling feature is turned off and has no effect.
              (Note:   -noxi2scrolling   corresponds  to  xi2Scrolling:off;  +noxi2scrolling,  to
              xi2Scrolling:on.)

       -offsets dimen
              (.Offset) Specifies the size of both the horizontal and  vertical  offsets  of  the
              output  on  the  page.  By decree of the Stanford TeX Project, the default TeX page
              origin is always 1 inch over and down from the top-left page corner, even when non-
              American  paper  sizes are used.  Therefore, the default offsets are 1.0 inch.  The
              argument dimen should be a decimal number optionally followed by any  of  the  two-
              letter  abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or
              sp).  By default, the unit  will  be  cm  (centimeters).   See  also  -xoffset  and
              -yoffset.

       -p pixels
              (.pixelsPerInch)  Defines  the  size  of the fonts to use, in pixels per inch.  The
              default value is 600.  This option is provided only  for  backwards  compatibility;
              the  preferred   way  is  to  set both the resolution and the Metafont mode via the
              -mfmode option (which see).

       -paper papertype
              (.paper) Specifies the size of the printed page. Note that in most cases it's  best
              to specify the paper size in the TeX input file via the line

              \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}

              which will be recognized by both dvips and xdvi; in that case the use of a `-paper'
              option should be unnecessary.
              The paper size may be specified in the form widthxheight optionally followed  by  a
              unit, where width and height are decimal numbers giving the width and height of the
              paper, respectively, and the unit is any of the two-letter abbreviations for  units
              accepted  by  TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the unit is
              cm (centimeters).
              There are also synonyms  which  may  be  used:  us  (8.5x11in),  legal  (8.5x14in),
              foolscap  (13.5x17in), as well as the ISO sizes a1-a7, b1-b7, c1-c7.  Each of these
              also has a landscape or  `rotated'  variant:  usr  (11x8.5in),  a1r-a7r,  etc.  For
              compatibility  with  dvips,  the  formats  letter  (8.5x11in), ledger (17x11in) and
              tabloid (11x17in) are also supported (these don't have rotated variants).
              Any of the above sizes may be preceded by a plus sign (`+'); this causes the  paper
              size  given  here  to  override  any paper size given in the dvi file.  The default
              paper size is 21 x 29.7 cm (A4 size).

       -pause (.pause) This option provides a simple  implementation  of  incremental  (stepwise)
              display,  which can be used for presentations.  When this option is used, xdvi will
              pause the display of the current page whenever it  encounters  a  special  special-
              string  (xdvi:pause by default; the string can be customized via -pausespecial, see
              below), and the cursor will change its shape.   The  action  unpause-or-next()  (by
              default bound to the Space key) will display the next portion of the page up to the
              following special-string, or until the end of the page is reached.  When the option
              is not used, specials containing special-string will be ignored.

       -pausespecial special-string
              (.pauseSpecial)  Sets  the special string that causes xdvi to pause when the -pause
              option is active. The default value of special-string is xdvi:pause.

       -postscript flag
              (.postscript) If flag =  0,  rendering  of  PostScript<tm>  specials  is  disabled;
              instead,  bounding  boxes  will  be  displayed  (if  available).  A value of 1 (the
              default) switches PostScript<tm> specials on. With a value of 2, the PostScript<tm>
              specials are displayed along with their bounding boxes; this allows you to visually
              check the correctness of the bounding boxes. The values  can  also  be  toggled  at
              runtime  with the `v' keystroke and the corresponding numerical prefix arguments 0,
              1 and 2.

       -ps2pdfpath path
              (.ps2pdfPath) Use path as a conversion program from PostScript to PDF. The  program
              or  script  should  accept two command-line arguments: The PostScript file as first
              argument, and the PDF output file as second argument.

       -rulecolor color
              (.ruleColor) Determines the color of the rules used  for  the  magnifier  (default:
              foreground color).

       -q     (.noInitFile) Ignore the $HOME/.xdvirc startup file (i.e. don't read it at startup,
              and don't write it at exit). This forces the defaults defined  in  $HOME/.Xdefaults
              to be used. See FILES for more information on $HOME/.xdvirc.

       -rv    (.reverseVideo)  Causes  the  page to be displayed with white characters on a black
              background, instead of vice versa.

       -S density
              (.densityPercent) Same as -density (which see).

       -s shrink
              (.shrinkFactor) Defines the initial shrink factor.  The default  value  is  8.   If
              shrink  is  given as 0, then the initial shrink factor is computed so that the page
              fits within the window (as if the `s' keystroke were given without a number).

       -safer (.safer) This option turns on all available security options; it  is  designed  for
              use  when  xdvi  is called by a browser that obtains a dvi or TeX file from another
              site.  This option selects +nogssafer and +allowshell.

       -sidemargin dimen
              (.sideMargin) Specifies the side margin (see -margins).

       -sourceposition line[:col][ ]filename
              This option makes xdvi search in the dvi file for the place  corresponding  to  the
              indicated line (and, optionally, column) in the .tex source file, and highlight the
              place found by drawing a rectangle in the highlight  color  (see  the  -hl  option)
              around  the  corresponding text.  In addition, when run with this argument (and the
              -nofork option is not given, which see), xdvi will always return  immediately:   if
              it finds another instance of xdvi already showing dvi_file, then it will cause that
              instance to raise its window and move to the given place in the dvi file; otherwise
              it  will start up its own instance in the background.  If several instances of xdvi
              are displaying the respective dvi file, the instance which was last raised  to  the
              foreground will be used.

              The space before filename is only needed if the filename starts with a digit.  When
              the space is used, the argument needs to be enclosed in quotes to prevent the shell
              from misinterpreting the space as argument separator.

              This  option  requires  that  dvi_file be prepared with source special information.
              See the section on SOURCE SPECIALS for details on how to do this.

              Here is a more detailed description of how  the  filename  in  the  -sourceposition
              argument is matched with the filename in the source specials:

              1. If  neither  of  the filenames contains a path name component, the filenames are
                 compared ignoring the `.tex' extensions in both filenames.

              2. Otherwise, if one  of  the  filenames  does  contain  a  path  component  (e.g.:
                 ./test.tex,  ../test.tex, /my/homedir/tex/test.tex or any combination of these),
                 both filenames are expanded to a full path, with any occurrences of ../  and  ./
                 expanded, and multiple slashes removed.
                 The  pathname in the -sourceposition is expanded relative to the current working
                 directory of the xdvi -sourceposition  invocation,  and  the  pathnames  in  the
                 source  specials are expanded relative to the path of the current DVI file being
                 viewed.
                 The path names are then compared ignoring the `.tex'  extensions  in  both  path
                 names.

       -statusline
              (.statusline) This option is obsolete; use -expertmode  flag instead (which see).

       -text-encoding encoding
              (.textEncoding)  Use  encoding  as  the  text  encoding of the string in the "Find"
              window. Usually, this should not be needed since the encoding  is  determined  from
              the locale settings.

       -thorough
              (.thorough)  Xdvi  will  usually  try  to  ensure  that overstrike characters (e.g.
              \notin) are printed correctly.  On monochrome displays,  this  is  always  possible
              with one logical operation, either and or or.  On color displays, however, this may
              take two operations, one to set the appropriate bits and one to clear  other  bits.
              If  this  is  the  case,  then by default xdvi will instead use the copy operation,
              which does not handle overstriking correctly.  The  -thorough  option  chooses  the
              slower but more correct choice.  See also -copy.

       -topmargin dimen
              (.topMargin) Specifies the top and bottom margins (see -margins).

       -unique
              (.unique)  This  option  will  make  another  instance  of xdvi running on the same
              display act as a `server'.  For example, the invocation

              xdvi -unique +5 file.dvi

              will cause this other instance to load file.dvi on page 5 in place of the file that
              it  is  currently  displaying. If there is already another instance of xdvi already
              displaying the file file.dvi, then it will just jump  to  page  5.   If  the  other
              instance  of  xdvi  is  displaying a different file, it will load file.dvi instead.
              Otherwise, if no other instance of xdvi is currently running on the  display,  this
              option  instead starts a new instance of xdvi in the background (unless the -nofork
              option is specified, which see) displaying page 5 of file.dvi.
              The filename and the +n option for the page number are the only  options  available
              for  controlling  a  remote  instance  of  xdvi  like  this;  all other options are
              currently ignored.

       -useTeXpages
              Use logical TeX pages (the values of the  \count0  register)  instead  of  physical
              pages for the pagelist labels and when jumping to a page in a document with the `g'
              keystroke (or the goto-page() action).  This option can  be  toggled  via  the  `T'
              keystroke.

       -version
              Print information on the version of xdvi.

       -visitedlinkcolor
              (.visitedLinkColor)  Color  used  for  visited  hyperlinks  (`Purple4' by default).
              Hyperlinks become visited once you click on  them.  As  for  linkColor,  the  value
              should be either a valid X color name or a hexadecimal color string.

       -warnspecials
              (.warnSpecials) Causes xdvi to print warnings about \special strings that it cannot
              process to stderr. These warnings are suppressed by default.

       -watchfile n
              (.watchFile) If this option is set to a value larger than 0, xdvi  will  check  the
              DVI  file  for changes every n seconds. If the DVI file has been completely written
              by TeX, it will be reloaded automatically.   Fractional  values  (e.g.  `2.5')  are
              possible. The default for this option is 0, i.e. no watching.
              Since  xdvi  cannot handle partial DVI files, it tries not to reload the file while
              it is being rewritten.  However,  use  of  the  magnifier  or  switching  of  pages
              requires  reading  (a part of) the DVI file, and if the tempfile option is switched
              off, this will erase the current contents of the window until the DVI file  can  be
              read entirely.

       -wheelunit pixels
              (.wheelUnit) Sets the number of pixels that a motion of a wheel mouse will move the
              image up, down, left, or right. (See the wheel and hwheel actions, below, for  more
              information   on  this.)   If  set  to  zero,  the  wheel  mouse  functionality  is
              (essentially) disabled.  The default value is 80.

       -xoffset dimen
              (.xOffset) Specifies the size of the horizontal offset of the output on  the  page.
              See -offsets.

       -yoffset dimen
              (.yOffset)  Specifies  the  size  of the vertical offset of the output on the page.
              See -offsets.

KEYSTROKES

       Xdvi recognizes the following keystrokes when typed in its window.  Each may optionally be
       preceded  by  a  (positive  or negative) number, a `prefix argument', whose interpretation
       will depend on the particular  keystroke.   This  prefix  argument  can  be  discarded  by
       pressing  the  ``Escape''  key.  If present, the ``Help'', ``Prior'' and ``Next'' keys are
       synonyms for `?', `b', and `f' keys, respectively.

       The key bindings listed here are those that xdvi assigns by default.  The names  appearing
       in  brackets  at the beginning of the descriptions are the names of the actions associated
       with the keys; these can be used to customize the  key  bindings,  as  explained  in  more
       detail  in  the  section  CUSTOMIZATION below. If only a lowercase binding is listed, both
       upper- and lowercase keys will work for that binding.

       ESC key
              [discard-number()] The escape key discards the numerical  prefix  for  all  actions
              (useful when you mistyped a number).

       Return key
              [forward-page()]  Moves  to  the  next page (or to the nth next page if a number is
              given).  Synonyms are `n', `f' and Line Feed.

       Backspace key
              [back-page()] Moves to the previous page (or back n pages).  Synonyms are `p',  `b'
              and Ctrl-h.

       Delete key
              [up-or-previous()]  Moves  up  two-thirds  of  a  window-full, or to the top of the
              previous page if already at the top of the page. With a float  argument,  moves  up
              the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Space key
              [unpause-or-next()]  Moves down two-thirds of a window-full, or to the next page if
              already at the bottom of the page.
              When the option -pause special-string is used and the display is currently  paused,
              this  key will instead display the next portion of the page until the next special-
              string or the end of the page is encountered.  See the description  of  the  -pause
              option  for  details. The action [down-or-next()] does a similar thing, but without
              pausing; it is not bound to a key by default.

       Ctrl-Home (Xaw), Ctrl-osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [goto-page(1)] Moves to the first page of the document.

       Ctrl-End (Xaw), Ctrl-osfEndLine (Motif)
              [goto-page()] Moves to the last page of the document.

       Home (Xaw), osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [home-or-top()] Move to the ``home'' position of the page, or to  the  top  of  the
              page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       End (Xaw), osfEndLine (Motif)
              [end-or-bottom()]  Move  to  the ``end'' position of the page (the lower right-hand
              corner), or to the bottom of the page if the keep flag is set (in  this  case,  the
              page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       Down arrow
              [down(0.015)] Scrolls page down.

       Up arrow
              [up(0.015)] Scrolls page up.

       Right arrow
              [right(0.015)] Scrolls page right.

       Left arrow
              [left(0.015)] Scrolls page left.

       Alt-Ctrl-+
              [change-density(25)] Increase the darkness of the fonts in the DVI window by adding
              to the gamma value (see also the `S' keystroke).

       Alt-Ctrl--
              [change-density(-25)] Decrease the darkness of the  fonts  in  the  DVI  window  by
              subtracting from the gamma value (see also the `S' keystroke).

       Ctrl-+ [set-shrink-factor(+)] Increase the shrink factor (see also the `s' keystroke).

       Ctrl-- [set-shrink-factor(-)] Decrease the shrink factor (see also the `s' keystroke).

       Ctr-[  [pagehistory-delete-backward()]  Delete  the  current  item in the page history and
              move to the history item before the deleted one. With a prefix argument n, delete n
              previous history items. See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       [      [pagehistory-back()]  Move back in the page history (see PAGE HISTORY for details).
              With a prefix argument n, move back n history items.

       Ctr-]  [pagehistory-delete-forward()] Delete the current item in the page history and move
              to  the history item after the deleted one. With a prefix argument n, delete n next
              history items. See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       ]      [pagehistory-forward()] Move forward in the page  history  (see  PAGE  HISTORY  for
              details). With a prefix argument n, move forward n history items.

       ^      [home()]  Move  to  the  ``home'' position of the page.  This is normally the upper
              left-hand corner of the page, depending on the margins as described in the -margins
              option, above.

       ?      [help()] Same as the h key (which see).

       B      [htex-back()] This key jumps back to the previous hyperlink anchor. See the section
              HYPERLINKS for more information on navigating the links.

       b      [back-page()] Moves to the previous page (or back  n  pages).   Synonyms  are  `p',
              Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       C      [set-color()]  This  key toggles the use of color specials.  The key sequences `0C'
              and `1C' turn interpretation of color specials off and on, respectively.  See  also
              the -nocolor option.

       c      [center()]  Moves  the page so that the point currently beneath the mouse cursor is
              moved to the middle of the window, and warps the mouse cursor to the same place.

       D      [toggle-grid-mode()] This key toggles the use of a grid on the displayed page.   If
              no  number  is  given, the grid mode is switched on or off.  By prepending a number
              from 1 to 3, 3 different grid levels can be set.  The units of the grid are  inches
              or centimeters, depending on whether the paper format is letter (in) or a4 (cm).

       d      [down()]  Moves  page  down  two  thirds of a window-full. With a float argument to
              ``down'', moves down the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Ctrl-f [find()] Pop up a window to search for a string in the DVI file.  See  the  section
              STRING SEARCH, below, for more details.

       f      [forward-page()]  Moves  to  the  next page (or to the nth next page if a number is
              given).  Synonyms are `n', Return, and Line Feed.

       G      [set-greyscaling()] This  key  toggles  the  use  of  greyscale  anti-aliasing  for
              displaying  shrunken  bitmaps.   In addition, the key sequences `0G' and `1G' clear
              and set this flag, respectively.  See also the -nogrey option.

              If given a numeric argument that is not 0 or 1, greyscale anti-aliasing  is  turned
              on, and the gamma resource is set to the value divided by 100. E.g. `150G' turns on
              greyscale and sets gamma to 1.5.

       Ctrl-g [find-next()] Find the next match string in the DVI file; this can be used  instead
              of pressing the `Find' button in the search window.

       g      [goto-page()]  Moves to the page with the given number. If no page number is given,
              xdvi jumps to the last page.
              If the option/resource useTeXpages is active, the numbers correspond to the  actual
              page  numbers  in  the TeX file; otherwise, absolute page numbers (starting from 1)
              are used. In the latter case,  the  page  numbers  can  be  changed  with  the  `P'
              keystroke,  below.   Note  that with the useTeXpages option it is possible that the
              same page number occurs multiple times; in such a case, xdvi  will  use  the  first
              page number that matches.

       h      Pops  up  a help window with a short explanation of the most important key bindings
              and concepts.

       k      [set-keep-flag()] Normally when xdvi switches pages, it moves to the home  position
              as  well.   The  `k' keystroke toggles a `keep-position' flag which, when set, will
              keep the same position when moving between pages.  Also `0k' and `1k' clear and set
              this flag, respectively.  See also the -keep option.

       Ctrl-l [fullscreen(toggle)]   Toggles   fullscreen   mode  (see  the  description  of  the
              -fullscreen option for more information on this). This  is  even  more  flaky  than
              using  the  command-line  option: There is no universal standard how a window could
              change its own geometry or window decorations at run-time, so this  will  not  work
              with  most  window  managers  or desktops. Generally, it's better to use the window
              manager controls to change the size or decorations of the xdvi window.

       l      [left()] Moves page left two thirds of a window-full.

       M      [set-margins()] Sets the margins so that the point currently under the mouse cursor
              defines  the upper left-hand corner of the text in the page.  Note that the command
              does not move the image, but only determines the margins  for  the  page  switching
              commands. For details on how the margins are used, see the -margins option.

       m      [toggle-mark()] Toggles the mark for the current page in the page list. When a page
              is marked, it is displayed with a small star `*' next  to  the  page  number.   The
              marked  pages  can then be printed or saved to a file.  A page or several pages can
              also be marked by clicking or dragging Mouse-2 in the page list.

       Ctrl-n [toggle-mark()forward-page()] Toggles the mark for the current  page  in  the  page
              list, and moves to the next page. This lets you quickly mark a series of subsequent
              pages.

       n      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page  if  a  number  is
              given).  Synonyms are `f', Return, and Line Feed.

       Ctrl-o [select-dvi-file()]  Read  a new dvi file. A file-selection widget is popped up for
              you to choose the DVI file from. If a prefix argument n is given,  the  n  th  file
              from the file history is opened instead.

       P      [declare-page-number()]  ``This  is  page number n.''  This can be used to make the
              `g' keystroke refer to a different page number than the  physical  page.   (If  you
              want to use `logical' or TeX page numbers instead of physical pages, consider using
              the option -useTeXpages instead.)  The argument n should be given as prefix to this
              key.

       Ctrl-p [print()]  Opens a popup window for printing the DVI file, or parts of it.  See the
              section PRINT DIALOG for an explanation of the options available, and the resources
              to customize the default behaviour.

       p      [back-page()]  Moves  to  the  previous  page (or back n pages).  Synonyms are `b',
              Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       q      [quit()] Quits the program.

       Ctrl-r [forward-page(0)] Redisplays the current page.

       R      [reread-dvi-file()] Forces the dvi file to be reread.  This allows you  to  preview
              many versions of the same file while running xdvi only once.

       r      [right()] Moves page right two thirds of a window-full.

       Ctrl-s [save()]  Opens  a  popup  window  for saving the DVI file, or parts of it. See the
              section SAVE DIALOG below for more information on this.

       S      [set-density()] Sets the density factor to be used when  shrinking  bitmaps.   This
              should  be  a  number between 0 and 100; higher numbers produce lighter characters.
              If greyscaling mode is in effect, this changes the value of gamma instead.  The new
              value of gamma is the given number divided by 100; negative values are allowed.

       s      [set-shrink-factor()]  Changes the shrink factor to the given number.  If no number
              is given, the smallest factor that makes the entire page fit in the window will  be
              used.  (Margins are ignored in this computation.)

       T      [use-tex-pages()]  Use  logical  TeX  pages  (the  values  of the \count0 register)
              instead of physical pages for the pagelist labels and when jumping to a page  in  a
              document via goto-page().  See also the -useTeXpages option.

       t      [switch-magnifier-units()]  Switches  the  units used for the magnifier tick marks,
              and for reporting the distance between the mouse pointer and the  ruler  centre  in
              ruler  mode  (see  the  section  MODES).   The  default value is specified by the X
              resource tickUnits (`mm' by  default).  The  units  toggle  through  the  following
              values;  except  for  `px', they all correspond to TeX's units: mm (millimeters) pt
              (TeX points), in (inches), sp (scaled points, the unit used internally by  TeX)  bp
              (big  points  or  `PostScript  points'),  cc (cicero points), dd (didot points), pc
              (pica), and px (screen pixels).

       Ctrl-u [back-page()toggle-mark()] Moves to the previous page, and  toggles  the  mark  for
              that page. This is the dual action to Ctrl-n.

       u      [up()]  Moves page up two thirds of a window-full. With a float argument to ``up'',
              moves up the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Ctrl-v [show-source-specials()] Show bounding  boxes  for  every  source  special  on  the
              current  page,  and  print  the strings contained in these specials to stderr. With
              prefix 1, show every bounding box on the  page.  This  is  for  debugging  purposes
              mainly.

       V      [set-gs-alpha()] This key toggles the anti-aliasing of PostScript<tm> specials when
              Ghostscript is used as renderer.  In addition the key sequences `0V' and `1V' clear
              and set this flag, respectively.  See also the -gsalpha option.

       v      [set-ps()]  This  key  toggles  the  rendering of PostScript<tm> specials between 3
              states:

              - specials (like EPS graphics) are displayed;

              - specials are displayed along with their bounding box (if available);

              - only the bounding box is displayed.

              The states can also be selected directly by using `1v', `2v' and `0v' respectively.
              See also the -postscript option.

       Ctrl-x [source-what-special()]  Display  information  about the source special next to the
              mouse cursor in the statusline. This is the same special that  would  be  found  by
              source-special(), but without invoking the editor. For debugging purposes.

       x      [set-expert-mode()]  Toggles  expert mode, in which the statusline, the scrollbars,
              the menu buttons, the toolbar (Motif only) and the page list are not shown.  Typing
              `1x' toggles the display of the statusline at the bottom of the window. Typing `2x'
              toggles the scrollbars (if available). For Xaw, `3x' toggles the menu  buttons  and
              the  page  list,  for  Motif,  it  toggles  the page list. In Motif, the additional
              bindings `4x' toggle the toolbar, and `5x' the menu bar.
              Without a prefix argument, all of the mentioned GUI elements are either switched on
              (if they had been invisible before) or off.
              Toggling  the  scrollbars  may  behave  erratically  with the Xaw widgets; e.g. the
              scrollbars may reappear after resizing the window, and at certain window sizes  one
              of the scrollbars may fail to disappear.
              See  also  the  option -expertmode (the numbers above correspond to the bits in the
              argument to -expertmode).

MOUSE ACTIONS IN THE MAIN WINDOW

       The mouse actions can be customized by setting the X  resource  mouseTranslations.   Since
       there  are  three  different mouse modes (see the section MODES below), there is a special
       action  mouse-modes  which  lists  the  actions  for  each  of  the  three  modes:  mouse-
       modes("ACTIONS-FOR-MODE1",   "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE2",   "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE3").    If  only  one
       argument is specified, this action is used for all modes.  The  default  bindings  are  as
       follows:

            xdvi.mouseTranslations: \
            Shift<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("drag(+)")\n\
            Shift<Btn2Down>:mouse-modes("drag(|)")\n\
            Shift<Btn3Down>:mouse-modes("drag(-)")\n\
            Ctrl<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("source-special()")\n\
            <Btn1Down>: mouse-modes("do-href()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn2Down>: mouse-modes("do-href-newwindow()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn3Down>: mouse-modes("magnifier(*3)")\n\
            <Btn4Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(-0.2)")\n\
            <Btn5Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(0.2)")\n\
            <Btn6Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(-0.2)")\n\
            <Btn7Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(0.2)")\n\

       All  of  these  actions are described in more detail below.  Note the use of quote symbols
       around the action strings, which are necessary to group them into one  argument.   Buttons
       4, 5, 6, and 7 refer to wheel movements (wheel up/down/left/right) on wheel mice.  Not all
       mice support horizontal scrolling.

       The X Toolkit routines that implement translations do not support event types of  Btn6Down
       or  Btn7Down.   Because  of this, xdvi implements its own parser for translations given in
       mouseTranslations.  This parser is more limited than the parser built in to the X Toolkit.
       The string given in mouseTranslations should not begin with ``#replace'', ``#augment'', or
       ``#override''.  Modifiers of the form @keysym are not supported, and the event  type  must
       be  of the form BtnDown or BtnnDown, where n is a positive integer without leading zeroes.
       Also, some limitations apply to the action field.

       do-href()

       do-href-newwindow()
              Usually, if a binding specifies more then one action, all actions are executed in a
              sequence.  The  hyperlink bindings do-href() and do-href-newwindow() are special in
              that they are used as an alternative to other actions that might follow them if the
              mouse is currently located on a hyperlink.  In this case, none of the other actions
              will be executed; otherwise, only the other actions are executed.
              The action  do-href()  jumps  to  the  link  target  in  the  current  xdvi  window
              (eventually  switching  to  another  page),  and  do-href-newwindow()  opens  a new
              instance of xdvi for the link target.  In both cases, the location of the target is
              indicated  by  a  small arrow drawn in the same color as a visited link in the left
              corner of the window.

       magnifier(n x m)

       magnifier(*n)
              This action will pop up a ``magnifying glass'' which shows the  unshrunk  image  of
              the  region  around  the  mouse  pointer.   The magnifier disappears when the mouse
              button is released. Moving the mouse cursor while holding the button down will move
              the magnifier.
              Different  mouse  buttons  produce  different  sized  windows,  as indicated by the
              argument of the magnifier() action. Its argument is either a  string  of  the  form
              widthxheight, as in the -mgsn command-line option, or one of the strings *1 through
              *5, referring to the value specified by the corresponding -mgsn option.

       drag(+)

       drag(|)

       drag(-)
              Drags the page with the mouse. This action should have one parameter, the character
              ``|'',  ``-'',  or  ``+'',  indicating  vertical dragging only, horizontal dragging
              only, or dragging in all directions.

       source-special()
              This action starts a ``reverse search'', opening the editor at the location in  the
              TeX file corresponding to the pointer location in the DVI file.  See the section on
              SOURCE SPECIALS, below, for more information on this.

       wheel()
              This action can be used to scroll the image with a wheel mouse, where it is usually
              bound  to  mouse  button  4  (wheel  up)  or  5 (wheel down).  The action takes one
              parameter, giving the distance to scroll the image.  If the  parameter  contains  a
              decimal point, the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise, pixels.  A negative
              value scrolls up, a positive value scrolls down.

       hwheel()
              This action can be used to scroll the image horizontally with a wheel mouse,  where
              it  is usually bound to mouse button 6 (wheel left) or 7 (wheel right).  The action
              takes one parameter, giving the distance to scroll the  image.   If  the  parameter
              contains  a decimal point, the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise, pixels.
              A negative value scrolls left, a  positive  value  scrolls  right.   Not  all  mice
              support horizontal scrolling; this is mostly for touchpads, trackpads, etc.

       text-selection()
              This  action  allows you to mark a rectangular region of text in the DVI file.  The
              text is put into the X selection buffer and can be pasted into  other  applications
              (e.g.  text  editors).  This  works  similar  to  the Plain text option in the Save
              dialog; see the discussion there for more information on encoding issues.

       ruler()
              This action creates a cross-shaped ruler. Moving the mouse and holding  the  button
              down  drags  the ruler and lets you measure distances on the page.  See the section
              Ruler Mode for more information on this.

UNBOUND ACTIONS

       The following actions  are  not  bound  to  a  key  by  default,  but  are  available  for
       customization.

       quit-confirm()
              Pops  up  a  confirmation window to quit xdvi. To bind it to the `q' key instead of
              the default `quit()' action, put the following into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

              xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
              <Key>q: quit-confirm()\n

       down-or-next()
              Similar to unpause-or-next(): Moves down two-thirds of a  window-full,  or  to  the
              next page if already at the bottom of the page.

       shrink-to-dpi()
              This action takes one (required) argument.  It sets the shrink factor to an integer
              so as to approximate the use of fonts with the corresponding  number  of  dots  per
              inch.   If  xdvi  is  using  fonts  scaled for p dots per inch, and the argument to
              shrink-to-dpi is n, then the corresponding shrink factor is the ratio p/n,  rounded
              to the nearest integer.

       user-exec()
              This  action  takes  one (required) argument. Runs an external program specified by
              the argument, which is tokenized on whitespace. The XDVI_FILE environment  variable
              is  set  to the absolute pathname of the DVI file, so that the program can find the
              DVI. As an example, to establish the key `m' as a keybinding that  regenerates  the
              DVI file with `make', put the following into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

              xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
              <Key>m: user-exec(xdvi-remake)\n

              where  `xdvi-remake'  names  a  program  in  your  PATH  analogous to `cd $(dirname
              $XDVI_FILE) && make $(basename $XDVI_FILE)'.  (See also the section SIGNALS  for  a
              way to get xdvi to reload the DVI file once it has been regenerated.)

CUSTOMIZATION

       Key  and  mouse button assignments can be changed by setting the mainTranslations resource
       to a string of translations as defined in  the  documentation  for  the  X  toolkit.   The
       actions  should  take  the form of action names listed in the KEYSTROKES and MOUSE ACTIONS
       sections.

       An  exception  to  this  are  the  Motif  keys  osfPageUp  (PgUp),  osfPageDown  (PgDown),
       osfBeginLine (Home) and osfEndLine (End) which are currently not customizable in the Motif
       version.

       Key actions will usually be  without  arguments;  if  they  are  passed  an  argument,  it
       represents the optional number or `prefix argument' typed prior to the action.

       Some  key actions may take special arguments, as follows: The argument of goto-page may be
       the letter `e', indicating the action of going to the end of the document.   The  argument
       of  set-shrink-factor  may  be the letter `a', indicating that the shrink factor should be
       set to the smallest value such that the page will fit in the window, or one of  the  signs
       `+'  or  `-',  indicating  that  the  shrink  factor  should  be  increased  or decreased,
       respectively.  Finally, actions that would perform a toggle, such  as  set-keep-flag,  may
       receive  an  argument  `t',  indicating  that  the  action should toggle regardless of the
       current prefix argument.

       Mouse actions should refer only to  ButtonPress  events  (e.g.  <Btn1Down>:magnifier(*1)).
       The  corresponding motion and release events will be handled internally.  A key action may
       be bound to a mouse event, but not vice versa.

       Usually the string of translations should begin with ``#override'',  indicating  that  the
       default key and mouse button assignments should not be discarded.

       When  keys  or  mouse  buttons  involving modifiers (such as Ctrl or Shift) are customized
       together with their non-modified equivalents, the modified keys  should  come  first,  for
       example:

            xdvi.mainTranslations: #override \
            Shift<Key>s: select-dvi-file()\n\
            Ctrl<Key>s: save()\n\
            <Key>s: find()\n

       Because  xdvi  needs  to  capture  pointer  motion  events,  and  because  the  X  Toolkit
       translations mechanism cannot accommodate both motion events and  double-click  events  at
       the  same time, it is not possible to specify double-click actions in xdvi customizations.
       For information on this and other aspects of translations, see the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics
       documentation.

       There  is no command-line option to set the mainTranslations resource, since changing this
       resource on the command line would  be  cumbersome.   To  set  the  resource  for  testing
       purposes,  use  the -xrm command-line option provided by the X toolkit.  For example, xdvi
       -xrm    'XDvi.mainTranslations:    #override    "z":quit()'    ...     or    xdvi     -xrm
       'XDvi.mainTranslations: #override <Key>z:quit()' ...  will cause the key `z' to quit xdvi.

       Some  resources  are  provided  to  allow customization of the geometry of the Xaw command
       buttons.  Again, they are not changeable via command-line options, other than via the -xrm
       option.  All of these resources take integer values.

       buttonSideSpacing
              The number of pixels to be placed on either side of the buttons.  The default value
              is 6.

       buttonTopSpacing
              The number of pixels between the top button and the top of the window.  The default
              value is 50.

       buttonBetweenSpacing
              The number of pixels between the buttons.  The default value is 20.

       buttonBetweenExtra
              The  number  of pixels of additional space to be inserted if the buttonTranslations
              resource string contains an extra newline character.  The default value is 50.

       buttonBorderWidth
              The border width of the button windows.  The default value is 1.

PAGE LIST

       The scrollable page list on the right of the main window allows you to jump directly to  a
       page in the DVI file.

       Mouse-1
              Jumps to the page the mouse is located on.

       Mouse-2
              [toggle-mark()]  Toggle  the  mark  of  the current page. The marks are used by the
              `Print' and `Save to file' dialogs to select only marked pages from the DVI file.

       When the mouse pointer is inside the page list, the mouse wheel switches to  the  next  or
       previous page.

SCROLLBARS

       The  scrollbars  (if present) behave in the standard way:  pushing Button 2 in a scrollbar
       moves the top or left edge of the scrollbar to that point and optionally drags it; pushing
       Button  1  moves  the image up or right by an amount equal to the distance from the button
       press to the upper left-hand corner of the window; pushing Button 3 moves the  image  down
       or left by the same amount.

       The scrollbars can be removed via the -expertmode flag/keystroke (which see).

MAGNIFIER

       By  default,  the  mouse  buttons  1 to 5 will pop up a ``magnifying glass'' that shows an
       unshrunken image of the page (i.e. an image at the resolution determined by  the  option/X
       resource pixels or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved, small ruler-like
       tick marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifier (unless the X resource  delayRulers
       is  set to false, in which case the tick marks will always be displayed).  The unit of the
       marks is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by default). This unit can be  changed
       at  runtime via the action switch-magnifier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke `t'
       (see the description of that key, and of switch-magnifier-units() for more details on  the
       units available).
       The  length of the tick marks can be changed via the X resource tickLength (4 by default).
       A zero or negative value suppresses the tick marks.

PAGE HISTORY

       Xdvi keeps a history of viewed pages, and you can move  through  the  history  and  delete
       items   using   the   keys   [   (pagehistory-back()),  ]  (pagehistory-forward()),  Ctr-[
       (pagehistory-delete-backward()) and Ctr-] (pagehistory-delete-forward()).

       When one of the history commands is used, the page history is displayed in the status line
       at the bottom of the window, with the current list item marked by square brackets `[', `]'
       and a left and right context of at most 10 items. File boundaries are marked by `#'.

       The size of the history can be customized with the X resource pageHistorySize (the default
       size is 1000 items). If the size is set to 0, the history commands are disabled.

HYPERLINKS

       The  actions do-href() and do-href-newwindow() (by default bound to Mouse-1 and Mouse-2 if
       the pointer is currently located on a hyperlink) can be used to open the  link  target  in
       the same window (do-href()) or in a new window (do-href-newwindow()).

       If the link target is not a file on the local disk, xdvi tries to launch a web browser (as
       specified by the -browser command line option, the BROWSER  environment  variable  or  the
       wwwBrowser X resource, in this order) to retrieve the document. See the description of the
       BROWSER environment variable, below, for an example setting.

       If the file is a local file, xdvi tries to determine if it is a DVI file. If it  is,  xdvi
       will  try  to  display  the  file; otherwise it will try to determine the MIME type of the
       file, and from that an application suitable for opening the file.  This is done by parsing
       the  files  specified  by the environment variable EXTENSIONMAPS for a mapping of filename
       extensions to MIME types, and the files determined by the  environment  variable  MAILCAPS
       for  a  mapping  of  MIME  types  to  application programs.  See the descriptions of these
       variables in the section ENVIRONMENT, below, for  a  more  detailed  description  and  the
       default  values  of  these  variables.  If  no suitable files are found, a set of built-in
       default MIME types and applications is used.

       Xdvi currently uses no heuristics apart from the filename suffix  to  determine  the  mime
       type  of  a  file.  If a filename has no suffix, the value of the resource noMimeSuffix is
       used (by default application/x-unknown).  If the suffix doesn't match any of the  suffixes
       in   mime.types,  the  value  of  the  resource  unknownMimeSuffix  is  used  (by  default
       application/x-unknown).  If the mailcap entries do not list a  viewer  for  a  given  mime
       type,  xdvi  will show a warning popup. If you want to avoid this warning, and for example
       want to always use the netscape  browser  for  unknown  MIME  types,  you  could  add  the
       following line to your ~/.mailcap file:

           application/xdvi-unknown; \
               netscape -raise -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)'

STRING SEARCH

       The keystroke Ctrl-f or the menu entry File > Find ...  (or the `Binoculars' symbol in the
       toolbar, for Motif) opens a dialog window to  search  for  a  text  string  or  a  regular
       expression  in  the DVI file.  The keystroke Ctrl-g jumps to the next match (like pressing
       the `Find' button in the search window).

       By default, the matches are highlighted in inverted color.  If the display  isn't  running
       in  TrueColor, or if the X resource matchHighlightInverted is set to false or the command-
       line option -nomatchinverted is used, xdvi will instead  draw  a  rectangle  in  highlight
       color (see the -hl option) around the match.

       If  a match crosses a page boundary, only the part on the first page is highlighted.  Xdvi
       will scan up to 2 adjacent pages to match strings crossing page boundaries; but note  that
       header or footer lines, or intervening float pages will be treated as parts of the scanned
       text. Such text will usually cause multi-page matching to fail.

       This emphasizes the fact that searching in the  formatted  text  (the  DVI  output)  works
       differently  from  searching in the source text: Searching in the DVI file makes it easier
       to skip formatting instructions, and makes it possible to search for e.g. hyphenation  and
       equation  numbers;  but  sometimes the formatting results can also get in the way, e.g. in
       the case of footnotes. In these cases it's better to search in the TeX source instead. The
       use  of  source  specials will make switching between the xdvi display and the editor with
       the TeX source easier; see the section SOURCE SPECIALS below for more information on this.

       The text extracted from the DVI file is in encoded in UTF-8 (you can  view  that  text  by
       saving  the file in UTF-8 format via the File > Save as ...  menu item).  If xdvi has been
       compiled with locale, nl_langinfo() and iconv support, the search term is  converted  from
       the character set specified by the current locale into UTF-8. (See the output of locale -a
       for a list of locale  settings  available  on  your  system).   If  nl_langinfo()  is  not
       available,  but  iconv is, you can specify the input encoding for iconv via the X resource
       textEncoding (see the output of iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv  support
       is  not  available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 are supported (these names are
       case-insensitive).

       Ideographic characters from CJKV fonts are treated specially: All white space (spaces  and
       newlines)  before and after such characters is ignored in the search string and in the DVI
       file.

       To match a newline character, use \n in the search string; to match  the  string  \n,  use
       \\n.

       If  the  checkbox  Regular  Expression  is  activated,  the string is treated as a regular
       expression in extended POSIX syntax, with the following properties:

         - a? matches a zero or one times.

         - a* matches a zero or more times.

         - a+ matches a one or more times.  Note that * and + are greedy,  i.e.  they  match  the
           longest possible substring.

         - The  pattern  . matches any character except for newline. To also match a newline, use
           `(.|\n)'.

         - a{n} matches a exactly n times.

         - a{n,m} matches a at least n and no more than m times.

         - a|b matches a or b. Brackets can be used for grouping, e.g.: (a|b)|c.

         - The string matched by the nth group can be referenced by \n, e.g.  \1  refers  to  the
           first match.

         - The characters ^ and $ match the beginning and the end of a line, respectively.

         - [abc]  matches  any of the letters a, b, c, and [a-z] matches all characters from a to
           z.

         - Each item in a regular expression can also be one of  the  following  POSIX  character
           classes:
           [[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:]] [[:blank:]] [[:cntrl:]] [[:digit:]]
           [[:graph:]] [[:lower:]] [[:print:]] [[:space:]] [[:upper:]]

           These can be negated by inserting a ^ symbol after the first bracket: [^[:alpha:]]

           For  more  details on POSIX regular expressions, see e.g. the IEEE Std 1003.1 standard
           definition available online from:

           http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/basedefs/xbd_chap09.html

         - As a non-standard extension, the following Perl-like abbreviations can be used instead
           of the POSIX classes:

           Symbol   Meaning                       POSIX Class

               \w   an alphanumeric character     [[:alnum:]]
               \W   a non-alphanumeric character  [^[:alnum:]]
               \d   a digit character             [[:digit:]]
               \D   a non-digit character         [^[:digit:]]
               \s   a whitespace character        [[:space:]]
               \S   a non-whitespace character    [^[:space:]]

         - The  following characters are special symbols; they need to be escaped with \ in order
           to match them literally:  ( ) [ ] . * ? + ^ $ \.

         - Matches of length zero are silently skipped.

       The dialog also provides checkboxes to:

         - search backwards;

         - match in a case-sensitive manner (the default is to ignore case, i.e. a search  string
           Test will match both the strings test and TEST in the DVI file);

         - ignore  line breaks and hyphens: This removes all hyphens at the ends of lines and the
           following newline characters, and replaces all remaining newline characters  by  white
           spaces.  So  hyphenated  words will appear as one word to the search, and a search for
           two words with a space in between will also match the words if they are separated by a
           linebreak.
           Note  that  the  hyphen  removal  may  cause  unwanted side effects for compound words
           containing hyphens that are wrapped after the hyphen, and that replacing the  newlines
           affects  the interpretation of regular expressions as follows: The . pattern will also
           match newlines, and ^ and $ won't match begin  and  end  of  lines  any  more.  (Since
           currently  there  is  no  option for turning off the greediness of * and +, turning on
           this option will usually result in matches that are longer than desired.)

       The current checkbox settings are saved in the ~/.xdvirc file.

PRINT DIALOG

       The print dialog window allows you to print all pages, marked pages (click or drag Mouse-2
       in  the  page  list  to mark them), or a range of pages. Note that the page numbers always
       refer to physical pages, so if you're using the option `use TeX pages', you  may  want  to
       disable  it to make it easier to determine the correct page numbers (or avoid this problem
       altogether by marking the pages to be printed).

       The value of the Printer text filed is passed to dvips via the -o!  mechanism, as a single
       argument  after  the `!'. Any arguments listed in the Dvips options field are segmented at
       whitespaces and passed as separate arguments to dvips.  If you e.g. want to print the file
       2-up, you should enter the following string into the Printer field:

                psnup -2 -q | lpr -Plp

       There  are  several resources for customizing the behaviour and the default entries of the
       print dialog:

       dvipsPrinterString

       dvipsOptionsString
              These can be used to provide default entries for the Printer and the Dvips  options
              text  fields, respectively. If no paper size is specified in the DVI file (via e.g.
              \usepackage[dvips]{geometry} - this is the preferred method), the  input  field  is
              initialized  with  the  current  value of the command line option/X resource paper.
              E.g. the option -paper a4r is translated into the dvips options -t a4 -t landscape.
              Note  that  no  check is performed whether dvips actually understands these options
              (it will ignore them if it can't); currently not all options used by xdvi are  also
              covered by dvips.

       dvipsHangTime

       dvipsFailHangTime
              These  specify  the  time  (in milliseconds) that the printing progress window will
              stay open after the dvips process has terminated. The  value  of  dvipsHangTime  is
              used  if  the  process  terminates  successfully;  dvipsFailHangTime  is used if it
              terminates with an error. The default values are 1.5 and 5  seconds,  respectively.
              If  both  values  are negative, the window will stay open until it is closed by the
              user.

SAVE DIALOG

       This dialog allows you to save all or selected/marked pages in the current DVI  file.  You
       can save in one of the following formats:

         - PostScript  (uses  dvips  to convert the DVI file to a PostScript file, just like when
           printing to a PostScript file).

         - PDF (first uses dvips to convert the DVI file to a PostScript file, then  uses  ps2pdf
           to convert the PostScript file to PDF).

         - Plain  text  in  ISO-8859-1  or  UTF-8  encoding. The latter will preserve more of the
           special LaTeX characters e.g. from mathematical mode. Note however that e.g. only  few
           of   LaTeX's  mathematical  symbols  can  be  rendered  correctly  as  text;  so  this
           functionality works best for plain text documents.  If a character cannot be displayed
           in  the  selected charset, it is replaced by `\' followed by the hexadecimal character
           code.  If a character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.

       The programs for PostScript and PDF conversion can be  customized  via  the  command  line
       options  or  X  resources -dvipspath/.dvipsPath and -ps2pdfpath/.ps2pdfPath, respectively;
       see the explanation of these options above for more details.

MODES

       The keystroke Ctrl-m [switch-mode()] switches  between  three  different  mouse  bindings,
       which can also be activated via the Modes menu (in Motif, this is a submenu of the Options
       menu called Mouse Mode).  The default mode at startup can be customized via the X resource
       mouseMode  or  the  command-line option -mousemode.  The default startup mode is Magnifier
       Mode.

       Note: The modes are implemented by changing the magnifier()  action.  Switching  the  mode
       will  not  work if Mouse-1 has been customized to an action sequence that does not contain
       the magnifier() action.

       Magnifier Mode
              In this mode, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 pop up a ``magnifying glass'' that shows  an
              unshrunken  image  of  the  page (i.e. an image at the resolution determined by the
              option/X resource pixels or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is  moved,
              small ruler-like tick marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifier (unless the
              X resource delayRulers is set to false, in which case the  tick  marks  are  always
              displayed).  The unit of the marks is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by
              default). This unit can be changed at  runtime  via  the  action  switch-magnifier-
              units(),  by  default  bound to the keystroke `t' (see the description of that key,
              and of switch-magnifier-units() for more details on the units available).
              The length of the tick marks can be changed via the X  resource  tickLength  (4  by
              default). A zero or negative value suppresses the tick marks.

       Text Selection Mode
              This  mode  allows  you  to  select a rectangular region of text in the DVI file by
              holding down Mouse-1 and moving the mouse. The text  is  put  into  the  X  primary
              selection so that it can be pasted into other X applications with Mouse-2 as usual.
              If  xdvi  has  been  compiled  with  locale,  nl_langinfo()  and iconv support, the
              selected text is converted into the character set of the current  locale  (see  the
              output  of  locale  -a for a list of locale settings available on your system).  If
              nl_langinfo() is not available, but iconv is, you can specify  the  input  encoding
              for iconv via the X resource textEncoding (see the output of iconv -l for a list of
              valid encodings). If iconv support is not available, only the encodings  ISO-8859-1
              and UTF-8 are supported (these names are case-insensitive).
              Note  that  UTF-8  is  the  only  encoding  that  can  render  all characters (e.g.
              mathematical symbols) of a DVI file.  If  ISO-8859-1  is  active,  characters  that
              cannot be displayed are replaced by `\' followed by the hexadecimal character code.
              For other encodings, such characters  may  trigger  iconv  error  messages.   If  a
              character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.
              To  extract  larger  portions of text, you can alternatively save selected pages or
              the entire file in text format via the File > Save as ...  menu.

       Ruler Mode
              This mode provides a simple way of measuring distances on the page.
              When this mode is activated, the mouse cursor changes into  a  thin  cross,  and  a
              larger,  cross-shaped  ruler is drawn in the highlight color at the mouse location.
              The ruler doesn't have units attached to it; instead, the current distance  between
              the ruler and the mouse cursor is continuously printed to the statusline.
              When  activating Ruler Mode, the ruler is at first attached to the mouse and can be
              moved around. It can then be positioned at  a  fixed  place  by  clicking  Mouse-1.
              After  that, the mouse cursor can be moved to measure the horizontal (dx), vertical
              (dy) and direct (shortest) (dr) distance between the ruler  center  point  and  the
              mouse.
              Clicking  Mouse-1  again  will  move  the  ruler to the current mouse position, and
              holding down Mouse-1 will drag the ruler around.
              In Ruler Mode, the following special keybindings  extend  or  replace  the  default
              bindings:

              o      [ruler-snap-origin()] Snap the ruler back to the origin coordinate (0,0).

              t      [overrides  switch-magnifier-units()]  Toggle  between  various ruler units,
                     which can be specified by the X resource tickUnits (`mm' by default).

              P      [overrides  declare-page-number()]  Print  the  distances   shown   in   the
                     statusline to standard output.

TOOLBAR (Motif only)

       The  Motif  toolbar can also be customized. The XPM file used for the toolbar icons can be
       specified via the resource toolbarPixmapFile, which should contain a filename that can  be
       found  in  one  of XFILESEARCHPATH or XDVIINPUTS (see the section FILE SEARCHING below for
       more information on these variables).  Xdvi will try to  split  this  pixmap  horizontally
       into  n  pieces,  where  each  piece is as wide as the pixmap is high and is treated as an
       image for toolbar button n.  This means that each icon should be a square,  and  that  the
       entire pixmap should have width n x h if h is the height of the pixmap.

       The  resource  toolbarTranslations  can  be used to map icons/buttons to specific actions.
       The resource should contain a string separated  by  newline  characters,  similar  to  the
       resources  mainTranslations and menuTranslations.  Every line must contain either a spacer
       definition, or an icon definition:

       A spacer definition is a string SPACER(n), where n is the number  of  pixels  inserted  as
       separator to the following button.

       An icon definition is a colon-separated list containing the following elements:

         - the index of an icon in the pixmap file (starting from zero);

         - a long tooltip string, displayed in the status area;

         - a short tooltip string, displayed as popup;

         - a sequence of actions to be performed when the corresponding toolbar button is pushed.

       To illustrate this, the default value of toolbarTranslations looks as follows:

            xdvi.toolbarTranslations: \
               SPACER(5)\n\
               0:Open a new document   (Key\\: Ctrl-f):\
                    Open file:select-dvi-file()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               1:Reread this document   (Key\\: R):\
                    Reread file:reread-dvi-file()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               2:Go to the first page of this document   (Key\\: 1g):\
                    Go to first page:goto-page(1)\n\
               3:Go to the previous page of this document   (Key\\: p):\
                    Go to previous page:back-page(1)\n\
               4:Go to the next page of this document   (Key\\: n):\
                    Go to next page:forward-page(1)\n\
               5:Go to the last page of this document   (Key\\: g):\
                    Go to last page:goto-page()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               6:Enlarge the display   (Key\\: Ctrl-+):Zoom in:\
                    set-shrink-factor(+)\n\
               7:Shrink the display   (Key\\: Ctrl--):Zoom out:\
                    set-shrink-factor(-)\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               8:Jump back to the previous hyperlink   (Key\\: B):\
                    Back hyperlink:htex-back()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               10:Print this document:Print:print()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               11:Toggle marks for odd pages   (Key\\: 1m):\
                    Toggle odd:toggle-mark(1)\n\
               12:Toggle marks for even pages   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle even:toggle-mark(2)\n\
               13:Toggle mark for current page   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle current:toggle-mark()\n\
               14:Unmark all pages   (Key\\: 0m):\
                    Unmark all:toggle-mark(0)\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               18:Display fonts darker   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl-+):\
                    Fonts darker:change-density(5)\n\
               19:Display fonts lighter   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl--):\
                    Fonts lighter:change-density(-5)\n

       When  the  mouse remains over a toolbar button for a certain period, a `tooltip' window is
       shown, describing what the button does using the  short  tooltip  string  from  the  above
       resource.  At  the same time, the long tooltip string is displayed in the statusline.  The
       appearance and behaviour of these tooltips can be customized via the following resources:

       tipShell.background
              Background color of the tooltip window.

       tipShell.fontSet
              Font used for the tooltip.

       tipShell.waitPeriod
              The time (in milliseconds) the mouse pointer needs to be over the button before the
              tooltip is shown. Set it to a negative value to suppress the tooltips altogether.

GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS

       The  greyscale anti-aliasing feature in xdvi will not work at its best if the display does
       not have enough colors available.  This can happen if other applications are using most of
       the  colormap (even if they are iconified).  If this occurs, then xdvi will print an error
       message and turn on the -copy option.  This will result in overstrike characters appearing
       wrong;  it  may  also  result in poor display quality if the number of available colors is
       very small.

       Typically this problem occurs on displays that allocate eight bits  of  video  memory  per
       pixel.   To  see  how  many  bits  per  pixel your display uses, type xwininfo in an xterm
       window, and then click the mouse on the root window when asked.  The ``Depth:'' entry will
       tell you how many bits are allocated per pixel.

       Displays  using  at  least 15 bits per pixel are typically TrueColor visuals, which do not
       have this problem, since their colormap is permanently  allocated  and  available  to  all
       applications.   (The visual class is also displayed by xwininfo.)  For more information on
       visual classes see the documentation for the X Window System.

       To alleviate this problem, therefore, one may (a) run with more bits per pixel  (this  may
       require  adding  more  video  memory  or  replacing  the  video card), (b) shut down other
       applications that may be using much of the colormap and then restart xdvi, or (c) run xdvi
       with the -install option.

       One  application which is often the cause of this problem is Netscape.  In this case there
       are two more alternatives to remedying the situation.  One can run  ``netscape  -install''
       to  cause  Netscape  to  install  a  private colormap.  This can cause colors to change in
       bizarre ways when the mouse is moved to a different window.  Or, one  can  run  ``netscape
       -ncols  220''  to  limit  Netscape  to  a smaller number of colors.  A smaller number will
       ensure that other applications have more colors available,  but  will  degrade  the  color
       quality in the Netscape window.

HANDLING OF POSTSCRIPT FIGURES

       Xdvi can display Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files included in the dvi file.  Such files
       are first searched for in the directory where the dvi  file  is,  and  then  using  normal
       Kpathsea  rules.   There is an exception to this, however:  if the file name begins with a
       backtick (`), then the remaining characters in the file name give a shell  command  (often
       zcat) which is executed; its standard output is then sent to be interpreted as PostScript.
       Since the execution of arbitrary shell commands with the  user's  permissions  is  a  huge
       security  risk,  evaluation of these backtick commands is disabled by default. It needs to
       be activated via the -allowshell command-line option.  NOTE: You  should  never  use  this
       option  when viewing documents that you didn't compile yourself. The backtick specials are
       not needed for uncompressing gzipped PostScript files, since xdvi can do that on  the  fly
       if  the  filename ends with .eps.gz or .eps.Z (and if the first bytes of the file indicate
       that the file is indeed compressed).  This is  both  safer  and  more  flexible  than  the
       backtick  approach,  since  the  default file searching rules will apply to such filenames
       too.

TYPE 1 FONTS

       Using FreeType (version 2), xdvi can render PostScript<tm> Type 1 fonts directly,  without
       the  route  via  TeX pixel (pk) fonts. The advantage of this is that only one size of each
       font needs to be stored on disk.  Unless the -notype1fonts option is used, xdvi  will  try
       to render every font using FreeType. Only as a fallback will it invoke an external program
       (like mktexpk, which in turn may invoke utilities like ps2pk or  gsftopk)  to  generate  a
       pixel  font  from  the  Type  1  source. The direct rendering of the Computer Modern fonts
       should work out-of-the box,  whereas  other  Type  1  fonts  such  as  the  35  `standard'
       PostScript<tm>  fonts  resident  in  printers  may need to be made accessible for use with
       xdvi, unless your system administrator or TeX distribution has already done so  (which  is
       the  case  e.g.  for  current TeX Live systems). For the 35 PostScript<tm> resident fonts,
       xdvik will search using the Fontmap provided with Ghostscript, if  necessary.   Also,  the
       xdvik  distribution comes with a utility called t1mapper to make these fonts available for
       xdvi; see the manual page for t1mapper(1) for usage details.  This program is likely to be
       dropped in the future, however, since it is probably not needed anymore.

SPECIALS (GENERALLY)

       Any  of  the  specials used by xdvi may be preceded by the characters ``xdvi:''.  Doing so
       does not change the behavior of the special under xdvi, but it  tells  other  dvi  drivers
       (such as e.g. dvips) to ignore the special.

SOURCE SPECIALS

       Some  TeX  implementations or macro packages provide the facility to automatically include
       so-called `source specials' into a DVI file.  These contain the line number, eventually  a
       column  number, and the filename of the .tex source. This makes it possible to jump from a
       .dvi file to the corresponding place in the  .tex  source  and  vice  versa  (also  called
       `inverse  search'  -  jumping  from the DVI file to the TeX file is also known as `reverse
       search', and jumping from the TeX file to the DVI file as `forward search').

       To be usable with xdvi, source specials in the dvi file must have  one  of  the  following
       formats:

                src:line[ ]filename
                src:line:col[ ]filename
                src:line
                src:line:col
                src::col

       If  filename  or  line  are  omitted,  the  most recent values are used.  The first source
       special on each page must be in one of  the  first  two  forms,  since  defaults  are  not
       inherited across pages.

       You  will  need  a TeX implementation that provides an appropriate switch (e.g. -src) or a
       macro    package    (such    as    srcltx.sty    or     srctex.sty,     available     from
       CTAN:macros/latex/contrib/supported/srcltx/)  to  insert such source specials into the DVI
       file.

       For reverse search, the combination Ctrl-Mouse 1 will make xdvi open an editor (the  value
       of  the -editor command line option) with the file and the line number of the .tex source.
       See the description of the -editor option for more information and example settings.

       For forward search, xdvi has a -sourceposition option that makes xdvi jump to the page  in
       the DVI file corresponding to the given line (or the closest line having a source special)
       of the specified file  and  highlight  the  found  region.  See  the  description  of  the
       -sourceposition option for more details.

       More  information  on setting up various editors for use with source specials can be found
       at:

            http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/inverse-search.html

PAPERSIZE SPECIALS

       xdvi accepts specials to set the paper size for the document.  These specials should be of
       the form

                papersize=[*]width,height

       where  width  and  height  give  the width and height of the paper, respectively.  Each of
       these should appear in the form of a decimal number followed  by  any  of  the  two-letter
       abbreviations  for  units  accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  If an
       asterisk (*) appears just before the width, then the measurements refer  to  the  document
       dimensions  (e.g.  pt as opposed to truept).  This allows a macro package to vary the page
       size according to elements of the document; e.g.

            \special{xdvi: papersize=*\number\wd\mybox sp,
                     \number\ht\mybox sp}

       Except for the asterisk, this format is compatible with dvips.

       The last papersize special on a page determines the size of that page.   If  there  is  no
       such  special  on  a  given  page,  the most recent papersize is used, or, if there are no
       papersize specials on any preceding page, then the value of the paper resource (or  -paper
       option  on the command line) is used.  Thus the paper size may vary for different pages of
       the dvi file.

       If the paper resource (or -paper command-line option) begins with a plus sign (`+'),  then
       all papersize specials in the dvi file are ignored.

COLOR SPECIALS

       The color specials supported by xdvi are the same as those supported by dvips, except that
       the literal PostScript color specification (as in the AggiePattern example  in  the  dvips
       documentation)  is  not supported.  There are also some restrictions due to the way xdvi's
       drawing  routines are implemented; e.g. the \colorbox and  \fcolorbox  macros  don't  work
       with  xdvi.  See the section LIMITATIONS below for more information on these restrictions.
       Xdvi supports the same list of named colors as dvips does, namely:

       Apricot, Aquamarine, Bittersweet, Black, Blue,  BlueGreen,  BlueViolet,  BrickRed,  Brown,
       BurntOrange,   CadetBlue,   CarnationPink,   Cerulean,  CornflowerBlue,  Cyan,  Dandelion,
       DarkOrchid,  Emerald,  ForestGreen,  Fuchsia,   Goldenrod,   Gray,   Green,   GreenYellow,
       JungleGreen,   Lavender,   LimeGreen,  Magenta,  Mahogany,  Maroon,  Melon,  MidnightBlue,
       Mulberry, NavyBlue, OliveGreen, Orange, OrangeRed, Orchid, Peach,  Periwinkle,  PineGreen,
       Plum,  ProcessBlue,  Purple,  RawSienna,  Red, RedOrange, RedViolet, Rhodamine, RoyalBlue,
       RoyalPurple, RubineRed, Salmon, SeaGreen,  Sepia,  SkyBlue,  SpringGreen,  Tan,  TealBlue,
       Thistle,   Turquoise,  Violet,  VioletRed,  White,  WildStrawberry,  Yellow,  YellowGreen,
       YellowOrange.

       Note that these names are case sensitive.

       The documentation of the LaTeX color package provides more details  on  how  to  use  such
       specials  with LaTeX; see the dvips documentation for a detailed description of the syntax
       and semantics of the color specials.

SIGNALS

       When xdvi receives a SIGUSR1 signal, it rereads the dvi file.

ENVIRONMENT

       Xdvik uses the same environment variables and algorithms for searching for font  files  as
       TeX  and  friends.   See  the  documentation for the Kpathsea library, kpathsea.dvi, for a
       detailed description of these.

       In addition, xdvik accepts the following variables:

       DISPLAY
              Specifies which graphics display terminal to use.

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG
              Trace Kpathsea lookups; set it to -1 (= all bits on) for complete tracing.

       EXTENSIONMAPS
              A list of files to be searched for mime types  entries  (as  for  Acrobat  Reader).
              Earlier entries in one of these files override later ones.  If this variable is not
              set, the following default path is used:

              $HOME/.mime.types:/etc/mime.types:\
                  /usr/etc/mime.types:/usr/local/etc/mime.types

       MAILCAPS
              A list of files to be searched for mailcap entries, as defined  by  RFC  1343.  See
              this  RFC  or  the mailcap(4) manual page for a detailed description of the mailcap
              file format.  Currently, only the following mailcap features are supported:

              test=command
                     The entry is only used if command can be executed via the system() call  and
                     if the system() call returns with value 0 (success).  The command string may
                     contain the format string %s, which will be replaced by the file name.

              needsterminal
                     If this flag is used, the command will be executed in a new xterm window  by
                     prepending ``xterm -e '' to the command string.

              All  other fields in the mailcap entry are ignored by xdvi.  Earlier entries in one
              of these files override later ones.  If the variable is not defined, the  following
              default path is used:

                  $HOME/.mailcap:/etc/mailcap:/usr/etc/mailcap:\
                      /usr/local/etc/mailcap

              For  security  reasons, some special characters (i.e. ( ) ` \ ;) are escaped in the
              argument before passing it to system().

       BROWSER
              Determines the web browser used to open external links (i.e. all  URLs  that  don't
              start  with  the  `file:' scheme and are not relative links in the local DVI file),
              and to open links for which no viewer has been specified in the mailcap files.  The
              value of this variable is a colon-separated list of commands. Xdvi will try each of
              them in sequence until one succeeds (i.e. doesn't immediately  return  with  status
              0).  This  allows  you  to  specify  your  favourite  browser at the beginning, and
              fallback browsers at the end. Every occurrence of %s in the string is  replaced  by
              the  target  URL;  every  occurrence  of %% is replaced by a single %.  If no %s is
              present, the URL string is added as an extra argument.
              An example setting is:

              netscape -raise -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)':xterm -e  lynx  %s:xterm  -e  wget
              %s:lynx %s:wget %s

              See

              http://www.catb.org/~esr/BROWSER/

              for more details on the BROWSER environment variable.

       GS_LIB A  colon-separated  list  of directories to search for Fontmap files, etc., as used
              for Ghostscript.  It has the same meaning as it does when running Ghostscript.   In
              xdvik,  it  is used when searching for font files when the map file does not give a
              file name for the font (this should be quite rare).  The command gs  -h  will  list
              the  default  value  that  Ghostscript  uses.  See also the XDVI_GS_LIB environment
              variable (below).

       XDVI_GS_LIB
              This has the same effect as GS_LIB but affects only xdvi.  Use this when  you  want
              to use a different value for GS_LIB when running xdvi, but use either the compiled-
              in default value or some other value when running Ghostscript.  If both GS_LIB  and
              XDVI_GS_LIB are set, then xdvi uses XDVI_GS_LIB.  To use the default value compiled
              in to  xdvi  while  still  retaining  the  ability  to  set  GS_LIB  for  use  with
              Ghostscript, you can set XDVI_GS_LIB to the empty string.

       TMPDIR The  directory  to  use  for  storing  temporary  files  created when uncompressing
              PostScript files.

       XEDITOR
              Determines the editor command used for source special `reverse search', if  neither
              the -editor command-line option nor the .editor resource are  specified.   See  the
              description of the -editor command line option for details on the format.

       VISUAL Determines an editor to be opened  in  an  xterm  window  if  neither  of  -editor,
              .editor, or XEDITOR is specified.

       EDITOR Determines  an  editor  to  be  opened  in  an  xterm window if neither of -editor,
              .editor, XEDITOR or VISUAL is specified.

       WWWBROWSER
              Obsolete; use BROWSER instead.

LIMITATIONS

       xdvi accepts many but not all  types  of  PostScript  specials  accepted  by  dvips.   For
       example,  it  accepts  most  specials  generated by epsf and psfig.  It does not, however,
       support bop-hook or eop-hook,  nor  does  it  allow  PostScript  commands  to  affect  the
       rendering  of  things that are not PostScript (for example, the ``NEAT'' and rotated ``A''
       examples in the dvips manual).  These restrictions are due to the design of xdvi;  in  all
       likelihood they will always remain.

       LaTeX2e rotation specials are currently not supported.

       MetaPost files containing included text are not supported.

       Xdvi's  color  handling  doesn't support the \colorbox and \fcolorbox macros;  this is not
       likely to change in the near future. This also means that  e.g. colored tables (as created
       by the colortbl package) may render incorrectly: Text in colors different from the default
       foreground color may not be displayed. When the page is  redrawn  (e.g.  after  using  the
       magnifier), the background color of the cells may overdraw the text.

FILES

       $HOME/.xdvirc
              A  file  that  holds all settings that the user changed via the keys, the `Options'
              and the Xaw `Modes' menu and the dialogs, as X resources. These resources  override
              the settings in $HOME/.Xdefaults.  This file is ignored if the -q option is used or
              the noInitFile X resource is set.

       config.xdvi
              An optional  configuration  file  for  the  Type  1  font  setup,  which  specifies
              dvips-style  map  files  specific  to  xdvik.  If used, it should be present in the
              directory determined by the TEXCONFIG environment variable.  Its format is  similar
              to  configuration  files for dvips, except that it is only scanned for the names of
              map files (p and p+ directives).

SEE ALSO

       X(1), dvips(1), mktexpk(1), ps2pk(1), gsftopk(1), t1mapper(1),  mailcap(4),  the  Kpathsea
       documentation, and the Xdvik home page at http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/.

AUTHORS

       Eric  Cooper,  CMU,  did  a  version  for  direct  output to a QVSS. Modified for X by Bob
       Scheifler, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Modified for X11 by Mark Eichin, MIT SIPB.
       Additional enhancements by many others.

       The current maintainer of the original xdvi is Paul Vojta, U.C. Berkeley.

       Code  for the xdvik variant has been contributed by many people, whose names are scattered
       across the source files. Xdvik is hosted on CTAN:dviware/xdvik and on SourceForge; for the
       most up-to-date information, please visit:

       http://xdvi.sourceforge.net

       Please report all bugs to the SourceForge bug tracker:

       http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=add&group_id=23164&atid=377580