Provided by: libcatalyst-manual-perl_5.9009-2_all bug


       Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication - Catalyst Tutorial - Chapter 5:


       This is Chapter 5 of 10 for the Catalyst tutorial.

       Tutorial Overview

       1.  Introduction

       2.  Catalyst Basics

       3.  More Catalyst Basics

       4.  Basic CRUD

       5.  05_Authentication

       6.  Authorization

       7.  Debugging

       8.  Testing

       9.  Advanced CRUD

       10. Appendices


       Now that we finally have a simple yet functional application, we can focus on providing
       authentication (with authorization coming next in Chapter 6).

       This chapter of the tutorial is divided into two main sections: 1) basic, cleartext
       authentication and 2) hash-based authentication.

       Source code for the tutorial in included in the /home/catalyst/Final directory of the
       Tutorial Virtual machine (one subdirectory per chapter).  There are also instructions for
       downloading the code in Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::01_Intro.


       This section explores how to add authentication logic to a Catalyst application.

   Add Users and Roles to the Database
       First, we add both user and role information to the database (we will add the role
       information here although it will not be used until the authorization section, Chapter 6).
       Create a new SQL script file by opening "myapp02.sql" in your editor and insert:

           -- Add users and role tables, along with a many-to-many join table
           PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON;
           CREATE TABLE users (
                   id            INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
                   username      TEXT,
                   password      TEXT,
                   email_address TEXT,
                   first_name    TEXT,
                   last_name     TEXT,
                   active        INTEGER
           CREATE TABLE role (
                   id   INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
                   role TEXT
           CREATE TABLE user_role (
                   PRIMARY KEY (user_id, role_id)
           -- Load up some initial test data
           INSERT INTO users VALUES (1, 'test01', 'mypass', '', 'Joe',  'Blow', 1);
           INSERT INTO users VALUES (2, 'test02', 'mypass', '', 'Jane', 'Doe',  1);
           INSERT INTO users VALUES (3, 'test03', 'mypass', '', 'No',   'Go',   0);
           INSERT INTO role VALUES (1, 'user');
           INSERT INTO role VALUES (2, 'admin');
           INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 1);
           INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (1, 2);
           INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (2, 1);
           INSERT INTO user_role VALUES (3, 1);

       Then load this into the "myapp.db" database with the following command:

           $ sqlite3 myapp.db < myapp02.sql

   Add User and Role Information to DBIC Schema
       Although we could manually edit the DBIC schema information to include the new tables
       added in the previous step, let's use the "create=static" option on the DBIC model helper
       to do most of the work for us:

           $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
               create=static components=TimeStamp dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
               on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"
            exists "/home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model"
            exists "/home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../t"
           Dumping manual schema for MyApp::Schema to directory /home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../lib ...
           Schema dump completed.
            exists "/home/catalyst/dev/MyApp/script/../lib/MyApp/Model/"
           $ ls lib/MyApp/Schema/Result

       Notice how the helper has added three new table-specific Result Source files to the
       "lib/MyApp/Schema/Result" directory.  And, more importantly, even if there were changes to
       the existing result source files, those changes would have only been written above the "#
       DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" comment and your hand-edited enhancements would
       have been preserved.

       Speaking of "hand-edited enhancements," we should now add the "many_to_many" relationship
       information to the User Result Source file.  As with the Book, BookAuthor, and Author
       files in Chapter 3, DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader has automatically created the "has_many"
       and "belongs_to" relationships for the new User, UserRole, and Role tables. However, as a
       convenience for mapping Users to their assigned roles (see Chapter 6), we will also
       manually add a "many_to_many" relationship. Edit "lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/" add the
       following information between the "# DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" comment and
       the closing "1;":

           # many_to_many():
           #   args:
           #     1) Name of relationship, DBIC will create accessor with this name
           #     2) Name of has_many() relationship this many_to_many() is shortcut for
           #     3) Name of belongs_to() relationship in model class of has_many() above
           #   You must already have the has_many() defined to use a many_to_many().
           __PACKAGE__->many_to_many(roles => 'user_roles', 'role');

       The code for this update is obviously very similar to the edits we made to the "Book" and
       "Author" classes created in Chapter 3 with one exception: we only defined the
       "many_to_many" relationship in one direction. Whereas we felt that we would want to map
       Authors to Books AND Books to Authors, here we are only adding the convenience
       "many_to_many" in the Users to Roles direction.

       Note that we do not need to make any change to the "lib/MyApp/" schema file.  It
       simply tells DBIC to load all of the Result Class and ResultSet Class files it finds below
       the "lib/MyApp/Schema" directory, so it will automatically pick up our new table

   Sanity-Check of the Development Server Reload
       We aren't ready to try out the authentication just yet; we only want to do a quick check
       to be sure our model loads correctly. Assuming that you are following along and using the
       "-r" option on "", then the development server should automatically reload
       (if not, press "Ctrl-C" to break out of the server if it's running and then enter
       "script/" to start it). Look for the three new model objects in the startup
       debug output:

           | Class                                                             | Type     |
           | MyApp::Controller::Books                                          | instance |
           | MyApp::Controller::Root                                           | instance |
           | MyApp::Model::DB                                                  | instance |
           | MyApp::Model::DB::Author                                          | class    |
           | MyApp::Model::DB::Book                                            | class    |
           | MyApp::Model::DB::BookAuthor                                      | class    |
           | MyApp::Model::DB::Role                                            | class    |
           | MyApp::Model::DB::User                                            | class    |
           | MyApp::Model::DB::UserRole                                        | class    |
           | MyApp::View::HTML                                                 | instance |

       Again, notice that your "Result Class" classes have been "re-loaded" by Catalyst under

   Include Authentication and Session Plugins
       Edit "lib/" and update it as follows (everything below "StackTrace" is new):

           # Load plugins
           use Catalyst qw/




       Note: As discussed in Chapter 3, different versions of "Catalyst::Devel" have used a
       variety of methods to load the plugins, but we are going to use the current Catalyst 5.9
       practice of putting them on the "use Catalyst" line.

       The "Authentication" plugin supports Authentication while the "Session" plugins are
       required to maintain state across multiple HTTP requests.

       Note that the only required Authentication class is the main one. This is a change that
       occurred in version 0.09999_01 of the Authentication plugin. You do not need to specify a
       particular Authentication::Store or "Authentication::Credential" you want to use.
       Instead, indicate the Store and Credential you want to use in your application
       configuration (see below).

       Make sure you include the additional plugins as new dependencies in the Makefile.PL file
       something like this:

           requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication';
           requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session';
           requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::File';
           requires 'Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie';

       Note that there are several options for Session::Store.  Session::Store::Memcached is
       generally a good choice if you are on Unix.  If you are running on Windows
       Session::Store::File is fine. Consult Session::Store and its subclasses for additional
       information and options (for example to use a database-backed session store).

   Configure Authentication
       There are a variety of ways to provide configuration information to
       Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication.  Here we will use
       Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB because it automatically sets a reasonable set
       of defaults for us.  (Note: the "SimpleDB" here has nothing to do with the SimpleDB
       offered in Amazon's web services offerings -- here we are only talking about a "simple"
       way to use your DB as an authentication backend.)  Open "lib/" and place the
       following text above the call to "__PACKAGE__->setup();":

           # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
               'Plugin::Authentication' => {
                   default => {
                       class           => 'SimpleDB',
                       user_model      => 'DB::User',
                       password_type   => 'clear',

       We could have placed this configuration in "myapp.conf", but placing it in "lib/"
       is probably a better place since it's not likely something that users of your application
       will want to change during deployment (or you could use a mixture: leave "class" and
       "user_model" defined in "lib/" as we show above, but place "password_type" in
       "myapp.conf" to allow the type of password to be easily modified during deployment).  We
       will stick with putting all of the authentication-related configuration in "lib/"
       for the tutorial, but if you wish to use "myapp.conf", just convert to the following code:

                   password_type clear
                   user_model    DB::User
                   class         SimpleDB

       TIP: Here is a short script that will dump the contents of "MyApp-"config> to
       Config::General format in "myapp.conf":

           $ CATALYST_DEBUG=0 perl -Ilib -e 'use MyApp; use Config::General;
               Config::General->new->save_file("myapp.conf", MyApp->config);'

       HOWEVER, if you try out the command above, be sure to delete the "myapp.conf" command.
       Otherwise, you will wind up with duplicate configurations.

       NOTE: Because we are using SimpleDB along with a database layout that complies with its
       default assumptions: we don't need to specify the names of the columns where our username
       and password information is stored (hence, the "Simple" part of "SimpleDB").  That being
       said, SimpleDB lets you specify that type of information if you need to.  Take a look at
       "Catalyst::Authentication::Realm::SimpleDB" for details.

   Add Login and Logout Controllers
       Use the Catalyst create script to create two stub controller files:

           $ script/ controller Login
           $ script/ controller Logout

       You could easily use a single controller here.  For example, you could have a "User"
       controller with both "login" and "logout" actions.  Remember, Catalyst is designed to be
       very flexible, and leaves such matters up to you, the designer and programmer.

       Then open "lib/MyApp/Controller/", and update the definition of "sub index" to

           =head2 index

           Login logic


           sub index :Path :Args(0) {
               my ($self, $c) = @_;

               # Get the username and password from form
               my $username = $c->request->params->{username};
               my $password = $c->request->params->{password};

               # If the username and password values were found in form
               if ($username && $password) {
                   # Attempt to log the user in
                   if ($c->authenticate({ username => $username,
                                          password => $password  } )) {
                       # If successful, then let them use the application
                   } else {
                       # Set an error message
                       $c->stash(error_msg => "Bad username or password.");
               } else {
                   # Set an error message
                   $c->stash(error_msg => "Empty username or password.")
                       unless ($c->user_exists);

               # If either of above don't work out, send to the login page
               $c->stash(template => 'login.tt2');

       This controller fetches the "username" and "password" values from the login form and
       attempts to authenticate the user.  If successful, it redirects the user to the book list
       page.  If the login fails, the user will stay at the login page and receive an error
       message.  If the "username" and "password" values are not present in the form, the user
       will be taken to the empty login form.

       Note that we could have used something like ""sub default :Path"", however, it is
       generally recommended (partly for historical reasons, and partly for code clarity) only to
       use "default" in "MyApp::Controller::Root", and then mainly to generate the 404 not found
       page for the application.

       Instead, we are using ""sub somename :Path :Args(0) {...}"" here to specifically match the
       URL "/login". "Path" actions (aka, "literal actions") create URI matches relative to the
       namespace of the controller where they are defined.  Although "Path" supports arguments
       that allow relative and absolute paths to be defined, here we use an empty "Path"
       definition to match on just the name of the controller itself.  The method name, "index",
       is arbitrary. We make the match even more specific with the :Args(0) action modifier --
       this forces the match on only "/login", not "/login/somethingelse".

       Next, update the corresponding method in "lib/MyApp/Controller/" to match:

           =head2 index

           Logout logic


           sub index :Path :Args(0) {
               my ($self, $c) = @_;

               # Clear the user's state

               # Send the user to the starting point

   Add a Login Form TT Template Page
       Create a login form by opening "root/src/login.tt2" and inserting:

           [% META title = 'Login' %]

           <!-- Login form -->
           <form method="post" action="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">
                 <td><input type="text" name="username" size="40" /></td>
                 <td><input type="password" name="password" size="40" /></td>
                 <td colspan="2"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit" /></td>

   Add Valid User Check
       We need something that provides enforcement for the authentication mechanism -- a global
       mechanism that prevents users who have not passed authentication from reaching any pages
       except the login page.  This is generally done via an "auto" action/method in

       Edit the existing "lib/MyApp/Controller/" class file and insert the following

           =head2 auto

           Check if there is a user and, if not, forward to login page


           # Note that 'auto' runs after 'begin' but before your actions and that
           # 'auto's "chain" (all from application path to most specific class are run)
           # See the 'Actions' section of 'Catalyst::Manual::Intro' for more info.
           sub auto :Private {
               my ($self, $c) = @_;

               # Allow unauthenticated users to reach the login page.  This
               # allows unauthenticated users to reach any action in the Login
               # controller.  To lock it down to a single action, we could use:
               #   if ($c->action eq $c->controller('Login')->action_for('index'))
               # to only allow unauthenticated access to the 'index' action we
               # added above.
               if ($c->controller eq $c->controller('Login')) {
                   return 1;

               # If a user doesn't exist, force login
               if (!$c->user_exists) {
                   # Dump a log message to the development server debug output
                   $c->log->debug('***Root::auto User not found, forwarding to /login');
                   # Redirect the user to the login page
                   # Return 0 to cancel 'post-auto' processing and prevent use of application
                   return 0;

               # User found, so return 1 to continue with processing after this 'auto'
               return 1;

       As discussed in "CREATE A CATALYST CONTROLLER" in
       Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::03_MoreCatalystBasics, every "auto" method from the
       application/root controller down to the most specific controller will be called.  By
       placing the authentication enforcement code inside the "auto" method of
       "lib/MyApp/Controller/" (or "lib/"), it will be called for every request
       that is received by the entire application.

   Displaying Content Only to Authenticated Users
       Let's say you want to provide some information on the login page that changes depending on
       whether the user has authenticated yet.  To do this, open "root/src/login.tt2" in your
       editor and add the following lines to the bottom of the file:

              # This code illustrates how certain parts of the TT
              # template will only be shown to users who have logged in
           [% IF c.user_exists %]
               Please Note: You are already logged in as '[% c.user.username %]'.
               You can <a href="[% c.uri_for('/logout') %]">logout</a> here.
           [% ELSE %]
               You need to log in to use this application.
           [% END %]
              Note that this whole block is a comment because the "#" appears
              immediate after the "[%" (with no spaces in between).  Although it
              can be a handy way to temporarily "comment out" a whole block of
              TT code, it's probably a little too subtle for use in "normal"

       Although most of the code is comments, the middle few lines provide a "you are already
       logged in" reminder if the user returns to the login page after they have already
       authenticated.  For users who have not yet authenticated, a "You need to log in..."
       message is displayed (note the use of an IF-THEN-ELSE construct in TT).

   Try Out Authentication
       The development server should have reloaded each time we edited one of the Controllers in
       the previous section. Now try going to <http://localhost:3000/books/list> and you should
       be redirected to the login page, hitting Shift+Reload or Ctrl+Reload if necessary (the
       "You are already logged in" message should not appear -- if it does, click the "logout"
       button and try again). Note the "***Root::auto User not found..." debug message in the
       development server output. Enter username "test01" and password "mypass", and you should
       be taken to the Book List page.

       IMPORTANT NOTE: If you are having issues with authentication on Internet Explorer (or
       potentially other browsers), be sure to check the system clocks on both your server and
       client machines.  Internet Explorer is very picky about timestamps for cookies.  You can
       use the "ntpq -p" command on the Tutorial Virtual Machine to check time sync and/or use
       the following command to force a sync:

           sudo ntpdate-debian

       Or, depending on your firewall configuration, try it with "-u":

           sudo ntpdate-debian -u

       Note: NTP can be a little more finicky about firewalls because it uses UDP vs. the more
       common TCP that you see with most Internet protocols.  Worse case, you might have to
       manually set the time on your development box instead of using NTP.

       Open "root/src/books/list.tt2" and add the following lines to the bottom (below the
       closing </table> tag):

             <a href="[% c.uri_for('/login') %]">Login</a>
             <a href="[% c.uri_for(c.controller.action_for('form_create')) %]">Create</a>

       Reload your browser and you should now see a "Login" and "Create" links at the bottom of
       the page (as mentioned earlier, you can update template files without a development server
       reload).  Click the first link to return to the login page.  This time you should see the
       "You are already logged in" message.

       Finally, click the "You can logout here" link on the "/login" page.  You should stay at
       the login page, but the message should change to "You need to log in to use this


       In this section we increase the security of our system by converting from cleartext
       passwords to SHA-1 password hashes that include a random "salt" value to make them
       extremely difficult to crack, even with dictionary and "rainbow table" attacks.

       Note: This section is optional.  You can skip it and the rest of the tutorial will
       function normally.

       Be aware that even with the techniques shown in this section, the browser still transmits
       the passwords in cleartext to your application.  We are just avoiding the storage of
       cleartext passwords in the database by using a salted SHA-1 hash. If you are concerned
       about cleartext passwords between the browser and your application, consider using
       SSL/TLS, made easy with modules such as Catalyst::Plugin:RequireSSL and

   Re-Run the DBIC::Schema Model Helper to Include DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn
       Let's re-run the model helper to have it include DBIx::Class::PassphraseColumn in all of
       the Result Classes it generates for us.  Simply use the same command we saw in Chapters 3
       and 4, but add ",PassphraseColumn" to the "components" argument:

           $ script/ model DB DBIC::Schema MyApp::Schema \
               create=static components=TimeStamp,PassphraseColumn dbi:SQLite:myapp.db \
               on_connect_do="PRAGMA foreign_keys = ON"

       If you then open one of the Result Classes, you will see that it includes PassphraseColumn
       in the "load_components" line.  Take a look at "lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/" since
       that's the main class where we want to use hashed and salted passwords:

           __PACKAGE__->load_components("InflateColumn::DateTime", "TimeStamp", "PassphraseColumn");

   Modify the "password" Column to Use PassphraseColumn
       Open the file "lib/MyApp/Schema/Result/" and enter the following text below the "#
       DO NOT MODIFY THIS OR ANYTHING ABOVE!" line but above the closing "1;":

           # Have the 'password' column use a SHA-1 hash and 20-byte salt
           # with RFC 2307 encoding; Generate the 'check_password" method
               'password' => {
                   passphrase       => 'rfc2307',
                   passphrase_class => 'SaltedDigest',
                   passphrase_args  => {
                       algorithm   => 'SHA-1',
                       salt_random => 20.
                   passphrase_check_method => 'check_password',

       This redefines the automatically generated definition for the password fields at the top
       of the Result Class file to now use PassphraseColumn logic, storing passwords in RFC 2307
       format ("passphrase" is set to "rfc2307").  "passphrase_class" can be set to the name of
       any "Authen::Passphrase::*" class, such as "SaltedDigest" to use
       Authen::Passphrase::SaltedDigest, or "BlowfishCrypt" to use
       Authen::Passphrase::BlowfishCrypt.  "passphrase_args" is then used to customize the
       passphrase class you selected. Here we specified the digest algorithm to use as "SHA-1"
       and the size of the salt to use, but we could have also specified any other option the
       selected passphrase class supports.

   Load Hashed Passwords in the Database
       Next, let's create a quick script to load some hashed and salted passwords into the
       "password" column of our "users" table.  Open the file "" in your
       editor and enter the following text:


           use strict;
           use warnings;

           use MyApp::Schema;

           my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect('dbi:SQLite:myapp.db');

           my @users = $schema->resultset('User')->all;

           foreach my $user (@users) {

       PassphraseColumn lets us simply call "$user-"check_password($password)> to see if the user
       has supplied the correct password, or, as we show above, call
       "$user-"update($new_password)> to update the hashed password stored for this user.

       Then run the following command:

           $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib

       We had to use the "-Ilib" argument to tell Perl to look under the "lib" directory for our
       "MyApp::Schema" model.

       The DBIC_TRACE output should show that the update worked:

           $ DBIC_TRACE=1 perl -Ilib
           SELECT, me.username, me.password, me.email_address,
           me.first_name, me.last_name, FROM users me:
           UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
           '{SSHA}esgz64CpHMo8pMfgIIszP13ft23z/zio04aCwNdm0wc6MDeloMUH4g==', '1'
           UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
           '{SSHA}FpGhpCJus+Ea9ne4ww8404HH+hJKW/fW+bAv1v6FuRUy2G7I2aoTRQ==', '2'
           UPDATE users SET password = ? WHERE ( id = ? ):
           '{SSHA}ZyGlpiHls8qFBSbHr3r5t/iqcZE602XLMbkSVRRNl6rF8imv1abQVg==', '3'

       But we can further confirm our actions by dumping the users table:

           $ sqlite3 myapp.db "select * from users"

       As you can see, the passwords are much harder to steal from the database (not only are the
       hashes stored, but every hash is different even though the passwords are the same because
       of the added "salt" value).  Also note that this demonstrates how to use a DBIx::Class
       model outside of your web application -- a very useful feature in many situations.

   Enable Hashed and Salted Passwords
       Edit "lib/" and update the config() section for "Plugin::Authentication" it to
       match the following text (the only change is to the "password_type" field):

           # Configure SimpleDB Authentication
               'Plugin::Authentication' => {
                   default => {
                       class           => 'SimpleDB',
                       user_model      => 'DB::User',
                       password_type   => 'self_check',

       The use of "self_check" will cause Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIx::Class to
       call the "check_password" method we enabled on our "password" columns.

   Try Out the Hashed Passwords
       The development server should restart as soon as your save the "lib/" file in the
       previous section. You should now be able to go to <http://localhost:3000/books/list> and
       login as before. When done, click the "logout" link on the login page (or point your
       browser at <http://localhost:3000/logout>).


       As discussed in the previous chapter of the tutorial, "flash" allows you to set variables
       in a way that is very similar to "stash", but it will remain set across multiple requests.
       Once the value is read, it is cleared (unless reset).  Although "flash" has nothing to do
       with authentication, it does leverage the same session plugins.  Now that those plugins
       are enabled, let's go back and update the "delete and redirect with query parameters" code
       seen at the end of the Basic CRUD chapter of the tutorial to take advantage of "flash".

       First, open "lib/MyApp/Controller/" and modify "sub delete" to match the following
       (everything after the model search line of code has changed):

           =head2 delete

           Delete a book


           sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
               my ($self, $c) = @_;

               # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
               # with related 'book_authors' entries

               # Use 'flash' to save information across requests until it's read
               $c->flash->{status_msg} = "Book deleted";

               # Redirect the user back to the list page

       Next, open "root/src/wrapper.tt2" and update the TT code to pull from flash vs. the
       "status_msg" query parameter:

           <div id="content">
               [%# Status and error messages %]
               <span class="message">[% status_msg || c.flash.status_msg %]</span>
               <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
               [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
               [% content %]
           </div><!-- end content -->

       Although the sample above only shows the "content" div, leave the rest of the file intact
       -- the only change we made to replace "|| c.request.params.status_msg" with
       "c.flash.status_msg" in the "<span class="message">" line.

   Try Out Flash
       Authenticate using the login screen and then point your browser to
       <http://localhost:3000/books/url_create/Test/1/4> to create an extra several books.  Click
       the "Return to list" link and delete one of the "Test" books you just added.  The "flash"
       mechanism should retain our "Book deleted" status message across the redirect.

       NOTE: While "flash" will save information across multiple requests, it does get cleared
       the first time it is read.  In general, this is exactly what you want -- the "flash"
       message will get displayed on the next screen where it's appropriate, but it won't "keep
       showing up" after that first time (unless you reset it).  Please refer to
       Catalyst::Plugin::Session for additional information.

       Note: There is also a "flash-to-stash" feature that will automatically load the contents
       the contents of flash into stash, allowing us to use the more typical "c.flash.status_msg"
       in our TT template in lieu of the more verbose "status_msg || c.flash.status_msg" we used
       above.  Consult Catalyst::Plugin::Session for additional information.

   Switch To Catalyst::Plugin::StatusMessages
       Although the query parameter technique we used in Chapter 4 and the "flash" approach we
       used above will work in most cases, they both have their drawbacks.  The query parameters
       can leave the status message on the screen longer than it should (for example, if the user
       hits refresh).  And "flash" can display the wrong message on the wrong screen (flash just
       shows the message on the next page for that user... if the user has multiple windows or
       tabs open, then the wrong one can get the status message).

       Catalyst::Plugin::StatusMessage is designed to address these shortcomings.  It stores the
       messages in the user's session (so they are available across multiple requests), but ties
       each status message to a random token.  By passing this token across the redirect, we are
       no longer relying on a potentially ambiguous "next request" like we do with flash.  And,
       because the message is deleted the first time it's displayed, the user can hit refresh and
       still only see the message a single time (even though the URL may continue to reference
       the token, it's only displayed the first time).  The use of "StatusMessage" or a similar
       mechanism is recommended for all Catalyst applications.

       To enable "StatusMessage", first edit "lib/" and add "StatusMessage" to the list
       of plugins:

           use Catalyst qw/





       Then edit "lib/MyApp/Controller/" and modify the "delete" action to match the

           sub delete :Chained('object') :PathPart('delete') :Args(0) {
               my ($self, $c) = @_;

               # Saved the PK id for status_msg below
               my $id = $c->stash->{object}->id;

               # Use the book object saved by 'object' and delete it along
               # with related 'book_authors' entries

               # Redirect the user back to the list page
                   {mid => $c->set_status_msg("Deleted book $id")}));

       This uses the "set_status_msg" that the plugin added to $c to save the message under a
       random token.  (If we wanted to save an error message, we could have used
       "set_error_msg".)  Because "set_status_msg" and "set_error_msg" both return the random
       token, we can assign that value to the ""mid"" query parameter via "uri_for" as shown

       Next, we need to make sure that the list page will load display the message.  The easiest
       way to do this is to take advantage of the chained dispatch we implemented in Chapter 4.
       Edit "lib/MyApp/Controller/" again and update the "base" action to match:

           sub base :Chained('/') :PathPart('books') :CaptureArgs(0) {
               my ($self, $c) = @_;

               # Store the ResultSet in stash so it's available for other methods
               $c->stash(resultset => $c->model('DB::Book'));

               # Print a message to the debug log
               $c->log->debug('*** INSIDE BASE METHOD ***');

               # Load status messages

       That way, anything that chains off "base" will automatically get any status or error
       messages loaded into the stash.  Let's convert the "list" action to take advantage of
       this.  Modify the method signature for "list" from:

           sub list :Local {


           sub list :Chained('base') :PathPart('list') :Args(0) {

       Finally, let's clean up the status/error message code in our wrapper template.  Edit
       "root/src/wrapper.tt2" and change the "content" div to match the following:

           <div id="content">
               [%# Status and error messages %]
               <span class="message">[% status_msg %]</span>
               <span class="error">[% error_msg %]</span>
               [%# This is where TT will stick all of your template's contents. -%]
               [% content %]
           </div><!-- end content -->

       Now go to <http://localhost:3000/books/list> in your browser. Delete another of the "Test"
       books you added in the previous step.  You should get redirection from the "delete" action
       back to the "list" action, but with a "mid=########" message ID query parameter.  The
       screen should say "Deleted book #" (where # is the PK id of the book you removed).
       However, if you hit refresh in your browser, the status message is no longer displayed
       (even though the URL does still contain the message ID token, it is ignored -- thereby
       keeping the state of our status/error messages in sync with the users actions).

       You can jump to the next chapter of the tutorial here: Authorization


       Kennedy Clark, ""

       Feel free to contact the author for any errors or suggestions, but the best way to report
       issues is via the CPAN RT Bug system at

       Copyright 2006-2011, Kennedy Clark, under the Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike
       License Version 3.0 (<>).

perl v5.26.0                                201Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::05_Authentication(3pm)