Provided by: libclass-trigger-perl_0.14-2_all bug


       Class::Trigger - Mixin to add / call inheritable triggers


         package Foo;
         use Class::Trigger;

         sub foo {
             my $self = shift;
             # some code ...
             # some code ...

         package main;
         Foo->add_trigger(before_foo => \&sub1);
         Foo->add_trigger(after_foo => \&sub2);

         my $foo = Foo->new;
         $foo->foo;            # then sub1, sub2 called

         # triggers are inheritable
         package Bar;
         use base qw(Foo);

         Bar->add_trigger(before_foo => \&sub);

         # triggers can be object based
         $foo->add_trigger(after_foo => \&sub3);
         $foo->foo;            # sub3 would appply only to this object


       Class::Trigger is a mixin class to add / call triggers (or hooks) that get called at some
       points you specify.


       By using this module, your class is capable of following methods.

             Foo->add_trigger($triggerpoint => $sub);
             $foo->add_trigger($triggerpoint => $sub);

             Foo->add_trigger( name => $triggerpoint,
                               callback => sub {return undef},
                               abortable => 1);

             # no further triggers will be called. Undef will be returned.

           Adds triggers for trigger point. You can have any number of triggers for each point.
           Each coderef will be passed a reference to the calling object, as well as arguments
           passed in via call_trigger. Return values will be captured in list context.

           If add_trigger is called with named parameters and the "abortable" parameter is passed
           a true value, a false return value from trigger code will stop processing of this
           trigger point and return a "false" value to the calling code.

           If "add_trigger" is called without the "abortable" flag, return values will be
           captured by call_trigger, but failures will be ignored.

           If "add_trigger" is called as object method, whole current trigger table will be
           copied onto the object and the new trigger added to that. (The object must be
           implemented as hash.)

             my $foo = Foo->new;

             # this trigger ($sub_foo) would apply only to $foo object
             $foo->add_trigger($triggerpoint => $sub_foo);

             # And not to another $bar object
             my $bar = Foo->new;

             $foo->call_trigger($triggerpoint, @args);

           Calls triggers for trigger point, which were added via "add_trigger" method. Each
           triggers will be passed a copy of the object as the first argument.  Remaining
           arguments passed to "call_trigger" will be passed on to each trigger.  Triggers are
           invoked in the same order they were defined.

           If there are no "abortable" triggers or no "abortable" trigger point returns a false
           value, "call_trigger" will return the number of triggers processed.

           If an "abortable" trigger returns a false value, call trigger will stop execution of
           the trigger point and return undef.

               my @results = @{ $foo->last_trigger_results };

           Returns a reference to an array of the return values of all triggers called for the
           last trigger point. Results are ordered in the same order the triggers were run.


       By default you can make any number of trigger points, but if you want to declare names of
       trigger points explicitly, you can do it via "import".

         package Foo;
         use Class::Trigger qw(foo bar baz);

         package main;
         Foo->add_trigger(foo  => \&sub1); # okay
         Foo->add_trigger(hoge => \&sub2); # exception


       Acknowledgement: Thanks to everyone at POOP mailing-list (

       Q.  This module lets me add subs to be run before/after a specific subroutine is run.

       A.  You put various call_trigger() method in your class.  Then your class users can call
           add_trigger() method to add subs to be run in points just you specify (exactly where
           you put call_trigger()).

       Q.  Are you aware of the perl-aspects project and the Aspect module?  Very similar to
           Class::Trigger by the look of it, but its not nearly as explicit.  Its not necessary
           for foo() to actually say "triggers go *here*", you just add them.

       A.  Yep ;)

           But the difference with Aspect would be that Class::Trigger is so simple that it's
           easy to learn, and doesn't require 5.6 or over.

       Q.  How does this compare to Sub::Versive, or Hook::LexWrap?

       A.  Very similar. But the difference with Class::Trigger would be the explicitness of
           trigger points.

           In addition, you can put hooks in any point, rather than pre or post of a method.

       Q.  It looks interesting, but I just can't think of a practical example of its use...

       A.  (by Tony Bowden)

           I originally added code like this to Class::DBI to cope with one particular case:
           auto-upkeep of full-text search indices.

           So I added functionality in Class::DBI to be able to trigger an arbitrary subroutine
           every time something happened - then it was a simple matter of setting up triggers on
           INSERT and UPDATE to reindex that row, and on DELETE to remove that index row.

           See Class::DBI::mysql::FullTextSearch and its source code to see it in action.


       Original idea by Tony Bowden <> in Class::DBI.

       Code by Tatsuhiko Miyagawa <>.

       Jesse Vincent added a code to get return values from triggers and abortable flag.


       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.