Provided by: libcoro-perl_6.540-1_amd64 bug

NAME

       Coro::AnyEvent - integrate threads into AnyEvent

SYNOPSIS

        use Coro;
        use AnyEvent;
        # using both Coro and AnyEvent will automatically load Coro::AnyEvent

        # or load it manually for its utility functions:
        use Coro::AnyEvent;

        Coro::AnyEvent::sleep 5;     # block current thread for 5s
        Coro::AnyEvent::poll;        # poll for new events once
        Coro::AnyEvent::idle;        # block until process no longer busy
        Coro::AnyEvent::idle_upto 5; # same, but only up to 5 seconds

        Coro::AnyEvent::readable $fh, 60
           or die "fh didn't become readable within 60 seconds\n";

DESCRIPTION

       When one naively starts to use threads in Perl, one will quickly run into the problem that
       threads which block on a syscall (sleeping, reading from a socket etc.) will block all
       threads.

       If one then uses an event loop, the problem is that the event loop has no knowledge of
       threads and will not run them before it polls for new events, again blocking the whole
       process.

       This module integrates threads into any event loop supported by AnyEvent, combining event-
       based programming with coroutine-based programming in a natural way.

       As of Coro 5.21 and newer, this module gets loaded automatically when AnyEvent initialises
       itself and Coro is used in the same process, thus there is no need to load it manually if
       you just want your threads to coexist with AnyEvent.

       If you want to use any functions from this module, you of course still need to "use
       Coro::AnyEvent", just as with other perl modules.

       Also, this module autodetects the event loop used (by relying on AnyEvent) and will either
       automatically defer to the high-performance Coro::EV or Coro::Event modules, or will use a
       generic integration method that should work with any event loop supported by AnyEvent.

USAGE

   RUN AN EVENT LOOP - OR NOT?
       For performance reasons, it is recommended that the main program or something else run the
       event loop of the event model you use, i.e.

          use Gtk2; # <- the event model
          use AnyEvent;
          use Coro:

          # initialise stuff
          async { ... };

          # now run mainloop of Gtk2
          main Gtk2;

       You can move the event loop into a thread as well, although this tends to get confusing:

          use Gtk2;
          use AnyEvent;
          use Coro:

          async { main Gtk2 };

          # do other things...
          while () {
             use Coro::AnyEvent;
             Coro::AnyEvent::sleep 1;
             print "ping...\n";
          }

       You can also do nothing, in which case Coro::AnyEvent will invoke the event loop as
       needed, which is less efficient, but sometimes very convenient.

       What you MUST NOT EVER DO is to block inside an event loop callback. The reason is that
       most event loops are not reentrant and this can cause a deadlock at best and corrupt
       memory at worst.

       Coro will try to catch you when you block in the event loop ("FATAL: $Coro::IDLE blocked
       itself"), but this is just best effort and only works when you do not run your own event
       loop.

       To avoid this problem, start a new thread (e.g. with "Coro::async_pool") or use
       "Coro::unblock_sub" to run blocking tasks.

   INVERSION OF CONTROL
       If you need to wait for a single event, the rouse functions will come in handy (see the
       Coro manpage for details):

          # wait for single SIGINT
          {
             my $int_w = AnyEvent->signal (signal => "INT", cb => Coro::rouse_cb);
             Coro::rouse_wait;
          }

   EVENT MODULES OTHER THAN ANYEVENT
       Keep in mind that, as shipped, Coro and Coro::AnyEvent only work with AnyEvent, and only
       when AnyEvent is actually used (i.e. initialised), so this will not work:

          # does not work: EV without AnyEvent is not recognised
          use EV;
          use Coro;

          EV::loop;

       And neither does this, unless you actually use AnyEvent for something:

          # does not work: AnyEvent must be initialised (e.g. by creating watchers)
          use EV;
          use AnyEvent;
          use Coro;

          EV::loop;

       This does work, however, because you create a watcher (condvars work, too), thus forcing
       AnyEvent to initialise itself:

          # does work: AnyEvent is actually used
          use EV;
          use AnyEvent;
          use Coro;

          my $timer = AE::timer 1, 1, sub { };

          EV::loop;

       And if you want to use AnyEvent just to bridge between Coro and your event model of
       choice, you can simply force it to initialise itself, like this:

          # does work: AnyEvent is initialised manually
          use POE;
          use AnyEvent;
          use Coro;

          AnyEvent::detect; # force AnyEvent to integrate Coro into POE
          POE::Kernel->run;

FUNCTIONS

       Coro::AnyEvent also offers a few functions that might be useful.

       Coro::AnyEvent::poll
           This call will block the current thread until the event loop has polled for potential
           new events and instructs the event loop to poll for new events once, without blocking.

           Note that this call will not actually execute the poll, nor will it wait until there
           are some events, just block until the event loop has polled for new events, so other
           threads will have a chance to run.

           This is useful when you have a thread that does some computations, but you still want
           to poll for new events from time to time. Simply call "poll" from time to time:

              my $long_calc = async {
                 for (1..10000) {
                    Coro::AnyEvent::poll;
                    # do some stuff, make sure it takes at least 0.001s or so
                 }
              }

           Although you should also consider "idle" or "idle_upto" in such cases.

       Coro::AnyEvent::sleep $seconds
           This blocks the current thread for at least the given number of seconds.

       Coro::AnyEvent::idle
           This call is similar to "poll" in that it will also poll for events. Unlike "poll", it
           will only resume the thread once there are no events to handle anymore, i.e. when the
           process is otherwise idle.

           This is good for background threads that shouldn't use CPU time when foreground jobs
           are ready to run.

       Coro::AnyEvent::idle_upto $seconds
           Like "idle", but with a maximum waiting time.

           If your process is busy handling events, calling "idle" can mean that your thread will
           never be resumed. To avoid this, you can use "idle_upto" and specify a timeout, after
           which your thread will be resumed even if the process is completely busy.

       Coro::AnyEvent::readable $fh_or_fileno[, $timeout]
       Coro::AnyEvent::writable $fh_or_fileno[, $timeout]
           Blocks the current thread until the given file handle (or file descriptor) becomes
           readable (or writable), or the given timeout has elapsed, whichever happens first. No
           timeout counts as infinite timeout.

           Returns true when the file handle became ready, false when a timeout occurred.

           Note that these functions are quite inefficient as compared to using a single watcher
           (they recreate watchers on every invocation) or compared to using Coro::Handle.

           Note also that they only work for sources that have reasonable non-blocking behaviour
           (e.g. not files).

           Example: wait until STDIN becomes readable, then quit the program.

              use Coro::AnyEvent;
              print "press enter to quit...\n";
              Coro::AnyEvent::readable *STDIN;
              exit 0;

IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS

       Unfortunately, few event loops (basically only EV and Event) support the kind of
       integration required for smooth operations well, and consequently, AnyEvent cannot
       completely offer the functionality required by this module, so we need to improvise.

       Here is what this module does when it has to work with other event loops:

       ·   run ready threads before blocking the process

           Each time a thread is put into the ready queue (and there are no other threads in the
           ready queue), a timer with an "after" value of 0 is registered with AnyEvent.

           This creates something similar to an idle watcher, i.e. a watcher that keeps the event
           loop from blocking but still polls for new events. (Unfortunately, some badly designed
           event loops (e.g. Event::Lib) don't support a timeout of 0 and will always block for a
           bit).

           The callback for that timer will "cede" to other threads of the same or higher
           priority for as long as such threads exists. This has the effect of running all
           threads that have work to do until all threads block to wait for external events.

           If no threads of equal or higher priority are ready, it will cede to any thread, but
           only once. This has the effect of running lower-priority threads as well, but it will
           not keep higher priority threads from receiving new events.

           The priority used is simply the priority of the thread that runs the event loop,
           usually the main program, which usually has a priority of 0. Note that Coro::AnyEvent
           does not run an event loop for you, so unless the main program runs one, there will
           simply be no event loop to "cede" to (event handling will still work, somewhat
           inefficiently, but any thread will have a higher priority than event handling in that
           case).

       ·   provide a suitable idle callback.

           In addition to hooking into "ready", this module will also provide a $Coro::idle
           handler that runs the event loop. It is best not to take advantage of this too often,
           as this is rather inefficient, but it should work perfectly fine.

       ·   provide overrides for AnyEvent's condvars

           This module installs overrides for AnyEvent's condvars. That is, when the module is
           loaded it will provide its own condition variables. This makes them coroutine-safe,
           i.e. you can safely block on them from within a coroutine.

       ·   lead to data corruption or worse

           As "unblock_sub" cannot be used by this module (as it is the module that implements
           it, basically), you must not call into the event loop recursively from any coroutine.
           This is not usually a difficult restriction to live with, just use condvars,
           "unblock_sub" or other means of inter-coroutine-communications.

           If you use a module that supports AnyEvent (or uses the same event loop as AnyEvent,
           making it implicitly compatible), and it offers callbacks of any kind, then you must
           not block in them, either (or use e.g. "unblock_sub"), see the description of
           "unblock_sub" in the Coro module.

           This also means that you should load the module as early as possible, as only condvars
           created after this module has been loaded will work correctly.

SEE ALSO

       AnyEvent, to see which event loops are supported, Coro::EV and Coro::Event for more
       efficient and more correct solutions (they will be used automatically if applicable).

AUTHOR/SUPPORT/CONTACT

          Marc A. Lehmann <schmorp@schmorp.de>
          http://software.schmorp.de/pkg/Coro.html